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Conroy praise Document Transcript

  • 1. USING EFFECTIVE PRAISE AND FEEDBACKCreating a Positive Classroom Atmosphere: Teachers Use of EffectivePraise and FeedbackMAUREEN A. CONROY, KEVIN S. SUTHERLAND, ANGELA SNYDER, MAHA A L - H E N D A W I , AND ABIGAIL V O , VIRGINIA COMMONWEALTH UNIVERSITY praise childrens appropriate these instructional tools in theirC reating a positive and engaging classroom behaviors and ignore their problem classrooms, researchers have found atmosphere is one of the most behaviors, children will learn that that they may not always be usedpowerful tools teachers can use to these positive types of behaviors are frequently or effectively. Iri theencourage childrens learning and more likely to obtain teacher attention following sections, we will discussprevent problem behaviors from than problem behaviors. Creating how teachers can use praise andoccurring. Although a number of these positive interactions between a feedback most effectively to affectfactors are related to a positive teacher and child is one important their interactions with children inclassroom atmosphere, such as way to help build a positive their classrooms and improve theclassroom management techniques classroom environment. classroom atmosphere.and instructional pacing, one Unfortunately, engaging inimportant factor is how teachers positive interactions with children The Use of Effective Praise to Buildattend or respond to childrens may be easier said than done for a Positive Classroom Atmospherebehaviors. Teachers responses to teachers, especially if the children inchildrens appropriate and problem their classrooms have emotional and/ What Is Effective Praise?behavior can help set the tone of the or behavioral disorders (EBD). Teachers regularly use praise asclassroom environment. If teachers Because one of the key defining an instructional strategy to increaseattend to and respond in a harsh and features of children with EBD is the occurrence of childrens positivecombative manner to childrens chronic and persistent problem social and academic behaviors. Ondisplay of problem behavior, they behavior, these behaviors are often the surface, praise appears to be amost likely will receive combative well established in their behavioral simple strategy that the teacher aloneresponses from children in return and repertories. Children often enter can implement. However, in reality,see an increase in their display of classrooms with coercive and praise is a complex reciprocal processproblem behavior. This type of negative interaction styles that have that involves both the teacher whoresponse can lead to coercive been previously established and may provides praise and the children whointeractions between teachers and have a strong history of are recipients of that praise. Thechildren and negatively affect the reinforcement. These negative effectiveness of a teachers use ofclassroom atmosphere. Similarly, if interaction patterns can significantly praise is influenced by the childrensteachers ignore childrens affect the atmosphere of the individual and cultural differences,appropriate behavior and more classroom. It is not unusual for even different conditions under whichfrequently attend to their problem one child with severe problem praise has been previously providedbehaviors, children most likely will behaviors to change the entire to them (Henderlong & Lepper, 2002;learn to engage in problem behaviors classroom climate, influencing Lam, Yim, & Ng, 2008), andas a predictable way to obtain a teacher interactions with all children. characteristics of the praise that isteachers attention. Fortvinately, teachers can employ given. Children from different On the other hand, if teachers strategies that can change the nature backgrounds and experiences,provide corrective feedback to of negative interactions. By changing including socioeconomic classes,children about their behavior in a the negative interaction patterns into ability levels, developmental levels,positive manner and help them learn positive interactions, the climate of and genders, may respond differentlyalternative behaviors that will gain the classroom can dramatically to praise (Hitz & Driscoll, 1988). Inthem positive teacher attention, improve. addition, the characteristics of theteachers may be more likely to have In this article, we will discuss two praise statements may also influencepositive reactions from children. In important forms of teacher attention childrens responsiveness to praise.addition, children will leam new that can be used to help promote Characteristics of effective praiseskills and behavior, and more time positive teacher-child interactions: include its being contingent onwill be available for instruction. teacher praise and feedback. desirable behavior (Shores, Gunter, &Likewise, if teachers attend to and Although most teachers already use Jack, 1993), behavior specific (Chalk18 BEYOND B E H A V I O R
