Understanding the Significance of Well‐BeingAnd why are you so firmly and triumphantly certain that only what is normal and positive‐in short well‐being‐is good for man? Is reason mistaken about what is good? After all, perhaps prosperity isn’t the only thing that pleases mankind, perhaps he is just attracted to suffering. Perhaps suffering is just as good for him as prosperity.Dostoyevsky, 1983, 41 (Notes fron the Underground) 2
Overview‐Arguing for Well‐Being and a ‘CarefulSociety’ Exploring Well‐being and quality of life‐including the area of relationships, the work of care theorists and researchers Making the case for the affective context of life and care in public and private contexts‐care and citizenship, and the well‐being of society Care as a ‘good’ for well‐being and education: Raises issues of distribution, recognition, power and resources Care, well‐being and education‐ ‘a new ethics’ and ethical practices in secondary sphere of care relations Interrelationship between care, well‐being, education and social justice 3
The Significance of the Affective Domain toUnderstandings of Well‐Being Allardt’s (1993) sociological welfare model –Having, Loving and Being Equality Model (2009)‐economic, cultural, affective and political contexts‐ care, love and solidarity are forms of relationship which occur across primary, secondary and tertiary care contexts primary, secondary and tertiary care. Nussbaum and Sen’s human development work: The Capabilities Model‐relationships are based in emotions which make us fully human care as a capability Psychoanalytic perspectives on well‐being: care experiences and care relations, Intersubjectivity‐the ethical subject’s capacity to care (Benjamin, Hollway, 2005) 4
Care Scholarship Concepts and Well‐Being Feminist moral philosophers and political theorists suggest that relationships of care are based in inescapable states of dependency, interdependency and vulnerability (Tronto, Bubeck, Nussbaum, Kittay, Sevenhuijsen, Fraser, Fineman) A very different view of the human being and of human flourishing relative to the post modern rational conception of a detached rational economic actor A different conception of a citizen, ….as having care needs and the capacity to care, to be caring and to have caring ethical dispositions. Care as crossing the public private divide..the withering away of the state and care! 5
Making Human Vulnerability Explicit: TheVulnerable Society and its Institutions Fineman’s (2008) theorisation of the human subject as vulnerable and institutions as also vulnerable – education and schooling(we need to)..to redirect focus onto the societal institutions that are created in response to individual vulnerability. This institutional focus has the effect of supplementing attention to the individual by placing him/her in social context. The institutions that are of particular interest are those that are created and maintained under the legitimating authority of the state, since the ultimate objective of vulnerability analysis is to argue that the state must be more responsive to, and responsible for, vulnerability. (ibid: 13). 6
Key Issues for well‐being: responding tovulnerability, dependency and interdepenenceTaking care seriously as key to well‐being means considering: Relationships and the private space of life‐work/life balance.What counts as work‐care as work, the non‐recognition of care in the home, defined as love, as natural That problem that care has been dichotomised as love or labour and not as both What does that mean for educators and for schooling? Nell Noddings, well‐being and happiness as an aim of education‐the need for care and to learn for relationality. Teachers in particular contexts‐social disadvantage, teacher education. 7
Gender Inequalities, Care and Well‐Being: withinpublic and private institutions Women, well‐being and caring identities, identity and the moral imperative to care (Bubeck, Delphy and Leonard, Lynch et al., O’Brien) Men and exclusion from care (Hanlon, 2009) Women in the home and the imperative to perform educational support work (Lareau, 1989, Griffith and Smith, 2005, Reay, 1998, O’Brien, 2005, 2008) Schooling teaching and caring, what is valued, recognised and rewarded? (Farrelly’s (2008) work on ‘walking the tightrope’ of care). 8
