Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
  • Like
SS Sample Essays 1
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×

Now you can save presentations on your phone or tablet

Available for both IPhone and Android

Text the download link to your phone

Standard text messaging rates apply

SS Sample Essays 1

  • 3,816 views
Published

 

Published in Education , Technology
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Be the first to comment
No Downloads

Views

Total Views
3,816
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
2

Actions

Shares
Downloads
158
Comments
0
Likes
2

Embeds 0

No embeds

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
    No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. Arriiroarno Chdnoe and Strnno Rcrevr 9dnaon o! o ot bl oro is .< bc!drse bv cnticpar,r9 i hange rld sldv.9 smq@de d_ bor roaard lo l4 chdl€nqp< of the llrure w h cont den" "er*trr. r" t"l" orruture roNard ookinq n antcpaton"i".*..r ..,;;";"" , .r,. "nd make dec aions lhal are-;;i."".. "J.i. :;,;-". ,.;;" .-."r hi.;r ucr-. <.pp, n .-*"e .-o^,- !ro 6aidlpe^ouooe o^ | oro hde o""..* trn." onoi"" o::;;","i;".:;;" .". oooldp ro FP.."*m nimat- q.opFro dr o.du"re";;;;";i"i". ., a o",h.FJ.e"nd o"Fn"" o-r b.r,, noo,obda-o o b 6 o € a o-"J*u",ii.a*"r.ix""<JFaioo-elqUoqpnplAoqop-J l.*i- ir"".* r"* I"t"""ri ro o. *,"t i. iq"t popre han *rcr < popurd so tar/evpl ut" s ft rhen slon deusons irev-"i iJ" i ii"""r *oones, ae dbre ro lor tle good ol ln€ roLnlry lhepbv su<irrnrnq popula ttis ;e maoe ca,.y thetouqh and Prsiri--.. ..* . *.. p*.i. -- r"*"- " ao" o d; o- !!d nd oi ! bdlr b 0.:-;;,; ,.""""-"".;";";, *- - *" i c d po rld paoc no o i odoo" b d e1 o re o o ";,i"; eoo >eooo€Dp doiii-p"n""r "--" " " l" -nlinue lo prosperand lace up io the crralenses thal mqhtcome ts ",.";* is"q"p-. qo.epr ocorqo Fln"n thsF[1"*-" -o *.^ ", Rewaro d ypor" ro wor nard Lo help sinqdpor *.. orinc Dt" .w"s rr" p{dereloo dnd Jav rh;dd o rhe lompontion hPebv susbn rq sinsaoor s rulJe suc("s . d . En rc 64rd! I od ;d-.;n; -,. p- -,oFra-"q Joooo-. or.!Fei".,""i- v-. "., "ro.oo,"",-^boo cuiicuarr,,"i"i","J rn"" ror exampe hardwo ,is stude;ts who exce! n trier srud es rhis co esD€cia Lv 3nd,"i",1""" ,-" **a. rt" t"m or Ed!;ve schola.sh p and Medt Bu6ares s;;odant ". in peooe Lnled" sinoaoore wher€ there is a need to deveoo each ofhe cilizens to thelul est of his ab Litv A slake for Evervonc. Opportunities forAllis 01lolsreie anolhe. imponanl gu dinq prncp eTrls E $ffi by allowlng ttie people nore opportuhities lo partic pate in importantde.i5 on ma.ing -rronger oo.a i builr bcrween the ocople and thP cou ry Ths *"1 lclpro reep rre peipe "crviry involved * h the sorerinentnd ppodNe o the dPisiors."u" i,v tt" !*.-.*i t-t sustai.ins sinsapore s rlluresuccess Th s means aLlownq ;"";@ -r"! qe ;b."d "*bv oz Pdo ^o rd ";- o o"*" a-nq a m+: .e sF o o-lo 9r d o--,. *o consuLled the publc on the ssue of hav nq cas nos es part olthe Rs 1(bL-1!9 "q"r"s p"p4ft9! 1" lr,*d ;+ .1! E governmenl Do vou aaree? Expall td,trsw4 government s mponanl wlh ageino popualion n because as the caretaker nirslv€ to make aws and
  • 2. inkoduce measurcs to orolect the inl€€sls olthe senor dlizens and lo orevenl them irom beinq aouaerro ttejit on .no ts resources. Forexampe the govehmenl has nlroduc€d measur€s suchas |re cPFjd reief pub ic hous ng :nd the Inbunal lor the Mainlenance of Par€nls to supporl lheagenq popuaton. The CPF sacompusorysavngsschemeforal empLovees cPFmemberscanwi|rdras ther savngs on reaching the age of s5 years However thev mlsl eave a mnimum sum n tllen Reftemenl Account sa that lhey can recelve a monlh y sum lom lhis accolnl iiom age 62Ih s s to ensure lrl3!!t?L!!al9!!9!&The oovehment also introdlced lhe Tribunalforthe Maintenance of Par€nls Farentscangel lhe ou; ep o+". "n, c s-pporkonrhF . oe ^ ore doroeo suooorns en o- ce or oonq o hF go.e o dF ol edeparents grcndparenls or qreet g@ndparenls and lhose who aie conirbulng lo lher own or theireldery dapendantscPF retiGmenl accounts Ths s 1o encouraoe more oeoole lo take care ol lheaoed and lo orepare tor lhen own relirement The govemment aso provides plblic housinqschemes to en.ouraoesinoaooreans to lake care oflhetr oarenls Firsl_lime buve6 of gov€rnmenlralscan getahousing gGntiltheybuyanattr tiLeareawherelh€rparedts veEg i preparnglhe counlryto.ope wilh agerng popuLalon The communily has an mporGnlroeI.eq!F.f-nl !t!! !:r: !! raleo -r< r.:__gj!J,coro. ite o, oona uopo f ono:o a cr ro eelpe "degovernmenl enabed-ooo.phFd organzllions lo tun communitv basedsubsid€s ftom the vountary welfateseruices for senor cilzeis Some community orqanizallons also offer rree health checks andEcreal onalactivl es for sen or cit zens These h€ o (hem lo remain ohvs Gllv menlaLv and soca v49!jve. c. -.,o. d pan no H r ro &!e - .-- ltv "and nol relv onqlhe -u r o qh.otlllreo qoov€rnmenls resour.es are"i."upersonsl€sponsib oovernment becauselhelmiled The ndvdual s encouraged lo ma nla n a heaLlhy leslyebywllchLnghsdiel exercsngreguary golorreguarmedca checkups and be linancLa y prepared for life in then old aoe Bvattend ng ia ks aid read n9 relevonl rn.nc a p ann ng malerials rie can earn more aboul €tremenl2(al To wha( extent has lhe sov€rnnenrs efiods n anlcipatnq conlribuled to sinqapore s economEptosperly? Exp a n your Refer lo 1{a) tor mosl ot the expanalion Beff n mnd haL rrls queshon siressed on conrrbutng lo singapores econom c prosperity ) You need to brnq n relevant examples such as Ihe on how this foresqft ol the governmeil etc etc can managing heallhcaE in Sii9aPorer subsides supponseryces helplu in meeling lhe needs or peop e? ErpLa n your answer Med sav€ s one way lhal manages healthcare n sinqapore This is because by rav,ng a Medisave accaunt, the jndivi.lual shares the casts ol health.arc with the governn@t and lightens the sbvemhents butden of Paying fot heallhcate seNices fhis hetPs the people to neet theh own healthcare fin.nciat needs. sin]apore lakes the stand lhal ndvdua plays an important r.le in managng healhca@ To encouraqe sel_re ance lhe as a savngs sclreme 1 endourages singaporcans to b€ €spofsibe forther own healh A €rGin amount of noney (6 - 3lt irom worke.s Cenl.a
  • 3. far do vou aqree thal the govemments decis on dL. io;conomicraclors? Expla n vour aN*"i#K#ii1*ffi,n ,oo,tatnpolicv"sponptedbvth"!""""!::e,,*P!!:^!!,li.iil::i,11ffi1;"J;:;;,;;;ii; .i., ir""] *ia -i o*"*g" I:19 "19 1ll.1."iJ:j::",,::l:ffii:1";i;"";.-li:i:"; i;; iiii"iiv i"* ,tt-t rn""-:-"ll,l:: :::::"":,::i""*:j::J:;;: ;;;:;;i,q,e;;", - ."^,-,":,+.+:**::j*t+;1#:H#j"l!i:""];;ii,1ffi;;:::-, a- +geg+--], r!!s.t rsllgE 3 od drolc o +raL on o -6_ou.r .1i3:.1;::,,ii^:l:?""i:f:,1 ^ -s
  • 4. resDonsb r! s the host mDonant laclor @ration H ow lar do you agree lith lh s slaleolllLqlPqin v9u!4!!!9l!4 (a): surelyyou o.e w€ll€quiPPed ro dnsw€r su.h d quation bv how! on le6i vou b€rter b€ The sToP AT TWO po icy was more a hindraice than a help to our economc develoPmenl DoYou agree? ExPlain {13)No do nol agree The polcy was actualy a hep 1o olr econom c deveopmeil This is becauseSnodoofua; ,nitiallv rarnq a rdpid popularior godh n lhe 1950s W(h r aprd oopulatio"oro;;sinaaoorewailanq o so-ialaldpollralprobensrsaosuhorrlal ",oo ooo.:ror or. lhF-oo d Frdo_oao-s qporo o99e r-,r ttr q o por r d r.o- ad4< oooc lro*r^"m-es,*-STOP " l ";;a;u;; nvestosr,m i esl no in s noaoore r rhat had haoD€ned. s noaoore wr tace a rack oilunds to devello seconomv Thus the oolcvwas ar€soundino successYes agree that sinqapore s po icy was merey a h ndrance This s because a lot of the counlry srcvenu; a.d efiort has ro be channelled inlo providhg for the elde v instead of focusing onother importanl areas ol developnent such as economv, educalion and derenceThe STOP ATTWO polcy discourages couples ffom havlng bables such lhal our rep acemenl levelfel beLow the dea repb;ement Ere or 2 r with lhe