  • 2. USING EFFECTIVE PRAISE AND FEEDBACK & Bizo, 2004), and focused on effort to individualize their praise According to Brophy (1981), (Lam et al., 2008) and process statements and direct them at praise often may not be (Dweck, 2000). Just as the individual children and groups deliberately provided by the terhiinology describing praise varies, of children. For example, if ail teacher; rather, teachers are more the definitions of praise in the the children are working likely to respond to children wholiterature also vary (Chalk & Bizo, diligently on a task, the teacher elicit praise from them. To be2004). According to Brophy (1981), may praise one child for sitting effective, teachers should plangeneral praise means "to commend quietly at his desk, praise a and initiate unsolicited praise tothe worth of or to express approval or second child for the amount of children in their classroom.admiration" (p. 5), and it is provided work she has completed on the 5. Praise should focus on childrenswhen a child completes an expected task, and a third child for his improvement and effort (Hitz &task appropriately (Dreikurs, correct responses. The teacher Driscoll, 1988; Lam et al., 2008).Grunwald, & Pepper, 1982). then concludes by praising the That is, praise shouldExamples of general praise group, "I see everyone working acknowledge childrens effortsstatements typically include phrases very hard on this task." and accomplishments rathersuch as "Great job!" or "Good." In 2. Praise should be contingent than being an evaluation ofthis article, we define effective praise as upon a desired behavior; that individual abilities and/orteacher-initiated statements that is, it should be provided outcomes. For example, aconvey to children the specific immediately following the statement such as, "You are soacademic or social behaviors in which behavior (Willingham, 2005). smart!" is an evaluativeteachers would like to see students Praising the children later can statement of a childs abilities,continue to engage. It uniquely fits diminish the effectiveness of rather than an effective praiseeach situation and focuses on praise. statement that focuses on effort.childrens effort, improvement, and/ It labels children as "smart" or 3. The instructional nature ofor quality of work, rather than "not smart" and communicates praise is another importantfocusing on outcomes or abilities. a vague message about what can characteristic of effective praise.Examples of effective praise be considered "smart," as well For example, it is important tostatements might be, "Great job, you as how a child can become provide frequent praise whenrepeated the words after me" or "smart." In this situation, children are initially acquiring a"Wow! You sat quietly and listened children are judged on the basis skill. However, once they haveto the entire story." of their cognitive abilities, which acquired the skill, the teacher may want to decrease the use of is hard to modify (Dweck, 2000;How Can Teachers Use praise and provide it on a more Lam et al., 2008). As a result,Praise Effectively? intermittent basis. Then, the children may become less Identifying the essential teacher might identify another confident, afraid of makingcharacteristics of praise that make it behavior that the child is mistakes, and afraid ofmost effective can help teachers to acquiring and increase the completing work that is notlearn how to use praise successfully amount of praise that she or he perfect. They may worry aboutin their classrooms. Thus, for praise provides for this behavior while not meeting the teachersto be effective, it should include the simultaneously fading the praise expectations. This type of praisefollowing characteristics. for the behavior that the child is may set children up for failure 1. Praise should include specific demonstrating with more and discourage them from statements about the fluency. trying new tasks and taking appropriate behavior children 4. Praise should be teacher initiated risks. displayed (Chalk & Bizo, 2004; (Hitz & Driscoll, 1988). Effective 6. Praise should be sincere; be Sutherland, Wehby, & praise requires a teacher to delivered with an affirmative, Copeland, 2000). That is, monitor childrens behaviors and natural voice; and be children need to know explicitly initiate praise in a timely manner appropriate for childrens what behavior is being praised rather than waiting for the abilities and chronological age and acknowledged by the children to elicit praise from the level. Children can easily teacher. "You did a great job teacher. In other words, waiting recognize false exaggeration and counting numbers!" is an for a child to say, "Look at what I overestimation of simple effort, example of a behavior-specific did!" is far less effective than the and this type of praise may praise statement. In addition, to teacher catching the child negatively affect childrens increase the power of praise engaging in the desired behavior responses. In addition, praise statements, teachers may want and praising it immediately. statements should match WINTER 2009 19
