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Pgde2012 l5 overview rousseau to dewey



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  • 1. Philosophy of Education L5 Overview From Bacon to Dewey
  • 2. Francis Bacon 1561-1626
    • in reign of Elizabeth I and James I
    • Idols of Cave (idiosyncacy of individuals, pet likes and dislikes)
    • Idols of Tribe (tendency to distort and exaggerate)
    • Idols of the Theatre (hasty learning, hasty conclusions beguiled by impressions)
    • Idols of the Market Place (fashionable thoughts might be wrong)
    Dr F.Long, Education
  • 3. Bacon
    • Influenced:
    • The rise of the new science and its separation from the humanities
    • The issue of the ‘two’ cultures
    • Separation of science from religion
    • Experimental method
    Dr F.Long, Education
  • 4. Jean Jacques Rousseau 1712-1778
    • Born Geneva 1712
    • Pastor Lambercier
    • At 16 in France
    • French salons
    • The little word “I”
      • The false “I” created by society
      • The amour propre and the amour de soi
    • Desire versus need
    Dr F. Long, Education
  • 5. Jean Jacques Rousseau 1712-1778
    • Emile 1762
      • Educated away from society – a corrupting influence
      • Educated as an individual by nature
      • Robinson Crusoe as model
      • Learn by tools, experiment rather than from books or social contacts
      • Became the originator of child-centred learning, individualised learning plans
      • Supported a rationale for orphanages, raising kids away from crippling poverty, violent or fanatical homes etc.
      • Echoed the Renaissance call for experimentation and new knowledge
      • Linked to romanticism and revolution – NEW generation
    Dr F.Long, Education
  • 6. Emile , Book 1 (0-2)
    • Child exposed to NATURE PEOPLE THINGS. Which first?
    • Nature is the basic teacher; no community of learners, no culturally set curriculum, no languages, no geography, no history, no fables, no moral lessons
    • Tutor’s role is to protect the child from society, to isolate the child, to keep social influences away from the child
    • It is a short step from thinking about the work of nature in the child to thinking about the nature of the child – age specific pedagogy
    Dr F. Long, Education
  • 7. Johann Friedrich Herbart 1776-1841
    • German humanist tradition
    • Children
      • not simply nature-led (Rousseau)
      • Not simply adaptive (Locke)
      • Not to be educated to be slaves of empire (Napoleon defeated at Jena in 1806) or subjects to a state (Hegel)
      • basically individuals with souls who needed to learn character
    • Influences on Method: 5 steps
      • Preparation (ask for previous experiences, thoughts)
      • Presentation of new content – presented with utmost care and logic (representation by learners)
      • Association – informal conversation to link new knowledge to old, multiply links
      • Generalisation ; what general principle might arise from this new learning? Extend the learning
      • Application to different contexts of what is learned.
    Dr F.Long, Education
  • 8. Johann Friedrich Herbart 1776-1841
    • Need to mould/ shape/ form children
    • Basing educational theory on psychology of learning
    • The mind does not have separate faculties, one dealing with concepts (intellect), one with perception and feelings (aesthetics), one with desires (will). Only one - MIND
    • Moving from confusion to clarity
    • Influences on Method:
    • Child’s experience is the key starting point
    • Child’s interest must be aroused
    • Child’s experience then needs instruction
    • The presentation by Teachers is key to the re-presentation of learners
    Dr F.Long, Education
  • 9. Lev Vygotsky (1896 – 1934)
    • Zone of Proximal Development
    Dr F.Long, Education (Zaretskii,2009)
  • 10.
    • We show the child how the problem should be solved and look to see whether or not, imitating what he’s been shown, he completes the problem.
    • Or we begin to solve the problem and allow the child to complete it.
    • Or we give him problems that are beyond the bounds of his mental age to solve in collaboration with another, more developed child,
    • or, finally, we explain to the child the principles for solving the problem, pose a leading question, break the problem down into pieces for him, and so forth.
    • In short, we ask the child to solve problems that are beyond the bounds of his mental age using one form of collaboration or another ( Vygotsky as cited in Zaretskii, 2009, p. 76 )
    • Zaretskii, V. K. (2009), The Zone of Proximal Development: What Vygotsky Did Not Have Time to Write , Journal of Russian & East European Psychology 47(6), 70-93.
    Dr F.Long, Education
  • 11. Some pdfs
    • Blyth, A. (1981), From individuality to character: the Herbartian sociology applied to education. British Journal of Educational Studies, 29 (1), 69-79.
    • Roosevelt, G. (2006), Another Side of Rousseau. Encounter, 19 (3), 14-21.
    Dr F.Long, Education