“An intermediary inventivemind” “Psychology is a science, and teaching is an art; and sciences never generate arts directly out of themselves. An intermediary inventive mind must make the application, by using its originality” James, 1892, p. 24 P Conway, PDE @ UCC 1
Types of research designs Descriptive, .e.g. Piaget (1920s-1970s) Correlational Experimental, e.g. reciprocal teaching (Brown & Palinscar, 1986) Single-subject case studies Micro-genetic, e.g. Inside Classrooms (Lyons et al, 2004) Moment-to-moment Ethnography Meta-analyses Review many studies, e.g. Inside Black Box (Black & Wiliam, 1998) P Conway, PDE @ UCC 2
II. Growing Up: Socialcontext of adolescence Changing social context Family School-to-work Globalisation, e.g. new media, mobility, ‘glocalisation’ Health Challenges for education systems Complexity Diversity ‘Flow’ of: People & ideas (f) globalisation, sustainable development & knowledge society P Conway, PDE @ UCC 3
Adolescence in Ireland: 1950,1980 & 2010 Points of comparison Population Age of puberty Family Gender & social expectations Travel Leisure e.g. sport, music, media…etc. School-to-work % completing post-primary education & entering third level Sexuality, e.g. changing norms, age of consent Health, e.g. obesity P Conway, PDE @ UCC 4
Changing contexts:demographics Population: Immigrant pop (Smyth et al, 2009, ESRI) 3% (1993), 6% (2002), 10% (2006) Issues: identity e.g. in-group/out-group, bi-culturalism, stereotyping, some bullying (see CRC Report, 2009), funds of knowledge (Moll, 1991) Issues of identity especially salient in adolescence (Erikson, 1968, Identity Youth and Crisis - a classic psychological study) P Conway, PDE @ UCC 5
Identity: “search for somethingand somebody to be true to” “The evidence in young lives of the search for something and somebody to be true to can be seen in a variety of pursuits more or less sanctioned by society. It is often hidden in a bewildering combination of shifting devotion and sudden perversity, sometimes more devotedly perverse, sometimes more perversely devoted. Yet in all youth’s seeming shiftiness, a seeking after some durability in change can be detected…” Erikson (1968) Identity: Youth and Crisis P Conway, PDE @ UCC 6
Age of puberty: growth spurt& reproductive maturity Physical and sexual maturation: Younger than in the past In Ireland menarche decrease from 13.5 (mid 80s) yrs to 12.5 yrs (2008) Timing & spread: Starts earlier for girls than boys but Timing: Girls (10-14 yrs); Boys (12-18yrs) Spread: e.g. Girls, 1.1yrs SD thus 66% either within 2.2yrs Issues: Imaginary audience (Elkind, 1985): Body changes and centrality of body-image to sense of self (i.e. self-concept) & value on self (I.e. self-worth or self-esteem) (Feldman, 2008) Social comparison e.g. own and other gender P Conway, PDE @ UCC 7
Changing adolescents in achanging family systems More diverse family structures in Ireland (& other Western countries, Coleman, 2010) now than in past Parental work patterns (changing - boom to bust), blended families, smaller, more single parent households, separation & divorce Issues: Earlier “bio-psycho-social” maturity among adolescents, e.g. pressure to be more independent earlier (Feldman, 2008) Family boundaries & roles more changing blurred,e.g. adolescents as workers, online lives, access to money P Conway, PDE @ UCC 8
Marcia’s 4 identity statuses Diffusion:I havent chosen the occupation I really want to get into, but Im working toward becoming a _____ until something better comes along. When it comes to religion, I just havent found any that Im really into myself. Foreclosure:I guess Im pretty much like my parents when it comes to politics. I follow what they do in terms of voting and such. Ive never really questioned my religion. If its right for my parents, it must be right for me. Moratorium: I just cant decide how capable I am as a person and what jobs Ill be right for. There are so many different political parties and ideals, I cant decide which to follow until I figure it all out. Identity Achievement: A persons faith is unique to each individual. Ive considered and reconsidered it myself and know what I can believe. P Conway, PDE @ UCC 10
Adolescence as period ofidentity transition Self, family, peers… “This search is easily misunderstood, and often it is only dimly perceived by the individual himself, because youth, always set to grasp both diversity in principle and principle in diversity, must often test extremes before setting on a considered course. These extremes, particularly in times of ideological confusion and widespread marginality of identity, may include not only rebellious but also deviant, delinquent, and self- destructive tendencies. However, all of this can be in the nature of a moratorium, a period of delay in which to test the rock bottom of some truth before committing the powers of the mind and body to a segment of the existing (or a coming) order” (Erikson, 1968, p. 235-36). P Conway, PDE @ UCC 11
Changing contexts andidentity Cognitive influences E.g. Piaget’s concrete & formal operations Parenting influences E.g. authoritative parents; provide opportunities for responsible freedom while providing a foundation of support Next steps & sense of time “What are you going to be when you grow up?” push people toward setting career goals and making stable vocational commitments, but may delay political and religious commitments Peer influences Peer social networks and associated values, e.g. ??? Online and off-line lives Schooling as age-graded micro-cultures Cultural-historical influences Did identity crises occur in our hunter-gatherer history as a human species? P Conway, PDE @ UCC 12
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