  • 3. USING EFFECTIVE PRAISE AND FEEDBACK childrens age and skill levels. A with a particular child to help 2. Make a recording of this activity praise statement for a preschool- motivate the child to increase a using any convenient method age child should be very particular behavior. Using effective (e.g., audiotape, videotape). This different from a praise statement praise in a classroom can increase recording will provide the data for a teenager. For example, positive interactions between to help you change your use of preschool-age children may teachers and children, which also praise. respond to teachers providing helps build an overall positive 3. Measure and examine the c uan- frequent praises statements classroom atmosphere. tity and quality of the praise aloud in front of the entire class. statements that occurred during Teenagers, on the other hand, Strategies for Increasing Effective this activity. How often do you may be embarrassed of being Praise in Classroom Settings praise children? Do you provide praised in front of the entire The benefits of using effective general praise or specific praise? class and respond to brief praise praise in classroom settings are many. Is your praise focused on the statements made by the teacher For example, research indicates that childs effort? Does every child privately. One important thing increases in teacher praise have receive praise, or do only a couple to note is that teachers should positive effects on childrens of children receive most of the provide some form of praise and academic and social behaviors (Gable praise statements? Are praise attention to all children in their & Shores, 1980; Sutherland et al., statements appropriate for the classrooms. This will help 2000). Teacher praise is associated childrens skul levels? eliminate the interpretation that with an increase in childrens correct 4. Set a goal of increasing the some children are the "teachers responses, on-task behavior, and number and quality of praise pet" because they receive a high engagement. It has been associated statements that include the rate of praise statements. with an increase in the work characteristics outlined above. 7. Praise should avoid competition completed by children across all age 5. Identify the children who have or comparisons across children. levels (Kirby & Shields, 1972; Luiselli the most social or academic For example, "Nico, you do a & Downing, 1980). Unfortunately, problem behaviors and who much better job of coloring than researchers have found that teachers seldom receive praise. Aimee," or "Johnny is the best!" do not necessarily use praise 6. Make a list of four target may establish a competitive effectively or frequently (Beaman & behaviors that will elicit praise environment in the classroom Wheldall, 2000). Alber, Heward, and statements for these children. and unintentionally create Hippler (1999) pointed out that only 7. Make a chart of the problem hierarchies of children based on 5% of teachers praise statements are behaviors that these children different skill levels. Instead, behavior specific. In addition, display and the desired praise should compare researchers have found that for replacement behaviors that are childrens work with their students with EBD, praise is provided in the childrens repertoire. previous work and current skill at a rate of only 1.2 to 4.5 praise 8. Make a list of effective praise level. For example, letting a statements per hour per student statements that can be provided child know that his work is (Shores et al., 1993; Sutherland & to the children. For example, better today in comparison to Wehby, 2001; VanAcker, Grant, & "Your handwriting has last week is much more effective Henry, 1996; Wehby, Symons, & improved. It is clear and neat than comparing him to his Shores, 1995). here." "You worked hard on classroom peers. Clearly, there is a need to increase these math problems." "You put When teachers provide praise both the quantity and quality of the toys away quietly and withthat includes these characteristics, it praise in classrooms for all children. care, thank you." "Good jobis more likely to increase childrens To help teachers improve on their use cleaning the table." "You sharedappropriate learning and behavior. of praise, we suggest they begin by the blocks today with Tim andEffective praise is considered a implementing the following you played together." "Yougeneralized reinforcer that can help to strategies: must have tried hard tofoster childrens intrinsic motivation 1. Identify a time or activity when complete this homework."to learn that comes from mastering a particular child or group of 9. Implement your plan andtasks (Brophy, 1981; Hitz & Driscoll, children are engaging in evaluate changes in your praise1988; Willingham, 2006). Although problem behaviors that interfere statements and the influence onpraise should be provided to groups with classroom instruction and childrens behavior.of children in a classroom, at times it management. Such behaviors To assist in implementing yourmight be more appropriate for may include being off task, plan, we suggest teachers use self-teachers to deliver praise individually noncompliant, or disruptive. monitoring strategies. Self-20 B EYOND B EHAVIOR