popu al o. nol eplacins lselr, Sin!.eleiqls !!! lnqllllicimp€nd nq oi.bem of an aoeno ooouLaton bv 2030 twasthls a hftrance as aoeiio ooouatonwl;n v o,ove to be dra nina on the countrys resourdes s nce most ofthe.ountrus revenue wi I now havetobeahannered nroRen?nbz. vou need to 9ve borh tdei of rhe 5roryGovernanco in SingaPores a Agoin, sureyyou kno{ th5 bynow! Ls an ageing pop!alon more delimental ihan beneiicia Sngapore?EPlanY.ur t13l An ag€ng popuaiion s delrimentallo singapore This is becaus€ as singapores aqeing populati;n increases, there is an increased stress on medical inlrasttuclute and govemment reso!rces which will increase govel,nen! spending and lead ro lewet funds iot our econonic developdat. Singapote woutd hence face decline and stagnation drc ro this divergqce of resources. As peop e grow o d they w llbe mo.e prcne lo c€dan aqe Gated healrh probl€ms This ncudes loss of hearng falng eyesght and rheumalsm Much morc medical resouEes have to be generated lo accommodale these issues irore commundv based setoces such !s day ca.e cenlrcs afd home nursing care wl also be needed to he p fam, esLookafterod€rrelalves A arg€ poolol wellare slatfwi a so be needed to lake ca€ of rhe ncGas.s number of seiior c tizens singaporc s pub ic areas wilhave to be equipped wlh more raciies s!lab e for sen d clzens ke suopod hand bars n pubLic toiels.nd ifts al MRT twoud aso mean a reduclon on our econom c codpeitveness This is because an ageinq population makes us r6s aliracltve lo tnvesrors as they p.efer younqer worke6 who are more energaric and productiv€. There woud arso he insutficrenl tat-pnts t sustain developnerr i/NCs wilrnd I more expensve lo recrut Sngapo€ais due lo ou, smal abou.
  • 5. d nolbe sze and we aG less anradive because ofiis sm! ler donsumer mariel s nqapore wou :hLe10 comoele wili other nalionswlh vounoerand affecl ou oroducliviwand hence moacl nur orooress n#*-:rentrml"t"" h"s contribuled more to snaapores posress Due to a ;; i;; bi^" rri p opo",on or 0" ;:i;.;, "." ":" ;;. o"ne ,a r; qap;- c dc oF dopFo c ooo oropoorF -r,""" * .r. ""- . atp" e ure t ^i" rn" p.ovdes i;valabl€ "eioerence lhal loc6 blsinesses reouie n order to """"*t"" i.""" v,"".": "i;;;q;"d"r"- . . 761 rhd d F od o e d ;, ^:.; .; " *. * ,". ^i,.""0 "", -^-:.;: oolnsJFe "odonort r-<u-eao "-,b, . ;" " ;;;". "..; -u, oh" ^d.b.": i. ";--.- "r"..,b-d.noaoo- ^dr" . conldbutlo to s na&oEs mmoelitv€ness and orcqress Chaoter 3 - lltanaoho Healthcare 16 To wha( e{entwas promolinq a hea thv ifestv e among S ngapo@ans effect ve manaqing healhclre nS ngapore?Expain ioul tterh e do.. Dd a.olc n .adq-9 6rr-, i",i-,i.i "i -r,.", *." oo:"1 es,o npnaq;":-e np"o ronandrnF F<oo bi o ,.l^r.r." or"ioo ."" o"- 6rhd epopFcl sooo crn rr^e"i"--.. medra rhdt mav rcdue rhP.""".* ,i..,..a ." tt" ndv dud s a;d w" iTpar ldvourablv on rhe sovcnmnt as thavne;d notsubsidisero a lalge exr€nt;;_ i." ,",,..- on or Med<a. - naacano 6.th a c n 1d"po e rhF""--*. *tr-*t"*" * the leople share fte costs ot hdallhtdrc * h the qovcrnmeni;;;;:;,:;"r; ro rorrtm rr." qoiemr-. bu,dcn or pclns o hpahhcare <ani-eshealthcdre b;(ome ; sl.r€d irv hcrebv rhe govP1merl need not dcp4d o1r:sina Lares to Dav lor ris fq 1 esponib r !","i"ii.",lpr onrio-ion "n o h.rv6d.cFd o(nq,^;.;;,;;;n".,.- " -. ".* .a-*" ,diemoiherapy(or cancer patienls) aid medicaiion lo contro hiori bood prcssure r. Resructurino nc" G- r qapot " o orq ro pero -rn -." .a -,.i.t. ^o- ; .. " " -" " h idouo spLrhopitals ro mprovewdv dppnderce onquahtv orsedi e l_etr nandqemenl ir€ govpnnentand c;nlnue ro cut dow" on -rncccs<arv cosr ln tlBro. help rhen mnmised. -o F ne1 noeprdrc ae -o po Jed i^"".i-".s""a *.a* or d,cro q orere -" qh c nonp ol olDo o n""oFd b ha;. .,.... o"n -," hoso"rsooroo o e o Hoor" d_d -.o, qo.o ra roo.hF.ar an!raoq rlrio q6^ !
  • 6. h ndran€ (han help lo lh€ Brl sh i"*. rn"r rn" el"t NHS is more ol. hndrance.s the lnancLa .onlrbltons to |reNaionar fsurance contbdons has ndreased snce 2oo3 That ncreased the buden foreveruone .nd r did n lhe qualtv ol lhe NHs Ali are requiGd ldcont;ibule bul nota Equre medica lreahent so lhe compusory conlribulion can be a ongtern linancia burden afd lhe sluaton s worsened as lhe contbutbn rncrcased.neeoo, nes "_Nl. . r"fl.e,p-ol d nrh€.Iats-1"rcr a B o l"", b i" -ar,m B al ^h s no^ pa,nqo r .l - o brreared abroJd There ae many slores aboul Brlans undeFequipped and overburdened D,,"o ee b€.c rF 1"B s l, 1<looorF hFato d *.--.-". "noFaoed " "prorh€B i pdop^|d^or Bhearth.are n many situalons lhe NHS s always avarlab e lo prov de lhe ftst hand bas cr€arhenr and t ever lhe oalents a€ nol satsled, |rev can lurn io prv6te but more costLvmed alh€ p .Referlo your lexlbook for lunh€r delais llThercro,e. lhe Aritsh NHs s lery b€ierclal to lhe people. especlalv the owerincome whal exlent is try.g (o conlro spending on lreathcare a drfllcull.hallenCe of he Hea lh SeNice n Brlain? Explain youranswerTrying lo 99!trql$e!di!!,qlhc4L1h@I9 is a difiicu tchallenae oithe NHS in Brlain. This is because under lhe welare system lhe govl is expecled lo make heathca.e avalable to everyone free ofcharge Ths meanl lhal peope do nol havelo pay forlhe medca lrealments lhal they receive when lhey are atlended lo by doctors al c nlcs or hospilas Even though the Brtish govt has put in more monev nto the NllS. I ls nol enough to meellhe needs aflhe peope Brlan s expenencino an increase ln the demand lor heallhcare wth the srowing fumber oithe eldeny Popualion growtlr has sLowed down and the numberof peope payng tares also reduce overlime Togetherwlhthe advanceme.t n medicalscence and slate_ollhe an medlcai equipmeni used n clrnc and hosptals the costs oihealhcare are sp 6ling Ths requires a ncrease ln NHS spendinq by the go!1 This s going out or contro Whef heallhcare costs ncrease the qolt has lo co ec( more laxes lo payfor heallhcare Thus to contrcllhe increase rn spend ng bv the qovl in heallhcare there was an increase nlheNatona lnsurance cont butions in 2003 ncrcasind efticiencv s a dificu I challense as the NHS n Brilaln This is because lhe grownO numberofelderlv wil def.leyrequrean ncrease in the demand ior heathcare Atthe same lme peope expect belter treatmenls The NHS has Srown very alge bul lhere are stiL nol enough resources lo cope wilh lhe demand Forexampe there are
  • 7. lnsufiicienl doctots nurses and faci I es in hospitals for surqees Th!s Io ...r.*r o.* I a d1 -r larc op nPS o jn rdorlo. o ovoinq """p". selr6 s r o 1.u r na reroP loo !P r.a ""eo I n ease n demdrd;ver r-- vpo " po rosndr peoplcFltw.. ooohave to sl;n;;s w thin the N Hs F; example the people or Bilain onen ;;itr.r a Lona iime before.ecevnq medical trealment Thls the _o * i"o-i.".q,"". qitor"or. r s"i,in s"tths " rleng oronr r ne.,trc r e.,oo.u" o- pov o nq quar r. eN ce ro .,,*. o6LdFon hirotn ", " " ;* d o t plrn o op !6, ourrrv,eN re D ourrinq tr ;",i."*,;d. "-".-." ;;e. ol lne Dd r"lrs d lr " rop p o r/ ll-ase maLe how .:","inq"r e" r".0oo orlqa dI qdtucareo{ Lh hd6ge the o5i fdctor You.selfl)2(b) Encouraqinq sel!.e iance s to manage Sinsapore s hea ht**y.t"",I j aaree with ths statementThs is somewhal s miar to o!r Prelm paper. Reieto vour prelim exam handoutroranswers ltwas qiven oulwhen we wenl throlgh the sEQ sectionChaptei4: Conllict in Multi_Ethnic SocieliesCND: d n sri] ro rhe onn does the lack of oPPoduntlles ror unNec ry edu.atLon.onrrbure I " sn d6ad d 6 ,-- r",.li t*-* r;eairned rhe tPnsons beMeen rh! r:ro orcyor..- ir,! t" -rai i".rrit"rr .t o.v @ ntensiGd;;ii;;;;"8"J---ij c.n was b*ed m fr*r.q,the,::alTl:::,1:i: d r FoJc;;; ffi-:;" -;, or rar 5 io.i- dnd <n oeqdrLoe crYo "hc-iL -* "" .*."r-". q ,r+i.o...*;;-".i;it;h",;." "" +m*.4 aas -0, p.oolo re.o,ha nb-. nq.,i.i* n-, .. o_o -6.ou.c o po r€ Fdd" lonou oro ran.-^. -."rrr,- rr" n rhe - "^ le5 e,; ,i." - ;;; . r" /o rh<hF o €,; ",.i ;.. r"r truden>roaeao-dc.drces;iie more sinharese voulhs were abl€ to enler the universties Ref€r roydur sec 3 f e(aLlrR - 4 in dsrdop .€h€hber2) fo rle orher faror3 l(b) consequendes of the .onfict n sri seforc lhe connd SriLanka seen as one ofthe roLe mode countrv for manv deveiopng counlries ;;-M ;;i; Yew n the l e5os wanted lo model sinsapore aner sr Lanka This altracted a ol of ioreo- nr"- en q ro e-*i"-,-"o!."..rt loeq.Interuenrion Th6lon 4bc$Fdn hb(i hd6€c d 13m cdnmun ^" lies ed lo the nvolvement or Lndia One or(he reasons was lhe Tamls n Sr Lanka