Caring and Resourcing Well‐being in Education Resourcing Caring‐the issue of nurturing and emotional capitals (Lynch, 2008, Reay 2000, O’Brien, 2009) How these are created and used. Perspectives of those under the care of educators. Listening to students. Intersection of caring contexts and socio economic and cultural contexts (Feeley, 2009, state harm) (O’Brien, 2009, social class, poverty, marginalisation and care) 9
Intersection of Capitals for Care and Well‐Being‐Economic, Social,Cultural and Emotional Resources (see O’Brien 2009) MASHA EC ELLIE 4 BRIGID MAISIE KAY 3 NUALA DOREEN LINDA 2 KATE RUTH 1 SARAH JANET ANNA EMC 0 CC RITA PAULINE VAL TRUDI ROSE LAURA DONNA MARIE MAURA CONNIE NOREEN NELL SC 10
(Lack of)Well‐Being and Schooling Lack of focus and a need to focus on aims of education (Noddings’ critique) Education needs to be concerned with a broad conception of well‐ being (in mainstream and alternative provision) Climate and culture of the schools are significant to well‐being, and related to curricula, streaming, assessment and quality of relationships (Konu, Lintonen and Rimpela, 2002‐friendship and absence of bullying for SWB, Engels, Aaelterman, Van Petegem and Scepens, 2004‐ teachers’ relationships impact on student well‐being) Equality and well‐being: resources, recognition, power and affect‐in education, the impossibility of an internal settlement (Baker et al. 11 2004)
Contested and Multiple Well-Being and Schooling-current Well- Schooling- Perspectives on Well-Being Well- thinking and problematics Happiness as Eudaimonia-the good life or Eudaimonia-Hedonistic happiness and Subjective well- Happiness as an aim of educationbeing. (Noddings, 2003) and/or education for aDefining or prescribing norms of well-being competitive market and the need for publicas problematic for individual meaning dialogue around thisseeking. The need for education for self- development The tensions and overlaps between SWB and for participation in democracy and forand social indicator perspectives-need for perspectives- citizenship, social solidaritysubjective and objective perspectivesEquality and Well-being-care and love (Baker Well- being- ( For well-being and equality across allet al. 2004) contexts of life including intimate and social spacesCapabilities and Well-Being (Sen, 1993) Well- For our unique sets of functionings and for flourishing within our societal contextHaving, Loving and Being (Allardt, 1993) To have skills, resources to participate in society, for relationships and for being in our unique ways Achieving health of populations through critical literacyAs part of the Allardt model: The problem for teachers and students ofHealth Promotion and the WHO agenda, acquiring the cultural power and tools ofhaving health in Allardt’s model analysis to define our reality 13
Educating for Well‐Being and Democracy Educating in and for care (Cohen, 2006, O’Brien and Flynn, 2008, Lynch, 2008, Feeley, 2009, O’Brien forthcoming 2010). Character education and the virtues and caring climates (Cohen)‐a need for social, emotional, ethical and academic education‐ SEEA but not to be reduced to mere lists of skills‐practical education (Dewey) Health Promoting Schools Movement‐WHO/ Mental Health 14
Conclusions Recognising the significance of affective life and human relationality‐ intersubjectivity and vulnerability Recognising caring or affective resources and skills and the capacity to and for care Recognising the labour in relationships of care and the attendant costs Recoding care as gender neutral and extending informal care work outside the nuclear family to extended networks of affiliation Recognition of affect in schools ‐aims directed at well‐being and practice ‐curricula and evaluation that are responsive to models of well‐being ‐individual and collective aspects of well‐being 15
Which Model of Citizenship? What kind ofteacher? Fraser 2000 The Citizen Carer as opposed to Citizen Breadwinner or a combination‐ Citizen Carer/Worker‐A citizen who is recognised as vulnerable (Fineman) and in need of care and also capable of caring for others The Teacher Carer Citizen: Language of care and Relationality‐ language can be used for purposes of liberation or of subjugation (Wittgenstein, Irigaray, Freire), we need a language of care, well‐being and relationality in the field of education that is recognised… and leads to care praxis. 16
A particular slide catching your eye?
Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.