Hallmarks of a Postmodern Text.
Pastiche and parody are both examples of INTERTEXTUALITY.
Intertextuality is the defining of a work’s meaning through the
understanding of other texts.
Look at this example from Family Guy. The image of Peter
running from a plane mirrors the image next to it, a classic
scene from North by Northwest by Alfred Hitchcock.
Intertextuality is like a short cut to meaning, it relies on the
audience’s understanding of media texts and pop culture to
make new meanings.
• A literary or artistic
work that imitates
style of an author
or a work for comic
effect or ridicule.
PARODY OF DOVE AD
• A text that is made up of
elements borrowed from
• Pastiche differs from
parody in using imitation
as a form of flattery rather
than mockery, and from
plagiarism in its lack of
• “For Linda Hutcheon, the postmodern
is much more an artistic style,
recognisable by its self-reflexivity and
irony, especially in its relations to the
practices and objects of the
surrounding culture and the cultural
past. Postmodern work often takes
the form of parody or pastiche, which
has a highly divided and ambivalent
relation to its objects of imitation”
- M Fortier
• Hutcheon sees much to value in
postmodern texts use of Parody and
Pastiche as it offers political critique
shows historical awareness.
FRIEDRICH JAMESON ON
• Jameson characterises postmodern parody/pastiche as "blank
parody" without any political bite. According to Jameson,
parody has, in the postmodern age, been replaced by
pastiche: "Pastiche is, like parody, the imitation of a peculiar
or unique, idiosyncratic style, the wearing of a linguistic mask,
speech in a dead language. But it is a neutral practice of such
mimicry, without any of parody's ulterior motives, amputated
of the satiric impulse, devoid of laughter" (Postmodernism
• It does not offer up common on society and it’s history
(historical deafness) as it is simply done because it is ‘stylish’
• What examples of intertextuality in The
Simpsons, Family Guy and other animated
sitcoms can you think of?
• What is the difference between parody and
• Why is intertextuality more popular than
• Why does intertextuality depend on its
• Why, in your opinion, do critics of
postmodernism dislike parodies and
pastiches compared to more traditional film