  • 8. Quc ls llc !!!lllq! rore sn nvestors ost conridence n sri Lanka rhev were arraid or os ng lhe rirveslm€ni in Sr LafkaTlrey decLded lo ook e sewhere lhan Sr Lanka lor nvestmentsTheeconomy suflered bady due to lrr sEefore tlre poiaid many lob opponunites were avelabe n sr Lanka as louasm rndustry wasrlruirg flregn countres and loca s were rnvesling n s. Lanka Due lo Julv 1943 conl cl manvfacroras and .ompanes were burni rrlany busnesses especaly by foregn€rs cosed down lherThrs meantthat llrousands ol taclory workerc and planhtof work€rs ost the rlobsBelore lhe conflct one of the malor source ol revenue for SriLanka came trom lourism Tou smthus was a key p aver in lhe qrolvth of lhe economy Due lo th€ .oin d counrries discourased therpedple irom travelng io Sr Lanka Toursls w€.e a os heslant lo come to Srl Lanka Thls llrerc wasa d6slc fal ln lourishinduslry resu llng n unenploymenl and os1 !r in.ome for Sri Lanka The€conony was affected badly Sh Lankan Dnveh aDt ofthen hames Esrrate.r 65 0r0 Sn larkans shtt rcrnain as efugees A HSZ (Hi.Jh Secunty zonas) was set up by lhe S, Lank.n amvta k"epartrh€rl7E lhe ao.ess is c.ntrclled In lhese.tu.s fhe Sn Laokan a,ny.ccupied tarye p.t1sat lhe Ianitdaninated ateasn the nanh and easl atSn Lankaand h 1995 nany Ianlts tted ||henlhe Sti L.nkan amy cane 1 ilany peaple naslly T.nts arc stiltliving in oveEt.Ndad canditionsin Egugec catnps at wth etaliv.s an.J hen.ls.fhts leaLn.nt af the Tanlls increases h.sntiq.anbbuling t. the vialence tn sn LankaAnolher outdome ol lhe conlLicl was loreign intery€ntion The conil.t betueen the Sinhaese andTam commuiles ed lo the nvovement of nda One ollhe relsons was lrre Tamls n SriLankahad comelrom lnda nlhepast SoneTamls nSriLankahadfedto nd a lo take reluqe nom thelghnng whl€ some Tam s n lnda provd€d suppod and shel€r lo lh€ LTTEqovernmenl d€cided to inletoene Il senl ils ioeiqn minsler to sr Lanka 1! medale n a daoguebelween lhe Sinhaese and the Tamis The dalogue, however failed n Odober rsaT wh€n theTani T$ers faied to ruLy su(ender their w€apons the lnd an lroops took conlrcF6no.r.berlgsTloDecemberl9S3mostorthecashesnlhenonhafdeastorsriLankawer€ qorF"drle c i o"Tefsons behv€en lhe snhaese and the Tem s ed to thc formation or the LTTE TheunwlingnessoflheSnhales€edqovernmentlomeetllreiilalpeaceluldemandsoftheT!misresuLled nthe formllion ol Libelaton Tigeu of Tam EeLan LTTElelthalonyamedstruggeaqansl the sr Lankan sovetument would enabe them lo acrrieve lrre lormalion ol an rndependeniTenl homeland in the nonh and east of the country Besdes atl.cknq lhe S nhaese lhe TamlIigeG aso altacked Tamilmembers ofthe poLcefor.e TamlmenbeG a.d supponers of lhe rulngparly and lami polltcans who did nol supponthe proposed separele stale vmenceddnolcomeony nom the Tamils The Snhaese.Lso showed ther hoslily lowards lhe Tamls sometrmesrhroughvi!enceThereweremanyncidenlsofviolencebeiveenl93landlga4DurnqlheJuy1933 rols 13Sirraesesoldersw€rekledbytheTan Tigers rhe rols spa.ked a dng.tuedconfict beftveen qovernmenllorces and the Tami ligercIhe !]]9I9-!9iE!5 !!!!!9!tC of lhe conai.l s the fomalion of LTTE. FoGigi nledenton ledna nly lo a como.onise ol Sr Lankassovercontvwhlearned.onlictledlomassvebGakdown nLaw and order n sr Lanka The ndian government intefrened manly due lo the unrcsl n lhecounrry Thus Lnlemsollhe mpact amed conficlwoud have atlecled a lol more peope whicrrhake ir a moG hahlul efiect lhan torelgn nleru€nlion ror lhe vioence ol armed contli.l spur€dgreater vloLence and h.sliily wh ch ed to many p€op e being k lled a.d p.operly d€slrcyed vioen.easo hampe€d loursl adva s nc€ touism w.s one ol lhe man income earne.stor sr Llnka, rela r n lourisl arvas led to a oss of lobs n sr Lanka and a laLl n earn ngs
  • 9. lrie Un versity adm ss dn c.iteri! respons b e ronlibuln9 o n Lafka? EXPL. n You.nswer Pefz. ro 5ec 3 f "! our to the callrolc cause ni llii",n",n.,"" lh. rn.q s mo,e or a threat as the RA was radical and woud no reslate -d.nqorn.-r6atb€o.opd oIPp br o"-.."" 1""i; i,- .-"" .r-o,,:;.: ";" ;. ,.","." "r a ok - r;o o"t iotaF81<u" -,odF coooro rd Fd bno..,,...,* "- . @ oFo qro ro d PoFra-n a lhF o or d"rr iliilii.li o"-a"irn. Jrc"rnl ; ioo rhus such lrorent acts drsrupt peace and stabiritv as werr-i ..,iri- ""x",.t,r" c,ihorics hoser€vPnqelul rdd< suppo*d blomes awarenc<sro priqhi rRA was idise bv lhe ts{ shu.,.-,.. *"n .a*t *t "l<o reluJ rn o Cdtho ^r,.y u" 6n" u"t "r uiot"nc. L"ads to anothera.d therewould not be anv p€ace ":lil"ll" ,".,"" ", ,". asains h ccrhorir ,r"" **,"*-*" ^^ rhe hole *ord ro fte oscnminrton -". ;,;;;;;i,;i";; "ii1.i.i ; * *- a- . " or ii",.i."r"."" "rr,.q o- dd b rheeI Ia d-d in€, roms of d "" i".".1 ir" rdr *" tao to raise r;solvethe problem in a peacerurmannerasthevare i Lr"ii"J-x"qJ.. o"r"-ui"rce itto publicitv" shich would be an embaiiassment to the ir" p"oii"i,v". rr,. rar *t"o a rav or hope or an avenue to th€ cathoLics to elease th€irlij r""*, "o*,0"*,n" ooLcvorminoritvrepresentaron Expla yo!r answer t12l n sinsapore? n and coheson ln Sngapore This isidod6-o tinonw,eo.."nruton ensures socralequaltvarc nade known to the sovemnentbeM;;;*rems aid reeds or be ninontv groups sociat equatjtv and cohesioA iniiii i",ia n., *ag*a tneir inielesrs. rhis e,sures qrp<,ro/qo,P o.c t.,*i*"..,i"Li-,.,* a-.,,a,n".no,r. oo.o le"- o_" ou orv"on oo , ocvP-nd,nc o DReorernu or CoD(vo Go c61ooaodqof o^neo"aorio o-6 l..en.,.-",", q".p ,<" F.ed l-. ron ntqroupsl ri e.ises tat no raca or relisLous sroup s dcadvantased ".a a d "iqo as a resuLl or a aw that sn-<ccd n PJ Lmenl Ine -P "n. re. rhc a "" r o"e d r"GRC syslem ensureslhallhe n norty raclaLgroups are epreinB"ld!g4ja!!!?!!€d!! * socia equ:itv.nd coheson ii slnsapore This is becauseta-;" " *tionar identitv, we a.e united throush the strons bonds and will "nslres "h-.be more dindlul of the imporlance ot racial hamonv and the need to maintain lovallv losingapor€. For nstance m! limc aLism promoles equaltv amonq races where everyon€ has $e--n,",r.t".* r.qroe..ooatqouot-p.^one,re6-aadud .-,>- ol "iond oe r" a. , gooo da- "sdcarcohesonlcomrlonoractcessuchassingrngnalronaanthenandtakngthepedgenculcale oy.ry and nalional pnd*lrLcri rn lurn lostersdda cohesion in mur elhnc Sngapore Moreover
  • 10. sociarcohesron No one has an advanlage over as English sanofnalv€ arcuageforal ethncgroups Hen.e. rhrough rhe above ways buidinq a naliona idently can effectvely fosler socal etlin d s nqaporercfers lo the l ne and prace rhat peop e come logerh€r Th s common space provdes opporontiesfor sngapo€ans lo nteracl Through this inleraclion, undeEtanding anong singaporeansfrom lhe difierent races can bedeepened and the more open communicalion takes place,lhe ess the chance of fights between peope, lherefo.e helpinq to ensureEducational nsltulofs such as schools and teniary rnst(utons are opef to €very Singaporeanreqardess of lhen race, language or rcigon. Sludents rrom d fierent reces and Gigons sludylogether Thedaiy nleraction lhatlakes place among studenls durng essons:nd schoo actvtesprovd€san opponunitiforfrendshipsio beculivaled and slrcnglhened The imp ementalion ol Co n schoos heps lo promole coser bonds among youlhs from a races Trr€variety ol aclvl es conduct-Ad durng CCAS prov des opporonites for sludents to work close y wi|i Sludenls trom difteGnl races come logelher lo pay qames and workon atask Triis herpsto buid reamwork amon! rem Here are tliree areas rhar have