Adolescents and Well-being Changing context (review) Inequality & well-being (The Spirit Level) Core themes Identity Belonging (connectedness) Purpose/meaning Developmental contextualism: Becoming an individual (face-to-face & digital experiences) in the social world of family, school, work, community (incl peers) P Conway, PDE @ UCC 1
Storm and stress… inadolescence Youth… …."are heated by Nature as drunken men by wine.” (Aristotle) Inclined to "contradict their parents” and "tyrannize their teachers.” (Socrates) "As the roaring of the waves precedes the tempest, so the murmur of rising passions announces the tumultuous change.... Keep your hand upon the helm,…or all is lost” (Rousseau, 1762/1962, pp. 172-173). P Conway, PDE @ UCC 3
Adolescents’ “storm & stress”and well-being: myths & facts “Storm & stress” (Hall, 1904):Conflict with parents, mood & risk behaviour Myth: All experience storm & stress Fact: Minority, individual differences and cultural variation (f) Western individuation as ‘growing up’ Changes over time: Recurrent conflicts with parents, high risk behaviors (later adolescence) Developmental contextualism (Lerner, 1993, see Coleman, 2001, Ch 1) Ecology, timing, continuity/discontinuity, reciprocity, agency & goodness of fit P Conway, PDE @ UCC 4
Growing Up in Ireland• Two cohorts of children included – nine- year-olds and nine-month olds • Child Cohort: 8,500 nine-year-old children interviewed at 9-years and 13-years. • Infant Cohort: families of 11,000 nine-month old infants interviewed at 9-months and 3-years. • 120 households from both cohorts for in-depth qualitative interview• All data (quantitative and qualitative) will be deposited in data archives as a national resource – all anonymised P Conway, PDE @ UCC 5
9 year olds & their parents(Growing Up in Ireland, 2009) In general, children record getting on well with their parents: 86% said they got on very well with their mother and 83% very well with their father. The majority of both mothers and fathers (77% and 68%) adopt an authoritative parenting style: This combines high control with high support - usually associated with optimal outcomes for children P Conway, PDE @ UCC 6
Parenting style & well-being Internationally validated Parenting Style Inventory completed by the children with a set of 12 age- appropriate questions: Authoritative - high control; high responsiveness/support Authoritarian - high control; low responsiveness/support Indulgent (permissive) - low control; high responsiveness/support Uninvolved (neglectful) - low control; low responsiveness/support• Authoritative - control with responsiveness/support, usually considered optimal P Conway, PDE @ UCC 7
Parenting styles: mothers & fathers - children’s viewsMajority of both mothers and fathers adoptauthoritative parenting style – 77% mothersand 68% fathers Gender differences: Mothers/fathers & Boys/Girls P Conway, PDE @ UCC 8
Well-being & post-primaryschooling P Conway, PDE @ UCC 9
Well-being & mental health Prevalence of mental health issues across life-span Changing attitudes not getting over our vulnerability but living with & learning from it Some changes in mood a part of adolescence Keeping an eye out for: Drink & drugs given centrality of alcohol in Ireland’s culture Hidden special needs: Depression, anxiety, eating disorders, suicide P Conway, PDE @ UCC 10
Schools and mental health In context of overall approach to well- being Having, loving, being & health (Allardt, 1993, see O’Brien, 2008) Paying attention & awareness of signs & symptoms In-school: awareness, initial response & referral Self-care as a teacher Support (in & out of school), mindfulness P Conway, PDE @ UCC 11
Mindfulness Getting in touch with experience ‘the now’ Efficacy of mindfulness, e.g. Langer (1987) in nursing home Choice of houseplants & make small number of decisions about daily routines Trapped by categories, automatic behaviour & single perspectives Minding your mind with mindfulness (Bates, 2009) Headstrong: National Centre for Youth Mental Health (Ireland) www.headstrong.ie P Conway, PDE @ UCC 12
A particular slide catching your eye?
Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.