  • 4. USING EFFECTIVE PRAISE AND FEEDBACKmonitoring has been supported as an information regarding childrens Timperley, 2007; Mastropieri &effective method to promote and performance and understanding and Scruggs, 1987).change behaviors in a variety of allow for continued learning Two specific types of feedbacksettings with different populations, following initial instruction (Miller, that can be used to address correctand thus, it has been effective in 2002). Effective feedback has the and incorrect responses, respectively,changing teachers behavior with potential to affect future student are instructive feedback and errorrespect to increasing the quantity and performance by increasing correct correction. Instructive feedback is aquality of praise in the classrooms responding and desirable behaviors method for responding to correct(Kalis, Vannest, & Parker, 2007). Self- and decreasing incorrect responding student actions or responses. Themonitoring is the process in which and undesirable behaviors (Bangert- purpose of instructive feedback is to"teachers identify if the target Drowns et al., 1991; Konoid, Miller, & expose children to additionalbehavior has occurred and record the Konoid, 2004). instructional information in relativelyoccurrence of the target behavior" little instructional time. This practice In this article, we define feedback(Kalis et al., 2007, p. 21). Figure 1 can enhance the efficiency of as information provided to childrenprovides a data collection sheet that instruction and lead to the learning of by teachers regarding theircan help a teacher to monitor the both the targeted instructional understanding or performance ofeffectiveness of using praise in the material and the additional material.classrooms. academic or behavioral tasks. Teacher feedback is just one step in an Instructive feedback follows effective The use of effective praise is an instructional sequence and instruction on target material, animportant teaching strategy that can necessarily follows effective opportunity to respond, and a correctfacilitate positive interactions student response (Werts et al., 1995). instruction, opportunities to respond,between teachers and children in and active student responding (Hattie Instead of simply continuing withtheir classroom. Along with the use of & Timperley, 2007). It can be used to instruction or praising the correcteffective praise, providing feedback address both correct and incorrect response, teachers can fosterto children in an effective way is also student responses and can support additional learning using a simplecritical. In the next section, we discuss the learning of academic information two-step process. To use instructivestrategies to help foster the use of as well as social or behavioral skills feedback, a teacher will (a)effective feedback. (Miller, 2002). In addition, feedback acknowledge the correct response or can increase teaching efficiency and behavior (e.g., "Thats right, it is a The Use of Effective Feedback to result in increased opportunities for square") and (b) supply additional Create a Positive learning (Werts et al., 1995). Feedback related or novel information. After Classroom Atmosphere can be presented in a variety of acknowledgment of the correct instructional formats either verbally, response, the additional instructionalWhat Is Effective Feedback? material can expand on the childs visually (e.g., pictures, flash cards, Similar to praise, effective teacher manual signs, compu.ter-based, response by providing relatedfeedback is a simple and powerful information (e.g., "It has four sides"), modeled), or using a combination ofform of teacher attention that can can draw a parallel between the the two (Werts et al., 1995; Werts,enhance learning, increase response and another target requiring Wolery, Gast, & Holcombe, 1996).achievement, and promote self- the same response (e.g., "That table isregulatory competence in children a square too"), or can providewith and without disabilities (Hattie How Can Teachers Use unrelated material from a different& Timperley, 2007; Werts, Wolery, Feedback Effectively? conceptual class (e.g., "Its purple").Holcombe, & Gast, 1995). Teacher There are a number of important The additional material selected forfeedback is an essential component of characteristics of feedback that can use as instructive feedback may bethe learning process and can help make it more effective. The literature information that teachers wantcreate a positive classroom suggests that to be effective, teacher children to learn but that is notatmosphere in which mistakes are feedback should be (a) intentional, (b) specifically addressed in thevalued for their potential to enhance overt, (c) prompt, (d) direct, (e) curriculum, or information that islearning and in which academic specific, and (f) positive. It should scheduled to be taught in the nearsuccess and appropriate behavior are occur frequently and consistently future (Werts et al., 1995, 1996).reinforced (Bangert-Drowns, Kulik, within a supportive classroom Another type of feedback that canKulik, & Morgan, 1991; Hattie & climate and target skills for which be beneficial in the classroom is errorTimperley, 2007; Witt, children have received sufficient correction, also called correctiveVanDerHeyden, & Gilbertson, 2004). developmentally appropriate feedback. Error correction is providedThe purpose of feedback is to provide instruction (Barbetta, Heward, to a child following an academic orchildren and teachers with Bradley, & Miller, 1994; Hattie & behavioral error with the purpose of WINTER 2009 21