mpacred Nor.hern rreafd as a resun or lrre Calho c conflicl poltcal nslab lny econon c deciie soca segregal on Expta n yoLr answer Poilca nstabllv Poirca nsrabirly rias beef very derrmenrar ro This s because rhe gavemnent now has to lace senous thrcats fron the terotjsts. thE ts devasiatirg tol N ketand as conriiued fishrjig teatts ta danag* to propeny & toss of tives. li has also niliErised the conflict & preven6 a peaceful solution to the Naahem hetand 6sue. Th€ Catho 6 decided (o padcpate n civi ighls marches lo put pressure on lhe N reand govemmenl The slualon worsened when a peacelulmarch nr9T2wassholalby rheBrirshArmyTheAloodySundayresulrednl3cvrransd4dTheCathoichomeswer€ a so sometmes perrorbombed by Prorestanr mobs Busnesses aid pubswhclr be onged ro Po ce who witnessed these ncldenls dd notdo anrhinq to srop Ihem t hevefalh nlhe Nodhern reand governmenl Some de.ded lo slppod m ilanl groups such as. the IRA who are prepared to useforce and v olen The con,lcr has aso affected Nonhem ker.nds eclnomic stabfty oomestic, foreiqn lnvestment and lourism decrined .s peopre were arraid ror their safetv and tosr confidence in the economy of Northern kerand, as Nodhern keland lost irs €conomic competitiveness down tor Northem lreland. Shoos aid pq!! wlrich beong€d 1o Celho ics were aso burnl and bombed and the ocarpolce did nol do an,4hifq to stop t Fore on-owned lactores shul down when vb ence inc€ased operatng cosrs in Nodhern keland. The consianl threar ol cosl ol securly aso resulled nlhe ossollounsmrevenueforNodhernl€landseconony Fufthermore thehgh cosls or mainrenino the Bnlish Armv and orovid na compensaron ror the vcrims of lhe contlcl aso added a huge strain on ls economy Soca Seoreoalon N rcland has aso suftered lrom socalseqr€galon as a resut ofihe Prolestanl Catho . conflid People in Nofthern lreland have grown up in an atmosphere of tens on and violence. This has led lo the lack of understanding between the cathotics and Protestants, making it harderlo achieve peaceful solutions despite peaceagreements in1993.TheProteslanisandCarhocsreceiveddfierenleducalon€achplasngthe.own and condemning the deeds oflhe other Both Calho ics and Prctestanls have prejudrced or fa se op nions and vews abour each other lor exampre, Protestant ch rdGn miqht think rh.r II
  • 11. ar catholcs supp.n lhe IRA or s a member ol lh€ LRA SimilarLl] some rsh calholc chrdren rhnk ttut a LBril sh sodi€rs are bad or.ruel Ch dren like these wilOrow up wilh prcludces and stereotypes of th€ other groups probably passno it down lo th€r n BXV you aqre€ lhat lhe confLict ln sri Lanka was due to the snhaa surelyyouo.edn zxp..t n rhis by nowt oth€& se, vou know wherero look," .o^@ !--lr, . "ra!r Chapler s Bond ng Sinqapore AQS 1 (a) To what eneni was ihe un vers ty admissron dteia polcv the cause r Lc a T pcr o d 5rb Aqdin youore dn zxp.d in tils bynow Othe.wis€, ydu itu) Hqse three wav= n wrr crr sinsapoG can encourase socra bond nq am.ng Sinqaporeans a) Erhn c Lntearalion poLicy n pubichousng b) opooon ies prcuded bJ €du.rtonal ns rulons .r Rae oaved br nterPaoa confiden.ecr.es(Rccs] oaooF"no"ro n*. ,**,^".t oqaoq ^"." ord ffe€nL rar a gdups a drm.uft.halenqen m!ti-ethn c sinqaPore? vardqnq p. -oron or ofl.F oo.p b odooF Ihs is r""",i:"*r" uir or ,.aeiir,.oi.g a monq the ta.al qrouo< can crcaie s-spLon a-d Dle lcaanq ro outoeal. ol s can be;,{ly tro.e. *t.r tre perepiions ol dtrerelt racal sroups de nol qa;-. mariaiea property.,ror i,.stance. lhe ant PAP campaLgn orsanized bv some uMNo eaders n 1e6a;ou;d mh;tp res amonq slnsapore Malavs towerds the PAP Even with easslrances nosnrdbeenq oi a" " or I ee a "docao"rooooer andt / ** -; - o opc ad cD6rd o -. dffer€nlEcL! sroupscanbeabgthGatloSnqapore TransnalionaGrorsmisalsoabigchal€ngetosinqaporesmuli_elhncsocetvThissbeause itlinG"t tt*iut uo.a. or sinqapore rhis th.eat must be handled arerulrv as it an cause social division wher race and religion mav be used lo creata disharmonv among the ditfercntethnic qroups. For nstance dunnglheJemaah samLvah {J )aresls n 2001,th€rerc€ mred reaclons;mo;q lhe peope n snsaporc rhese showed an u.genl need 1 ensure lhat snqaporesso.ia doh,sonwasiolaftectedbyfteJ arcsts Hence lheaboveclearvshowshow iransnarona letronsm can be abq threatlo sng.por€ Manaqno perceotions ol differenl ieiaous orouos s aso a bg ch.l€nge to siigapore This is b*"" dlr{**n" religious b€liefs and pE.tic6 e s$6 that €n d4te tereion
  • 12. afrong the people in Singapore. lr relig ous issues were n01 hand ed carelully, hoslilily anddistrusl dou d occur, lhus afiectins the relauonships among the dlfferent reliqious graupsFornslancerheMaraHeroghriotsnl950Ledlovroence.deslrucionanddearhsTrreMaaysreilhat the Brlish eqa system was unratr to Musms and eta aled aganst (h€ ELropeans andEu,asians Hence the above c eady shows how mproper managemenl of d ff€renl €ligous qroupscan b€ a bLothreallo snqapore2b Buildng a naliona idedtly js crlca n mafaging ethnc diversily rn Snqapore Do you asree wlh th s sratemenl? Exp a n your answerBuldno. nationa denlitv s crtca n managrng elhnc dverslty n Sngapore rionaL identity, we are united lhrough lhe strons bonds and willbe more mindful of tbe importance o{ acial hamony and the need to maintain loya ly tosinsapore. For nslance mull4aq!"tr0 pEmoies eqlaity smons mces wherc everyon€ has thFopporlunly (o sLc.eed lhrough merl €gadess oJba.koround sinceeveryone rsseen asavauedmemb€r of sngapore. a sense of nalonal dently as singaporeans s crealed whch alows forsocra coheson connonoraclressuchassngngnatonaLanlhemandlaknglhepedge ncucatelDyalty and nalion:lprd€.wrrLch nlurn fosler socia coheson nmu$€|rncsno.pore Moreoverw lh bi noua sm Eng ish s used as the anquaqe inkinq lhe d ff€rent elrrn. sroups lhus r.slernqsocalcoh€son No one has an advanlaqe over il as Enqlsh s a non nel v€ anguageroral e(hicqrcuDs Hence throuqh lhe above ways buiding a nallona idently can eftectvey fosler socacohes on n mul-ethnc sngapoGsarequard no the nleEs!! ai !!c 4t!!r is a so crlica n manas ns elhnrc d v€rsily Lnsngapore lhis is because ithelps slngaporeans to cope and competewith each olheron anequal rooung, thus promoting a healthy social .ohesion in Singapore.,The poLlcy ol!]lre!1!represenbton rrrrough the Presd€n(ia councl of Mnorily R€hls (Pa/Rc) and GrcupReprcsenbldi Consttuency lGRC) alows for llre con.ems and needs ol mrnonty qroups lo be known lolrre govenmenl.@nadeqta_Ie&]! slq lq!t! St!! Self-heLp,-gl!!!! Lke lh€ CDAC and Meidaki help m€mbers orlhenowncommuntywhoa€essloronat-atoSeiadandsupporllhsensu€slh3tpeoperfomrhe m norly groups s lbe ab e lo mprove then socia lnd econom c pos liois n the socely Hen.erhrough rhe above ways, salequardng the nlerests of the minoity g@ups can eneclv€y rosl€rsocarcohes on in mu I elhnicsnqaporerelers to lhe lme and place ihat peope com€ logether Ths common space p.ovdes oppoiruntiesfo. Snqaporeans 1! nte,acl Tbrough this interaclion, undeGtanding amonq Singaporcanslrom lhedifierenl Eces can be deepened and thc more open communication takes place, theress rhc chance of fighls belween peopc, lherefore helping to ensure socia cohesion.Educal on. nsrrur ons such as schools and led ary nsllulons are open to elery s ngaporean.regardess ol their race. anguage or GLigoi Studenls irom dillerenl races and re gons siudyrogerh€rThedaiynteracronrhalrakesplaceam!ngsludenlsduringLessonsandsdiooaclvtLesprovides an oppoduiiry fdr niendshlps ro becurlvated and slf€ngllrenedTh€ mplementalon ol cocuiricur Aclivlles n schools heps to promote coser bonds amon!youlhs irom aL ra.es The varely of actvlies conduci€d durng CCAS povdes opponlniles forstud€nls lo work closey wth and understand one another Sludenls irom dfieEnt,eces comeroqerherro pllysamesaid workon stask Ths he ps to buildleamwork among lrrem
