Transcript of "Pde2012 l8 a relational philosophy of education martin buber"
A relational philosophy of education Martin Buber 1878-1965 Dr F.Long, Education 1
Outline• Buber’s Fundamental principle• Other possible fundamental principles• A graphic• Buber’s two approaches• Buber’s key words and what they mean• 2 critics of progressivism: Buber and Arendt Dr F.Long, Education 2
• ‘The development of the creative powers of the child’ – Child: something new has come into the world – Creative? ‘Creation originally means only the divine summons to the life hidden in non- being’ (Between Man and Man, p. 110) – This is the originative instinct – Besides the originative instinct, there is ‘the instinct for communion’ (p. 114) Dr F.Long, Education 3
Reflective/non-reflective stances• Self in a mirror I other Self-reflection? Projections –too positive --too negative Dr F.Long, Education 4
Reflective/non-reflective stances• I look into a pupil’s eyes I pupilla A little ‘doll’ in the other’s eye The pupil tells you who you are You read the ‘pupil’ esteem Dr F.Long, Education 5
Buber’s two stances. Which stance for education? Dr F.Long, Education 6
I-Thou approach• Hebrew understanding of knowledge: – To know is to embrace lovingly, not to exploit, use up, lovingly ravish, exhaust – Link between knowing and loving (rather than knowing and doing)• Instinct of communion: – Only if someone grasps a person’s hand does she know that she has a gift – The free expression of individual selfhood is not a proper educational aim (originative instinct) – The purpose of teaching is to open oneself to relation Dr F.Long, Education 7
Buber 1878-1965• Critic of the following models:• Gardener: A critic of gardener model of a teacher (i.e., progressivism, based on the potentialities of the child)• Sculptor: A critic of the sculptor model (adult society shapes the young according to its best norms and values)• Funnel: Teacher funnels information into the heads of children• Pump: teacher brings out the potentialities of the child Dr F.Long, Education 8
Buber’s Key Words• Relation – The teacher is skilled in the art of communicating (meeting) – All education is a meeting (not like Robinson Crusoe model)• Freedom – Not freedom from compulsion but freedom for communion (p.117) – Freedom to be creative (as a creature of God) in the context of a meeting, an encounter – Freedom to trust• Interest – To learn in the space between man and man (Inter- esse: das Zwischen) Dr F.Long, Education 9
Relation• 3 forms of inclusion – Competitive stance: Mutual understanding between equals who may nevertheless be rivals (BMM, p. 126) – Assymmetrical stance: One-sided experience of inclusion: the educator must operate “from over there” • “The educator stands at both ends of the common situation, the pupil only at one end” BMM, p. 128 – Symmetrical: Two-sided experience of inclusion: a dialogical relation --- friendship Dr F.Long, Education 10
Teacher qualities• Have the confidence to encounter something that is new and different• Accept pupils before attempting to influence them• Present the message that there is a human truth Dr F.Long, Education 11
Summary• When people meet there is a common event• Teacher lives through this event from two standpoints• Spiritually, the pupil needs to operate out of his confidence that there is a human truth, that the teacher accepts him/her before trying to influence him/her• Meeting is not interference or influence but freedom Dr F.Long, Education 12
• I do not accept any absolute formulas for living. No preconceived code can see ahead to everything that can happen in a mans life. As we live, we grow and our beliefs change. They must change. So I think we should live with this constant discovery. We should be open to this adventure in heightened awareness of living. We should stake our whole existence on our willingness to explore and experience. Martin Buber Dr F.Long, Education 13
Further Reading• BUBER, M. (1971) Between Man and Man, London, Fontana.• COHEN, A. (1983) The Educational Philosophy of Martin Buber, New York?, Associated Universities Press.• MURPHY, D. (1988) Martin Bubers Philosophy of Education, Dublin, Irish Academic Press. Dr F.Long, Education 14
How humans can appear Agora (public space) Here humanity as such can appear Humanity as such appears under two forms Difference (plurality) Freshness (natality) Human beings appear as such through their actions and speech In a totalitarian regime (tyranny), this kind of appearance does not occur The difference and freshness of people do not count There is no in between place of respect and listening Dr F.Long, Education 15
Hannah Arendt: The Human Condition (1958) • 1.what kind of polity is in the classroom? A tyranny, but a tyranny without leaders, where no one has a valid political voice. majority opinion is never tested (Between Past and Future, p. 181) • Both – To protect the child from the world – To protect the world from the child Dr F.Long, Education 16
Second and Third Objections• 2. treats teaching as a generic skill (p.182)• 3. distorts learning into doing. “You know only what you have done yourself”• INSTEAD CONSIDERHuman appearance IN TERMS OF – Plurality – Natality – Speech Dr F.Long, Education 17
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