  • 5. USING EFFECTIVE PRAISE AND FEEDBACKFigure 1 PR^MSE SELF-MONITORING DATA COLLECTION SHEET Activity Date Target Children & Replacement Behaviors : Time Praise Target Target Type of Praise Characteristics Statement Child Behavior Effective Ineffective of Praise*^ Total * S = specific, I = immediate/intermittent, T = teacher-initiated, E = focus on effort, A = sincere and appropriate voice, V = void of comparisons teaching the child the correct response, and gives him further response, the four-step error response. This can increase the practice in exhibiting the correct correction process can be used td help likelihood of correct responding in response (Barbetta et al., 1994; Colvin, children learn from their mistakes. the future. Corrective feedback Sugai, & Patching, 1993). Following Error correction consists of (a) telling ensures that the child is aware of his effective instruction, an opportunity the child that the response or error, provides him with the correct to respond, and an incorrect student behavior was incorrect (e.g., "No, its 22 BEYOND B E H A V I O R
  • 6. USING EFFECTIVE PRAISE AND FEEDBACKnot a triangle"), (b) providing the used following each correct or childrens performance, the purposescorrect response (e.g., "It is a incorrect student response in a for these different types of teachersquare"), (c) giving the student targeted instructional session (Werts behaviors are quite different. Foranother opportunity to exhibit the et al, 1996). example, the purposes of teachercorrect response (e.g., "What shape is Teachers can measure their own praise include acknowledgingthis?"), and (d) providing specific behavior (i.e., provision of either childrens correct academicpraise for cooperation (e.g., "Thats instructive feedback or error performance and/or desirable socialright, you identified the square!"; correction following each student behavior. In this manner, praise isColvin et al., 1993). response) using a data sheet on which used as a reinforcer: The teacher is they can record the number of attempting to increase the likelihoodStrategies for Increasing opportunities for providing feedback of the desired response by the child inEffective Feedback and the number of times that the future. Alternatively, the purpose Similar to increasing effective feedback was actually provided. For of teacher feedback is not necessarilypraise, to increase the use of monitoring childrens behaviors (e.g., reinforcement (and may in fact not beinstructive feedback and error learning of additional instructional reinforcing to some children) butcorrection in the classroom, teachers material through instructive rather to provide information to thecan feedback, or learning of targeted child that can enhance his or her • identify specific opportunities skills or information during error learning. For example, the purpose of and correction), teachers can use a data corrective feedback is to provide the • plan for the intentional use of sheet to collect information on child with information to increase the these two strategies. childrens success on learning probes. likelihood of correct responses to Initially, it may be helpful to Learning probes are a simple way future instructional requests, whereasfocus on increasing feedback during teachers can keep track of childrens instructive feedback is used to helpspecific activities or times of the day. progress by providing opportunities expand childrens understanding ofFor instance, a preschool teacher may for them to engage in the correct content. When used effectively,initially choose to increase her use of responses and then recording their teacher praise and feedback have afeedback during circle time (e.g., correct or incorrect responses. For long history of contributing toadding color words as instructive instructive feedback, to assess positive classroom outcomes forfeedback following students correct childrens responses, learning probes children with learning and behavioridentification of shapes and using are typically conducted before problems.error correction following incorrect beginning the use of instructive In sum, it appears that theresponses). Similarly, a third-grade feedback and after the child has effective use of both teacher praiseteacher may decide to increase his use reached criterion on the targeted skill