  • 13. Revision lvoles trEpress) Th e he : M a n aqi n q I nte rn atio n al Re ! atio n s ideo ogical difiercnces lhe mal. cause of confi.i (GEs)countrieswith difiorent ideolooi€s are usuallv suspicious orone another as rhevrear thal lhe other side wil lrv io chanoe lhe r wav of ile The confl ct betweenNorlh and Soulh Ko€a tookpacewhen Nofth Korea suddenty invadedlhe Southwth the aim oI reuhiry ng the lwo sides. Nonh Korea is @mmunist whi sr SoulhKoea Ls democratic. Trr s red to the USg6ivanizing the Uniied Nauons intodefending Soulh Korea, as theywere afEid lhai itSouth Koreaierl thjswoutd Leadto an expanslon and spread ofcommunism inAsa Thereiore the Korean waro@urcd because both colnties wilh difierent ideoloqies see thal lheir ideotooicalConflict amona countries haopens because of disaoreem€nts over sfu!9999999. This is esp@iallv it these scarce resources have an ihoacl on themuntrys economic developme.t o. survival An exampe is the conilct betweenlcea.d and Brlain ariiain and other European counties @re oveFiishinq nearlceandic walers lceland was very woiiied about this as she has few naru€resourcs ahd depended on ihe lishing industry for he. s!tuNal. The conl rcl arosewhen celand e{ended ils zone of conlrol over the fishing grounds cetand wasaltempting lo co.hol the numbe. ot lrawleb in the waier m order lo prolect therishing supply Britain did not asrce wih tceands exlension and rerused loacknowledge lhe new boundary as it fetl lh.t rcetand had no riqht io enend theirsonF,e o co.,or B r! n. r; h,e"- . ,ni-.-- ,r,,s rea roclashes between rceand s ". Coasl Gua.d and Brilish iishins lrawl,ers Both bamed oiseach olher fo. llre colhs cetand f na iy broke ofi dip omat c I es w lh Bria.Conflictoverteiiilo.ies lReter to out schoofs Mid yeat exan papet
  • 14. Twh:texeni G reqio;alsjlEis-glsltb dependenl on ASEAN oopla on r o aivfun *e DN oi,"-..^,"",d<F^erare o rnsr e aoo n onom ! aconomic srosth to the reqion ? q,rg h;i " 19:l.:t::lll^:l:::.."- ,^,," ."" ASEANrsearl i! idiiiG i. or6s a-oout "" nrn are raoe w ^ Ie;;;"" ." " -coop";red wr"ac" orner rodcr,.; o;,.."N . " dso asraoisr"eo r6s wrl orns trres ad a Porn ASFAN drrs^ o Japan lot nstalfts ned",.--. i,o" . n ,he; "ourts lave bere ireo I omvpreo;";;.;;-. i",., t"" "0"" rhe r€n{o or rPhlorosvrr.. -r.- r"-. {sFA s af6cnve 11 oa.orng rbo-r economrc growrh o lhF;;,.;;;","*,"@anlit lnviiiiiand lrese investors have neloed to sustatn tre r*ions economcs!ss$.AseAN is not etf€ctive brinqing about economic qrowth to the region ll s i. poi .iropute,mong reabe count Fs nrl "."4*" L"-r-s -ror ,"i^," -"*r."lr" e.onom( o oqr,n me res or orF a-ol rorqoinq"o;-n., dsolG beNee Srnqapoe rro ,lacv:d s ovFr P6o d Brarca odoblems todor.. --r,lt.-*"0. rheie dFaoee-elF chooe Io dr J I enir,-uon -"qotraro* a.o ec1.g!. lhey.omelrmes ieeoo see lne hFp oIolhP r*.-. ; Ie Nd,onle| ronal !o_i or -Lsulc l"i.."., -a oio .e _la.c" Ihic q ow_ Ihal AcFAN rr_fs lFe powF lo dealw h . . r" ." "cn .e or,5 ss-es l;al ir"M n"a!:r !9l]Jrres ls J4r qL !9!ce ureqs Fates il v In I n ro.*.. err"-re rlrlqo.rc* wl"rchwir:grcrrfpK n" dqcEion pohncal"roi.:i;t"4!e:eg.. suot ;$]?ple rurmaie vesloB6@binqDsabgq!!!a!s!143lq!4[19-1!gCai9! r.ro,nd reoton.l relatrons ihrough ASEAN is not the only medts ro dchreve ."""..i" or"*rto, t" "qion. Forging brlateral and ihte.nalronal relalions i."". ro achie;" economc growrh Fot ")rmpl. sinsaDoe s "i. "t",relations with chlfa have opened up new trading opportlnlles ls ;ilateral bilaleraL retalons wlth Gemany have iacilllated lEnsler of skils and technoLogv ;en4een lhe 2 countLes Thus. bv estabhshino ooodwilihrouqh b laleral relatiqns asLAN -ounrrFs tau. o".r aore o .e.ure otFr raoe oeals a4! !9!a!i!!!!. ol rE tqhlv pe "ond ndr-te ot 1 s- reldronsD secodlv "..;+ riLernationat retatlo s torseo through Lhe ASEAN counure UN membetshp 6lso sionificart in bir;qing aboul economrc growln to the tegon To s ;en S,noaoo-.i.5 rcn6orF.Jr rgbq wa.ove Pp hprorF nFDandddrre ","-"te11 ",p"-. on econom( de,-oone1, r" ou 1;E i ro Inoroores I ddrnq eE.ot rn. rs ne€loours n A5LAN dhlh I er pro_o"_ e o"no_c arowrn o .ne egrcn l!!3 !] lra!l!l!!! i:-E!r?!!!al-gclion ;6uoh th;r UN membershia, ASEAN counl.ies can be ensured oi oeace afd ]lllc!9@-liir i. t,," h" 1"" ".
  • 15. On (3) Her€ are {hree ways in wh ch Singapore can deter iolaldelence Which oilhese s the mosretiective way oiderenino aqgression? Expa n Volranswer (JJ) craqaoorcd.lenceindustrvI. a rnporalto-Frpl A"ooror!ff; e lo rey on olher peope for ourweapons we need to be abte 1o make the k nds ot eq!ipmeni lhat are suitable forourpueoses. and to upOrade ourequiphent ke ourFs-Erighlerjels Ourenemieswit lhen knowthal whatever rraooen our forces w lbe welleqLioped and wi be a lormdabte opoositon lo them ifrhev lrvlo attack fence thev wil rhl.k Nvice beiore anack.o S noaoore as thev knowrhar lhev wllsufier heavv conseqLefces fthev werero afiack xs llowever.lhe citizen armed force s also an etfecl ve wav otdeletrtnq dl .r. rF c, r.5l ". at dDtc boo eo r -. rp. -,.e miilarytra n ng, and even allerthey have fnished theirn tt me NS. they gel more tra ning over lhe nexl lhirleen years So n addito. to its smat recular armed lorces Sinoaoore has a taroe ooo of peoo e who are .eadv lo fiaht I needed which means lhal t rs m l tar lv se f re ianl. so anvone lh f k nc ot atlacki.o us wou d deinitelv have to th nk iwice Total defence is an mportanl detetrent Srgaporeans have to be p.epared afd sef relant n ant emergency The whoe popLtaton and noillsr the amed torces have a pan lo pay I Singapores security Totatdetence is pan otoursef retance lhrough: millary soca economc. civi and psychotogca defences l orcvides a comprehensve and inlearated resoofse lo at kinds of threat and chatenoes Flenc9oote!@ tEl a. - 1- p ,t14 h6, Ele l!!l!!Ie dton o -s( tne drmeo ro e "t Nalion s invovemenl in maiaging youranswer usi s examp es strcnaeAi;stioL.... - on (s) Ee]!Ec{EE!!! 6lhe on yway to ensure lhat Singapore,mainta is her sovereianlv Do you agree? Expla n youranswer (sss) Self sLffiqiencv s in thewa! we can depend on ourseves Tt ;itzer armeo rorce citzen armed force the lormAabe Srnaaoore Def lormidabe SrncircE o@ncE norsrry a.d TolatDeierce roe, - 6[.Ln,.ie.i ooeenq onorF, c .F .. .j -qra .o e,pol - o d .,1d. o rrt d.o .r -nq6L tsence oolerll]ql4gqeslqs th Ee !!!!!,-!419llrql4Sqess!ls wi th nk tuice aboul alr&k na SinaaDore O; altack 0g Sinqapore O;r
  • 16. Herce. ootenl al aooressors w lLth nk lvvice aboul altackino S nqaoore Ourlom dable SAF is made up oi pemanenl as well as national seruice men AILbodies maes in Singapore a€ €quned b go lhrough a compulsory 2yearc ormiLllary ira n ng to keep themseves lpdated in miilary wafare and strateqies btimes ol crisis these men are able to dele.d Sinqaporeirom anv ootenlalaaaressoG Rese0Fl trainrnos ensu€ thattheir skils and knowledqe are alwavsuodated a.d refreshed learlv ntimesofwar Sinaaporewilbe able lo rela n hersoverelontv as our m ohtv armv wi be able to defeat anv aaoressors(Camnentabout sinqaporcs Defence industry an.r Total Defence)Dioomacv is anotheawav to ensurelhat S noapore mainiains her sovereiantvbecause onlJ bv b! ldinq mutua lrusl and respeclwllcoL.tries coooeralewth oneanolher Thiswil e.sure lhat Snaapore wilhave frendswhen I s conlro ed witha crisis Exampes such as BLLATERAL relalons/ASEANI UN are on (6) wh:t eyrenl was.6nfid.ver leriiories the most the lraq I uwa I War (1990 - 991)lE,prnyolrConllict over territories was ihe main cause oi lhe Gulf Wat fherc wete lensiansaver the nqhts al undercoun<l alJesg!!99s ?!7jl as the bg!.ies tnhqitedlrcn lhe Bnltst were nol welldefrned l.aq claimed lhal Klwail was depelng theRumaila oilfield tlrat tedlorialy was of kaqL slde of lhe boder Kuwail.eflsed locompensate raq ior ts economc loss as t claimed llrat it had only driled oi i.omtheir sde of lhe field raq aso claimed some oi Kuwails letrilory (Bubryan andWarbah islands) and wanled lo ease the sands n order lo creale benertdnsporl possbillres riom lraq Kuwail refused as il ieared hE r49!rEl!!e! liedoor for lu.lher letrtorial dehands fiom lraq.FaiLng to reach any slilabeaareement lraq decided to alla.k Klwaillow n back Ihe iandsH istorical resentmenl was a cause ol lhe Gulf War Alhough aticially ltaq hadrccaghi2e(1 KoNalt as a savercign country nnevet.eallv acceble.l lhe state of6!!!?!!ltaqstillfelllhalKu||ail@ashlslaicallvoaftaflraaand||anledloeclainilas ils otrn Despile q vrng up its claim on Kuwail after tac ng pressure from ns A.abneghboursandrecevnsa a.se slm of mofey frcn Klwait thereweleslilsevera inslances where lraq lsed m ilary powerlo threaten Kuwat over border conflict overoilwas aiother calse oflhe GulfWar in lhe Middle East /rao was ohaqpt vtilh Kuwart fat tananng the quala set by APEC as il caused atlp.ices la plonnet llfellthat Kuwait s action was equivalent la waatno an ecan.ntwaron naa and lett thteatenedby 8!!94 raq had hoped to pay offils debl through the saleoiol fowever Kuwal had produced oilwel above ts assrgned lLmts Asa resut raq osta lol of €venle as 90% ot ts fcom€ czme frcm oi sale Bvcaim no lhal Klw3rltry4 l95!!!5thl9 [pI redlcinq the oi pnces. wh]ch lead to economlc d ffculties for €o raq decldqdlg a@!L&l!d!
