Transcript of "Pde psych education_cogpersp_p_conway_ucc"
Cognitive views on exam prep:Cramming V spacing Study 1: How participants learned about styles of 12 artists (6 paintings from each) in 2 conditions (grouped V spaced presentation of artists’ paintings) then ‘tested’ for artist recognition Result: 78% did better in ‘spaced’ condition BUT only 22% thought they did better in ‘spaced’ Conclusion Cramming: Overload, reduced attention, lower levels of active involvement resulting in poorer memorisation & understanding Study 2: ‘Expanded rehearsal’ better than ‘steady rehearsal’ P Conway, PDE @ UCC 1Learning as thinking:cognitive perspective Kohler (Gestalt): …patterns & structure of the mind e.g. ‘Aha’, optical illusions Simon (Cognitive Science/AI/IP):…a “computerlike” phenomenon, e.g. working, short & long-term memory Bandura (Social Cognitive): ….an observed (vicarious) experience E.g. Bobo doll experiments and power of role models and expectation setting Piaget (Constructivism): ….as an adaptive function of an organism, e.g. stages, cognitive conflict & constructivism P Conway, PDE @ UCC 2 1
Learner as active…. “It would seem as if five minutes unprejudiced observation of the way an infant gains knowledge would have sufficed to overthrow the notion that he is passively engaged in receiving impressions…For it would be seen that the infant reacts to stimuli by activities of handling, reaching etc. in order to see what results follow” (Dewey, 1958, Democracy and Education, p 313) P Conway, PDE @ UCC 3 Perception Features, prototypes & patterns P Conway, PDE @ UCC 4 2
Gestalt psychology “insights” Experience the world in patterns and meaningful wholes Insight e.g. ‘Aha’/Eureka moments Role of problem posing & solving Rote learning leads to “…static, cold-storage” knowledge and “Information severed from thoughtful action is dead, a mind-crushing load” (Dewey, 1958, p. 179) P Conway, PDE @ UCC 5 Teaching Attention - gain & maintain via signals, goals, curiosity Frames for answering LTM: visual and verbal coding techniques, e.g. initial letters,map knowledge in pictures, images (Roman orators room by room technique) P Conway, PDE @ UCC 6 3
Concept maps, classify, order in hierarchiesP Conway, PDE @ UCC 7 (1) Stages of cognitive development (I.e. formal operations in adolescence) (2) Cognitive conflict (3) Learning as an interpretation rather than a recording of experience (Constructivism)P Conway, PDE @ UCC 8 4
Misconceptions in learningconcepts in subject areas Concept learning central to schooling: Relevant in all subjects P Conway, PDE @ UCC 9 Varied ‘conceptions’ Minority ‘correct’ As a teacher what do you do? P Conway, PDE @ UCC 10 5
Activity Why are there seasons? Write out 1-2 sentences explaining response to this question (You might also want to draw or illustrate your response) THEN compare with the person beside you P Conway, PDE @ UCC 11Applications in teaching Active engagement: “minds on” learning Cognitive conflict, thinking about thinking No simple or singular approaches (but warnings about ‘direct’ transmission) Powerful insights re CONEPTS: Making thinking visible to support concept development explore ‘private universe’; MEMORY: Visual & verbal coding techniques THINKING: Meta-cognition & self-regulated learning (SRL), e.g. reciprocal teaching KNOWLEDGE: Expertise as deep & flexible ‘knowing’, based on deliberate practice, “the 10,000 hour rule” P Conway, PDE @ UCC 12 6