and feedback can be effective tools forof feedback during spelling lessons or behavior (e.g., spelling is the teachers as they attempt to best meet(e.g., adding the definition of the targeted skill in the spelling lesson the needs of the children in theirword following students correct example above). However, more classrooms. It must be pointed out,spelling responses and using error frequent probes may be desirable. however, that neither of thesecorrection following incorrect With corrective feedback, learning consequent events will be effectiveresponses; Werts et al., 1996). Once probes occur and can be recorded unless used within the context of ateachers are able to consistently use each time the child is given an positive classroom atmosphere that isfeedback during one routine or opportunity to respond to the target a structured, safe learningactivity, it can be expanded to other material (see Figure 2 for a sample environment. In this positiveclassroom activities. Recall that data sheet). Consistent recording of environment, children arefeedback can also be used to address this information can help prompt comfortable taking learning risks, andsocial and behavioral tasks such as teachers to provide adequate errors, both academic and social/student responses to behavioral amounts of feedback and can provide behavioral, are seen as opportunitiesexpectations and class rules. information on whether feedback for growth. Within a supportive As with any new instructional strategies are assisting students in learning context, teacher praise andstrategy, it is essential that teachers learning new skills and information feedback can augment each other in amonitor their use of these feedback (Werts et al, 1995, 1996). powerful way. To illustrate, considerprocedures to ensure consistency and that teachers might have threecorrect implementation and measure Implications for Practice options for responding to a childschildrens responses to determine Although both teacher praise and responses. First, if a response iswhether the procedures are having teacher feedback can be correct, the teacher might providethe intended effect. These strategies conceptualized as forms of teacher contingent, specific praise toare thought to be most effective when attention as a consequence of acknowledge the correct response WINTER 20 0 9 2 3
  • 7. USING EFFECTIVE PRAISE AND FEEDBACKFigure 2 FEEDBACK DATA COLLECTION SHEIET Teacher Name: Student 14ame: Instructional task/^activity: Instructive Feedba ck 1) Acknovfledge correct response 2) Add ex tra information: Error Correction 1 ) Tell student response is incorrect 2) Provide correct response 3) Provide another opportunity for student to respond 4) Provide specific praise for cooperation Teacher Student (Tally using 1 - instructive and (Correct Response to Probes) E - error correction) Date Opportunities Feedback Instructive Error for Feedback Given Feedback Correction (+/-) (+/-)24 BEYOND BEHAVIOR
  • 8. USING EFFECTIVE PRAISE AND FEEDBACK(thus increasing the likelihood of Bangert-Drowns, R., Kulik, C. C , Kulik, J. praise: Implication for earlyfuture occurrences of the response). A., & Morgan, M. T. (1991). The childhood teachers. Young Children,Second, if a response is correct, the instructional effect of feedback in 6-13.teacher might use praise to reinforce test-like events. Review of Educational Kalis, T. M., Vannest, K. J., & Parker, R.the response while also providing Research, 61, 213-238. (2007). Praise counts: Using self-instructive feedback to help expand Barbetta, P. M., Heward, W. L., Bradley, monitoring to increase effectivethe childs understanding of the D. M., & Miller, A. D. (1994). Effects teaching practices. Preventing Schoolconcept. Third, if a response is of immediate and delayed error Failure, 51, 20-27.incorrect, the teacher might praise the correction on the acquisition and Kirby, F. D., & Shields, F. (1972).effort made, use corrective feedback maintenance of sight words by Modification of arithmetic responseto provide information for the child students with developmental rate and attending behavior in ato respond correctly in the future, disabilities. Journal of Applied Behavior seventh-grade student. Journal ofprovide another response Analysis, 27, 177-178. Applied Behavioral Analysis, 5, 79-84.opportunity, and then praise the child Beaman, R., & Wheldall, K. (2000). Konoid, K. E., Miller, S. P., & Konoid, K.for the ensuing correct response (thus Teachers use of approval and B. (2004). Using teacher feedback toincreasing the childs knowledge of disapproval in the classroom. enhance student learning. Teachingthe content and the likelihood of Educational Psychology, 20, 431-446. Exceptional Children, 36, 64-69.future attempts to answer even if he Brophy, J. (1981). Teacher praise: A Lam, S.-f., Yim, P.-s., & Ng, Y.