  • 17. fo fli-mdroJtraqnq rpacrolre Iaq lo4lc ao/o zqc-r1 hF.F{_ L.p" ,oLrrn.^lThe lEqi m ltan/ capabiltv was badlv desl.oved as coaltion torces had ullisedstale ofthe an weapons in th-An campaign aganst lGq troops The heavy lossessuffe.ed by lhe lraq s resulted in a loss ofmorale among lhe €ma n ng toopsPolrca ingta,biltv in raa arose as Kurds tried lo ovedhrow Saddam as lheylell thalhspowerwasof lhe decline. llowever Saddam deat harshly wllh lhe uflsngsaqainsl him As a resul. lholsands of Kurds were massacred and amost onemilon Klrd sh refugees f ed lEqsuffe no of lraois was aso apparcnl ope.ation Dessen Slorm resulted n thedeslruclion ofa large part of kaqi nfrastruclure A so. lhe kaqi peop e suffe€d asthev could not ca(v oul lheir da iy aclivilles due to a distupted supply oi eleclrc tyThey also suffered irom a sp.ead ol diseases as the water supply n lhe colntryThe Regianal an.t Envrcnnentai tnpact was anothet .tanaging resuft af the ||atThe GurWat crcaled an envionhental Rtastraphe and also resuted tn. sevetedtsptacenent al fo.elan warkets which created areal sufietiho lat then lanilies ba.kb9A9 The haqtforces set frre ta Kjwaitiol wells dunped about llnthan baretsaf orl nta lhe Percian Gulf, thos oreatlv lhtealeninq nanne hle and cost n ians ofdouarc ta pul oul the:lejrc! 9E?! h9 9J tlbL fhe displacenent ol lateqnwo&ers was so seve.e that nealy 2 nllan foeign vtarkeE fron(nane sohe cauntries) fled taq when wa. brckE out Wokerc suppantng largelanilies back hane sDffered sudden tass al incane and created.treal solfernlt lar Towhal ertent s the worsened realiohsh p belween taq and Kuwat dle to the econom c problems n lraq ? (H )Ecanodic p,oblens ia haq trcs o e o rle d lo hr 6d io a ad .pr io1belween lraq and Kuwail bul il was not Ihe mosl impodant ^o lEq suilercdlremendous Losses durnq the lEn-l.aq War belween 1980 to1989. Nol only did raq lose a ol oi lves t.lso owed US$80 bilion in debls 1o ils neighbouringcouniries as we as US and Frafce The reconst.uclon oi the waFlorn lraqrequired US$230 b lion lo rebuid the country Thercfore lEq started lo envyKuwat as I was a icher stale as wel as lhe fact lhal Klwall dd not want tow linSy hep raq n ts.econsiruclon angered Lraq thercby worsening relatonsThe issue of oil prcduction w as also anotherfactor that ledkaq had hoped lhar by ea.n ng more revenue rrom the sale
  • 18. colnt es ove. prodlced such as Kuwat and llAE and they gnored lhe quola seibv OPEC and produced oil wel above lher assqned limts Oi prices fel as a€slllandthsmeanlthal raq osl a lot of revenue. Ihus. lraq fel frlslraled whenthe over productm ol oiL by Klwail caused lraq lo ose profits and lhs furlherworcened the relalionship belween lraq and KuwailrRe,e, ro ou, s hoor 5 rorF( fo the lastfaaa,) ne,l{ryi. trrmlcrinies ttrat came about as a resu I of terforism: Wh ch do you lhink sthe mosl serous oulcome? ExpLar your (tl came aboLl because acls of teirorsm woud have create rlsuspicon and lension amonq difierent E.es and rclao.s n 2006 due 10 thereirorsm becomins imh nenl n ihe nternationalscene S ngapore s Prlme Mlnislerlaunched ihe Commun ly Engaqement Programme to ensure that S ngapo.eansare betler eqlipped lo mantain socialcohesion and harmo.y nlhesoicrss taims lo brng togelher Slngaporeans from differenl communilies logether tostrengthen nleFcommuna bonds Thereiore the socia mpacl oi terforsm hadcreated an envro.met!.9[ dislrusl and misundersrandino thal _re-slilte!|[aolernmenls havrno lowork out oo ces lo helo mainla n harmonvThe nell impodanl faclor s oolitical impact Due 1o ler.orism. oovernmefls had lol ohten varous conhols such as stellino uo border secur lv to ensl€ lhal lenorstsd! !S!9!19!1!!l!!qC!!ry, The borde. securily measures involved qrealer checkson travelers dentites and belongngs slowng down mmigralon cea.ance in lheprccess litrusile eg s aton a med al counter ng teiroism lrad been ntroduced aswell AE ! resu r or this poL lica m oacl or teroism. oeop,!_e- !!! 19!! 1!!rdand the.e was ntefse securitv creatina a sense of sLspicion afd dislrusl amonastThe least rmporlant fa.lor s lhe economi. impacl The Seplemberllatlack had alremendous mpact on the US as weL as the wodd lnsu.ance company had loaccounl for a tota loss LJS$40 bil of I relaUon lo loss ol propeny and rfeFunhermore lhe s!11!9..truLqsrL1!!L4OLqL!!qE!!! tic li! tq!t!! tEatlack as peoole were afraid offvina Because oilhls the covemment had lo slep n to orcvrde economic hep to the a ne nduslru to prevenl airline cornpanies imS!!!LnLag!r! t[]!e !]U-lUC!lt!!e ?t!!O?l[ To add on Io the sever ly or the s llal onthe Balbombing took pace n 2002 Ths broughl aboul a huae loss n fcomeearned oi loursm Many Ba nese osl ther ivelhood and once again I was Ihegovernmenl thal had lo come in to Iry lo releve the economrc lradsh ps laced bythe Balnese Theretore lhe economc impact of lercrsm lrad creared a sl@lowhere lhe qovemments oJ afiecled counlnes had lq dilel! Lls reso!rces lo he p the
  • 19. eco.omv recover and lhis brouohl abour a linanci: .rr: naovernmentircmsoendinomonevlorotherourposes ncreased governmenl spend nq is lheworst conseaLer eeL -r,or sr rlo^ xdoyo.igee L,pa. Jo-," s,e (lrss) you,setf (No answer prcvided)..... _,: On (11) "Fore gf inlervent on was more a hindrance than a he pln tE tGq rwr r, oltr.l jo rou dgrce -,pa,.rourri we (sss) lwas a hindrance because the United Nations ileNention had brolahauponerven more oroblems which could have been avoided (Made mattersworse)(Focused on the neqative consequences and retatethem to the potiricat,economic and social impact whenever possible)Operation Desen Sbrm Economlc and mlllary sanctions- US s bombng campaign agafst the tEqigrolnd troops Politrcal nslablily in Lraq duelo encouragement from coa itron eaders durngOpe.ation Dese Storm lA/eslern troops taken as hostages I was a !9b as lhe ioreisn inreoenton had broughl aboutsome peace andreso ltion (Focused on the advantages/ benefits and retatethem to thepoljlical, economic and social impactwhenever possibte) Arab solulon lraq rcsponded iavou€bte to allempls by sooeArab teade.s tocal fora reso ution to rhe..nlli.t Operalon Desert Shield:sees more tha.30 coufl.ies lak fg paft in lhe coa rt ofby providing lroops mi aryequpment and money use oi iorce managed to qet raq oul of Kuwal
