Pgde2012 l5 overview rousseau to dewey


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Pgde2012 l5 overview rousseau to dewey

  1. 1. Philosophy of Education L5 Overview From Bacon to Dewey
  2. 2. Francis Bacon 1561-1626 <ul><li>in reign of Elizabeth I and James I </li></ul><ul><li>Idols of Cave (idiosyncacy of individuals, pet likes and dislikes) </li></ul><ul><li>Idols of Tribe (tendency to distort and exaggerate) </li></ul><ul><li>Idols of the Theatre (hasty learning, hasty conclusions beguiled by impressions) </li></ul><ul><li>Idols of the Market Place (fashionable thoughts might be wrong) </li></ul>Dr F.Long, Education
  3. 3. Bacon <ul><li>Influenced: </li></ul><ul><li>The rise of the new science and its separation from the humanities </li></ul><ul><li>The issue of the ‘two’ cultures </li></ul><ul><li>Separation of science from religion </li></ul><ul><li>Experimental method </li></ul>Dr F.Long, Education
  4. 4. Jean Jacques Rousseau 1712-1778 <ul><li>Born Geneva 1712 </li></ul><ul><li>Pastor Lambercier </li></ul><ul><li>At 16 in France </li></ul><ul><li>French salons </li></ul><ul><li>The little word “I” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The false “I” created by society </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The amour propre and the amour de soi </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Desire versus need </li></ul>Dr F. Long, Education
  5. 5. Jean Jacques Rousseau 1712-1778 <ul><li>Emile 1762 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Educated away from society – a corrupting influence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Educated as an individual by nature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Robinson Crusoe as model </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learn by tools, experiment rather than from books or social contacts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Became the originator of child-centred learning, individualised learning plans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supported a rationale for orphanages, raising kids away from crippling poverty, violent or fanatical homes etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Echoed the Renaissance call for experimentation and new knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Linked to romanticism and revolution – NEW generation </li></ul></ul>Dr F.Long, Education
  6. 6. Emile , Book 1 (0-2) <ul><li>Child exposed to NATURE PEOPLE THINGS. Which first? </li></ul><ul><li>Nature is the basic teacher; no community of learners, no culturally set curriculum, no languages, no geography, no history, no fables, no moral lessons </li></ul><ul><li>Tutor’s role is to protect the child from society, to isolate the child, to keep social influences away from the child </li></ul><ul><li>It is a short step from thinking about the work of nature in the child to thinking about the nature of the child – age specific pedagogy </li></ul>Dr F. Long, Education
  7. 7. Johann Friedrich Herbart 1776-1841 <ul><li>German humanist tradition </li></ul><ul><li>Children </li></ul><ul><ul><li>not simply nature-led (Rousseau) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not simply adaptive (Locke) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not to be educated to be slaves of empire (Napoleon defeated at Jena in 1806) or subjects to a state (Hegel) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>basically individuals with souls who needed to learn character </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Influences on Method: 5 steps </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Preparation (ask for previous experiences, thoughts) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Presentation of new content – presented with utmost care and logic (representation by learners) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Association – informal conversation to link new knowledge to old, multiply links </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Generalisation ; what general principle might arise from this new learning? Extend the learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Application to different contexts of what is learned. </li></ul></ul>Dr F.Long, Education
  8. 8. Johann Friedrich Herbart 1776-1841 <ul><li>Need to mould/ shape/ form children </li></ul><ul><li>Basing educational theory on psychology of learning </li></ul><ul><li>The mind does not have separate faculties, one dealing with concepts (intellect), one with perception and feelings (aesthetics), one with desires (will). Only one - MIND </li></ul><ul><li>Moving from confusion to clarity </li></ul><ul><li>Influences on Method: </li></ul><ul><li>Child’s experience is the key starting point </li></ul><ul><li>Child’s interest must be aroused </li></ul><ul><li>Child’s experience then needs instruction </li></ul><ul><li>The presentation by Teachers is key to the re-presentation of learners </li></ul>Dr F.Long, Education
  9. 9. Lev Vygotsky (1896 – 1934) <ul><li>Zone of Proximal Development </li></ul>Dr F.Long, Education (Zaretskii,2009)
  10. 10. <ul><li>We show the child how the problem should be solved and look to see whether or not, imitating what he’s been shown, he completes the problem. </li></ul><ul><li>Or we begin to solve the problem and allow the child to complete it. </li></ul><ul><li>Or we give him problems that are beyond the bounds of his mental age to solve in collaboration with another, more developed child, </li></ul><ul><li>or, finally, we explain to the child the principles for solving the problem, pose a leading question, break the problem down into pieces for him, and so forth. </li></ul><ul><li>In short, we ask the child to solve problems that are beyond the bounds of his mental age using one form of collaboration or another ( Vygotsky as cited in Zaretskii, 2009, p. 76 ) </li></ul><ul><li>Zaretskii, V. K. (2009), The Zone of Proximal Development: What Vygotsky Did Not Have Time to Write , Journal of Russian & East European Psychology 47(6), 70-93. </li></ul>Dr F.Long, Education
  11. 11. Some pdfs <ul><li>Blyth, A. (1981), From individuality to character: the Herbartian sociology applied to education. British Journal of Educational Studies, 29 (1), 69-79. </li></ul><ul><li>Roosevelt, G. (2006), Another Side of Rousseau. Encounter, 19 (3), 14-21. </li></ul>Dr F.Long, Education