-l. (2008). Isis unsure about the correctness of the functional analysis. Review of effort praise motivational? The role ofresponse). Each of these teacher Educational Research, 51, 5-32. beliefs in the effort-abilityresponses would be useful and Chalk, K., & Bizo, L. A. (2004). Specific relationship. Contemporaryappropriate and, if used praise improves on-task behaviour Educational Psychology, 33, 694-710.interchangeably in the classroom, can and numeracy enjoyment: A study of Luiselli, J. K., & Downing, J. N. (1980).lead to increases in childrens year four pupils engaged in the Improving a students arithmeticresponding and engagement. numeracy hour. Educational performance using feedback and Beyond the effects on the Psychology in Practice, 20, 335-351. reinforcement procedures. Educationindividual child, highlighted by the Colvin, G., Sugai, C , & Patching, B. and Treatment of Children, 3, 45-49.results of research summarized (1993). Precorrection: An Mastropieri, M. A., & Scruggs, T. E.previously, these types of instructional approach for managing (1987). Effective instruction for specialinstructional interactions also may predictable problem behaviors. education. Boston: College-Hill Press.have an effect on the learning of other Intervention in School and Clinic, 28, Miller, S. P. (2002). Using effectivechildren in the classroom as they are 143-150. teaching behaviors. In S. P. Miller,exposed to both their peers correct Dreikurs, R., Grunwald, B. B., & Pepper, Validated practices for teaching studentsresponding as well as the teachers F. C. (1982). Maintaining sanity in the luith diverse needs and abilities (pp. 189-expansion of concept information. classroom: Classroom management 233). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.Moreover, the use of effective praise techniques (2nd ed.). New York: Shores, R. E., Cunter, P. L., & Jack, S. L.and feedback can have an overall Harper & Row. (1993). Classroom managementimpact on classroom climate, strategies: Are they setting events for Dweck, C. S. (2000). Self-theories: Their rolemanifested through increases in coercion? Behavioral Disorders, 18, in motivation, personality andchildrens engagement and decreases 92-102. development. Hove: Psychology Press.in their disruptions. Given the Cable, R. A., & Shores, R. E. (1980). Sutherland, K. S., & Wehby, J. H. (2001).complexity of learning and behavior Comparison of procedures for The effects of self-evaluation onproblems of students, particularly promoting reading proficiency of two teaching behavior in classroom forthose with EBD, it appears that using children with behavioral and students with emotional andpraise and feedback as effectively and learning disorders. Behavioral behavioral disorders. Journal of Specialefficiently as possible should be goals Disorders, 5, 102-107. Education, 35, 161-171. for all professionals interested in Hattie, ]., & Timperley, H. (2007). The Sutherland, K. S., Wehby, J. H., &improving outcomes for children. power of feedback. Review of Copeland, S. R. (2000). Effect of Educational Research, 77, 81-112. varying rates of behavior-specific Henderlong, J., & Lepper, M. R. (2002). praise on the on-task behavior ofREFERENCES The effects of praise on childrens students with emotional andAlber, S. R., Heward, W. L., & Hippler, B. intrinsic motivation: A review and behavioral disorders. Journal of J. (1999). Teaching middle school synthesis. Psychological Bulletin, 128, Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 8, students with learning disabilities to 774-795. 2-8. recruit positive teacher attention. Hitz, R., & Driscoll, A. (1988, July). Praise Van Acker, R., Crant, S. H., & Henry, D. Exceptional Children, 65, 253-270. or encouragement? New insights into (1996). Teacher and student behavior VINTKR2009 25
  • 9. USING EFFECTIVE PRAISE AND FEEDBACK as a function of risk for aggression. opportunities for learning through the emotional and behavioral disorders Education and Treatment of Children, addition of incidental information. (pp. 426-Í45). New York: Guilford. 19, 316-334. Pittsburgh, PA: Allegheny-SingerWehby, J. H., Symons, F. ]., & Shores, R. E. Research Institute, (ERIC Document (1995). A descriptive analysis of Reproduction Service No. ED407755) ACKNOWLEDGMENTS aggressive behavior in classrooms for Willingham, D. L. (2005). Ask the chüdren with emotional and behavioral cognitive scientist: How praise can Development of this article was disorders. Behavioral Disorders, 20,87-105. motivate—or stifle. American partially supported with fundingWerts, M. G., Wolery, M., Gast, D. L., & Educator, 29, 23-27. from the U.S. Department of Holcombe, A. (1996). Sneak in some Witt, J. C, VanDerHeyden, A. M., & Education, Institute for Educational extra learning by using instructive Gilbertson, D. (2004). Instruction and Sciences (No. R324A80074). The feedback. Teaching Exceptional classroom management: Prevention opinions expressed by the authors are Children, 28, 70-71. and intervention research. In R. B. not necessarily reflective of theWerts, M. G., Wolery, M., & Holcombe, A. Rutherford Jr., M. M. Quinn, & S. R. position of or endorsed by the U S. (1991). Instructive feedback: Increasing Mathur (Eds.), Handbook of research in Department of Education.26 B EYOND B EHAVIOR