  • 20. on (12) elolo hpa or r r. drion.l le ro - devastal nc on counlries? Explain your answer (YTS)Teriorist acts brinq about an economic impact when there s a teiiorst altack1ry991!at be ost buL dinosleropenv deslroved and businesses aflecled Theqovehment has to soend huae amounls of mo.ev to rebuLd the couftN. and lh sneans lhat olher areas ol development I lhe co!ntry wou d be affected lhe a rlne ndustry and tolrisfr were also badv h[. as maiv oeooe were af.aid of flvinaMoreover. the.q is oss of earninqs ior mafv oeooe invoved n the trave andlourism lrade as man! lourisls avQd lravellino lo a counlr! thal has 9ltllered aIetro.isl altack Th s cou d lead to a ioss oi emplovtEll ?! ]4ell !5 !!!!qc !l!!9rlesse!Teiiorist acts put additional burden on the qovernnenl whch s expecled lohe p ndivduas adversely afiecred by terforst aclsTetrorsl acls can create a psvcholoqica lmoacl on the oeneral ooouLation Aiier.letrorlsl act such as lhe Sepl 11 allack. people are shocked and mighl be feartulol!ong about doing lhen daly aclvilles They nay be wor€d aboutJob securily astherc woud be a ial in business/ nvestmenl/tolr sts elc Excessive iear andpqGug-a.mav caLse a oerson to be ovenv susp_L9tals ?!d !3!1!9!!that hs abillv to ead a norna lfe mav be comoromsed Fe.ce aifectinaDrodlcl v ly and effc ency al work or ever h s shess lelel and lhus qua!{t qL@lnL ."n ro,er,e. rde he oLnr^ o5 ta_ a b " orFprcdLct&tv ^or[for.eferorisi acts resuli ln oss of innocent lives FahrLles lose oved ones and lh scadses !ule-!se, 9!Ig!!g Teiiorism can have an impact on communal!9!e!9!S_E e qau l may cause susp c o. a!t!LG!sia! !t!!!gttic t?!!!sethnLc and relo ous grouos f u.checked. lhis cou d have the oolentia oldeveopino into rols between difierent ethn c oroups Such tetrorisl acls aso havelhe polential to cause cedain elhfc groups io fee la€eted as lhey mghl besnged oll for ncreased secLrly checks or vewed slspcolsy by others n thecommun:ly Ths miqht calse a ieelng oi a ienalon and u.happ ness amonq thisqroupoipeope whch coud laLe a tolLon nalion b! ldina/rac a harmonv
  • 21. Rev,sto" Nores f4EYpress) f h em e. S ustai n i n9 Ec o n a m ic Dev el op n enl Here arelhree slraleqies used bV Sinqapore opporl!n lies and overcome chalenqes n a -Dive6itying the economy Nurturing the gro!!,th ol smal and medlum ente.prises r 1 1- morl rroord. sror.o lo er5. e cnqjpo-/o. ,ryh(h do u<rarn 166 o.omr ce dlopne ,l d 9 ood s-q 1 Eipanyoltq!9lyq on (2) impact of q oba sation outweiqhs wth ihe slalemenl? Explainyour (AE)frv it voutself (Similar to our Prelim eamiqation Gtobalisalioa brcraht aoreharm than sood)........ Qn (3) Towhatextent s Slnsapores abiLly lo suslarn lls econom c aF.elopm-nrrn olob"l o ordduelo F rrrrol F mdi " d1d vFd r F1l6 Dr.6 r<VT )) E Dld. /o. cn-Jer (JJSt!lEs pay an impoda.l roe in S noapores economy Toda! SMEs make uo a@ ToensurelhatsMEscan conlinLe 10 conlribule lo the growth ofthe singapo.e economy. there are manyschemes n place lo assist lhem. Banks hale varous oan schemes cate. ng lo lheneeds oJthe SMEs ln addtion lheAssociallon of Smalland lvled um En(erp.ises(AsME)was sel up in rsa610 provde assistance to SIVEs New companies arealso granled lax exemplion on theirnrst $100 000 ncome for up tolhree years.Nurlurno lhe arowlh ofSMEs promoles S noaoo.es deveiopmenl as these ocabusinesses wlllbe able loqenerale emplovment for lhe cou.try.Diversilvinq the economv ensu€s thal ihe S nsapore econohv €marns stabe nthe evenl of lhe downtlrn of one secior oflhe economv A slabe economv wolldensure susta nabe econom c develoomenlSingapore aims to promole technooqyntefsve, higher value-addedmanufact!r ng activ tes in the e ectro. cs. chemicaleng.eeing anrl eng neerinsrieds n addl@n. Singapo.e rs lenturng in(o areas like Llre Scences. whchinvolves lhe study ofgenelcs afd developmenl of new medical treatmenls us nggene lherapy newdruSs and food prodlcls ihal have been geneticaly nodifedHavlng v branl setuce sectors such as educaton. heathcare tourism afd ba.kinga so plays an mporlani role . increas.c SingaFores competilveness S noapore s also be ng promoted as an eriucalion and hea thcarc hub Manyforeg.un ve6iles have set !pUeir bralrcles !g!er Atthe same time people rn lhe regiof
  • 22. t are coming to s nsapore ro seek medica l€almenl due to our hish standards oi Venturinq abroad is anolher slralegy lo slsla n Sngapore s economLc deveopme.t n a globa zlng world !ryith lm(ed 3nd and abour €sources Sfqapore has to ook bevoid lls nalonal boundarv Ths s acheved lhrouoh rea onalLzaiion. wh ch nvolves inleslinq in nearbv colnties thai have ab!ndant land, lower abour cosls and new markets The S.gapore gove.nment and Singapore based compan€s am to provde the lnfraslructure, expedise and money lo develop fdlsl aLparks n host counires ln relurn,lhe host counlrles provlde and and labou. iorSingaporean companies. Vent!.ng abroad helps to suslan Snsapores economc deveopmenl as t opens up new markets and allow us to overcome ourphysical im lalions such as sma a.d area on (4) llere are lhree neqal ve effects widen na ncome gap belvveen envir.nmental.le.radario. iil;;;i;;;ffi;;;;, serous etfecl ofolobalzation? Expla n ql (J G obalisaron has raDrdv ncreased lhe income qalbe!4ec4h4lqlt a!!l p99I natons t has esulted in rapld developmenl ln hany counlres However t has aso nc.eased the spread ofpovedy n 6any other countes The deveLoped nations are experiencing rapd income grcwth as lhey own mosl of Ihe manufacllrng aclLvlies on the olher hand, the deveLopng falions often iace kade barers mposed bylhe deveLoped nalons They are not capable of prodlcing quaity goods which command high p.ces and retch alge €ve.ue The situation ofa widen nc income oao ooses a seious oob em lo the colnlries thal emb.ace olobalzation as il nav adverselv affecl socialcoheson fnol prooenv ma.aoed i ma! ead to manv olhersocia oroblems such as an ncrease n tsowever globalizalon oflen leads Io a loss oflocalcuLture Globalsation has rcsu ted . g obalbrands such as Siarbucks and McDona d dominating lhe consumer markel n deveoplng countries These corporations wlh the r standard zed melhods of operation have oltets lhal are denlica n appearance n this w6y. these carporalons have created a homogenous culture ac.oss the word and ercded the oca culture The loss of loca cultLre ooses a se ous orcbLem to ihe counlrv because when the cullu.e 6 eroded I woud be d ff cU! !o re create Assuch lhe de.tilvorlhecount.v destructive iorce to !he natural environment When difierenl parls ofthe wo d many of them use
  • 23. NatuE resources such aslimber oiLand melals al a Epid rale Atthesamedeveoping counvies are eaqerto ga n lhe economc benefits that cohewith globaization Very ofien, the nat!€l envnonment suffe.s because.r.6s. dd.etoping .o. rt es arA n o e -or.p n6d w.h Fronoa,dev€lopmenllhan envnonmenla proleclon. Envrcnmental deoradationooses a se.ious oroblem to the colnlr es concerned aswel as lolhe.esl oflheword brino no aboul orobens lke olobalwaminq which has farreachino conseqLences. Fulure oenerations w lsufier as a resu t ollhei.responsible actiofs oi lhe present qeneratiof on (5) necessafr lo ensure economic (uss) on (6) Ercbi> nq niche induslres loeLralr/alion in devF oping sper rir induslresd.ounlryisqoodat) c h-b--r^d,.o rtrrd a.o10-1[,6adopro 6.o.orr d-v-too e I todrd.da/ou asree? Expiain Vouranswer (USS)rry ityoursetf (No arswer Frcvided)........ on (7) s able to help Singapore overcome chalenges Do you agree? Expla n vour answer (sss) Lbqst!s3!s!9 s9!E Cnlole because berno lhe caretakers orlhe cou.lrv- ihe qovernmeit must know howto pan and alocate limited €sourcesand come uDwth Dractca and lono-teh soLulions ioichalenoes n a a obalisna world A Knowledge Based Economy {KBE)requnes theS nqapore workfo.ce lo learn and appy knowedqe as Singapores competilvenessw I depend on its people s knowledge crealvit, and innovalon With R+DSrnqapore is abe lo develop ils own talenl poo aod lechfoogles and create newand belter prcducts The panfe.ship oi S.gapore ocal enterprses with natonaresearch inslilllions wllcreate new ideas methods and prodlcts lhat can be so din the world ma,kel. lnternallonal padnershlp bendee. S ngapore and China, tnd aand Germany promole Science and technology exchanges. which n turnstrenglhen Singapore as a KAE. as vitaland useiu resources and infornalon are needs the coopeEtion ofthe SMEs- need brave new eade6 io venlure oveBeas need the qhl lvpe olforeiqn talenttEIEq4t!9 lllportance ofthe remainins parties above) lr
  • 24. on (8) GobaLLsation is more a hindrance than a heLplo S noapores economic suNival Do vou aoree? Expain youranswerTry ityourself (Similatto ou.Prelin exami.atio": Globalisatior brcught norcharm than good but the focus ofyout answet sholld be very muchSihqapo6base.l- Must look at Sinsapotes vulnenbilities Es Snall & Openecononv and aDDIvlhe aclvanlaaes & Droblems oI qlobalilalion accodinal r iTFr€yement in the 6radards 6. ivinq i6 tl.e biqqedtimFa6l6l 9!9@lE4roF+dy99 ag€€@YoKs) To whal extenl isdversifyng the ebnomy the mosl eilective wayto ensure thal Singapore remains competitive in a globalising wond? cGsReadthesptendidanswetptovi.led......,........(Donthavetoptovidealltheexamples. Just pick o.e example for each splanationl) on (10) givsifo rFqlhe€soFri6 rh+bes{ sl.€leqyl6ssuresinsap6ret Explai+yH ln assessng iheefiectiveness of globalisalion. there is a greater impacton ihe economy ihan on the environmenl.Do yo! agree? Expan yo!.answer (CGS)Read the sptendid a,swer provi.ted,,, .,..,, ,....,.-(Dont have to provi.le all thaexanples. Just pick one exanpte fot each exptanation!)
  • 25. on (9) rAn ]RFl]rt€rrsli4th€ slsdarrls oi livic€j;ri€+€€€s+epa€t€i I cl9bSliialrg!+yole9€!:4qF ro Jj|lwer- (ye(q To whal enent s diversting the economy the most efiective way (o 6 rurc,tdr. nodporo p c .orpp tE n"9oo"h.r1q(o,o, (ccs)Readthesplendi.tanswerprcvided............-...(Donthavetoprovideallthee1qples. Just pick 9!e exanpleforeach exptanation!) Bindq{. po rr*3r6nPeo ai5wA ^x{do co we;6reman@m@"{ nton Eduy siven rador aEdher6dors lNo h _l 9A oesqi6ds qivei racro,. Alq orher bcrors tNo ni ro quesr onar Erp ahs qivddracro,, qaotherhdors l"- 4totutcrqLalL rA srar) E!: :d up b b!rd !p sns: ponord r!0 esard resois 0qt w be btr r n Maia 3a! aid
  • 26. fheetae di!43 ritebe eMt s decrve lay ro marc !r!l9E .p,1,"trd9A SiBlteE Eanils le
  • 27. s!aqEemc s c-rat !ir dss coudros srqaDo4 [as aiso mmnredAEDeleopned ao3i.y (wDA) tr6 sb oa! c .ur o(,!n + s1l:,,H,ltil;1,ii.riiii:i l".,iT. " aono 0s$* sm$ ao &Ls o€l4 b e,r nq; oyDNirr Lt
  • 28. @btAgGbhrmlF":€adybh440%d dlh!str.iGLd:shJ5!Fqneqwr;rci! hd ce p ircshs ihs s b msre sd tutc @rddfi !F bn d b*aL* bnd rea oqbi ie5 i De emtrr tseA]]henkfJlDr . -,... h1.nd, he ! rridtr* --"n,ed ,;dvdr-mts src ., ,; , --" rcLur! ras dm4 te Frc6 pb. ;fros AsqEy INEA) rqdh.r t h e re b re @!@j!stete!Eet!@!u 1,
  • 29. an {r 0) D{FbA4€+" -.{rJ5€4 r tqe+e$ s reqJ_eesr+._+!rp4 l+€o!€qr3rew+zFs ta{€ }1Hqr;! +*b lo.( I Exl@qrgret ",l.l.$€i{, 1Y€r<9 n,sse rng tr- er-.r sfu q obc i.at or her- r. q.ea.-l mpd ro IaF.oror) llrlon r"-n.ro,nFrr Doo, .g.e". "Read the sptendid answer prcvided........----trbon t, lqqs) eaoN@idaaikeexanptes. Just plck one exampte rot each expt,nation!) I Dcstrbes i sidelNo iik b quod ond $e sndt Bohffi r. t{o h. d. ;sr. ;qJ.{,o 7 aars bt 4r exdandtan a, lstd,a ^wad ndlcd is r buya podd;6c
  • 30. rie daleropedcou ,6a Gbbdsuq lrtiE?lra ,t) )
  • 31. idemlaienomolsquadlyolre eiiaroi: Eie,q, Aqeicy (EA) oipeds 8ieioy Lse to srcv tyfhereto.e dobjtjqtb! has a oreat j4@e1 e! tnEquj,rla@1 ido ood 3... A .o ,r t. -:
  • 32. Reursion Notes laEpress) Thene: Facinq Challenges and Change an (l) To what exlentwas good leade.shPthe nost impodant reason lorlhe R se olVenice? Expain yquranswer (UN)Yes, qood leadershio was the mosl imponant.eason Vencewaslorlunatelohale had a number of very good and capabe lop leaderswho took steps lo makeherstro.g and weahhy F rcI. there was Doge Pieno lorceolo who brclghl peaceby reconciing the feudrng ciles negotrallng lrcalles wlh malor powers a.dsubdu nq lhe p rates n oamata Nen. Doge Enrco Dandolo. bv d reclng theFounh Crusade n lhe 12ih cenlury and capil. izing on crclmslances. weakenedlhe Byzantine Empne and caplurcd Constanlinope Th s broughl lecognit o. iromthe other slales and he ped Venice to contrclsofre otlhe Lmpodant tetriloneswhlch had once beonged to the Byza.l ne Emp re Fina v Doge Petro Zanilollowed a. exFansbnst poLcv and extended Vefice s controLovertheMeditetranean Sea As a resLll-due lo lhe work ofherlaLsiahted leadets venicewas svstematicauv ttansfomed from a snall citv state into a hudepoweiul and weafthv matitime emone.otlreriaclors forlhe rse olVenice such as lhe relorms in oovernmentlhal werelnderlaken Frcm the l2icenlury onwards cha.ges were made lo the slruclurc oigovernme.l One chanqe was the crealon ofthe Grell councL made up olmenlrom lhe mosl powerfu and nfluentia Iam es in Vefice This councilhad mutiperoes io perlorm rncuding lhe eeclion oicapabLe members to aL co!ncls and thepass ng oi aws ltwas aler reorganized. wth lhe formation oflhe Senale. n lhe 13"cenlury so that il could focus on the more mporlantdules Forexample toversaw iorer!n relalons matters commerc al matters a.d lhe operalons oi theVenelan fleel These changes we.e necesstaled by lhe newchallenges lhal wee Dosed bv ven.e s qroMh To ma nla n a syslem ol checks and ba ances on power held by lhe top ofiiciaLs. ihe Counc ofTenwasformed tcouldeven im l lhe power oflhe Dose and deatwllh crlLca matleB such as lhose concernlng the nlernalsecurily oflhe slale As a rcsult ofthese aovelntuental chanaes venice bLiltup a svsten of daretnmentthat was well bteaaredto meetthedemands ofthepeoble and the drowina citv-state. fhus this was an imponantreasonVarious trade developments and expansion also payed an Lmpodanl parl ln theise ofVenLce Foe instance. Venlce displayed a hiOhly poslNe and aggress vealuludetowards trade lwas sk fu al obla n ng favourable ternrs oilradecompared lo lls compet106 such as Genoa andsohad.iedgeoverlhemFunhermore the Vef el ans showed an enterpns ng spir l whLch look them lo d sta l nr: ni i3r lands . search of new routes and.ew ilems ol lrade as we I rs.ewmarkets Ths helped venrce to erow n tEde Addilonaly ven ce nrade good useof advances rn rna l me lechrology ( n the ire ds ol iav gal or and we:po.rylThese qale venet an vessels lo voyage even nwinlerlhe ven ce s superb ship.b! Idin! sk ls led to lhe construction oi vessgls ll9!!t9r! superor to those 91the{
  • 33. f competilors The arhed Venetian great Oalteyswere abte to ranoeludherthan before rnd so help expand ts kade reach. Added 10 thiswaslhe states efticienl manalemenl syslem lor alLvoyages made by Venel an ships fhus.lhe sttonq, positive ahd aaarcssive aditude that Venice looktowatds trcde, aided bV innovatians in mailime technolodv antl an efficient svst.m.f hanaqenent of tra.|e, hetped oush Venice ahead of its tivats and to rise to ProtuinenLe and ueatth. Iwas because oi ts i.dlstrial devetopment thal Ventce.ose up These developments werc prompted by the expanston oiVenice s trade For nstance,the d- ,hob.ildila o-.ry -e rop-od.r-F^r)dndt --p pa.e d{h rt - o-mdlo ioo6rioJl6rsirf dl --ur) par-rrroFld er1eba,.ooneot 6n,c5 marillme lnduslry and power As Venelans grew wea lr er, they began to demand forgoods such.sgassware Ths in tuh led to the growth ot manuiacrurnq d.sl p l,rF$ rno sti" <,1as ep rins o s,.dt VA "- oi . edr o o - abs r!!t !!!!t!!E!p!9l9pI!!!L!eJp9&3!r!AJ9 nare emplovmentwhich attacted even foreiq. talents to venice. The industries heloed crc4e mote waatth fot Venice and in that wav hetDed itto 4!q af (2) Ma lme compellon was lhe mosr serous cha enae ta.ed bv Ven ce n the pe.od behveen the 14lh and 13th centures -uw,r !o you.gj::lt! 11 -r .pc.ro trswer i lror/ qrlgrou q9r9!t{!![ ![qv eqE]d!]!l.!r r-we (u) (uN) ,enqF , r:- 5 ri., ol the Portuglese succeeded I pioneering a few sea irade roule to lhe East. As a rcsult, thev destroved Venice s nonopotv of the lucrative sbjce thde and areatlv teduced the lafte prcfits which the Venetian traders had eaned o* nJ"o,o ul.ron ". a-;;re;re1;T;;;!G- Medlleranean Sea Ven ce also expanded ts trade to the Nodh Sea Flrther Trr i .Fdllarc6 j .d-e .on,r-t, teDJk1".o he, I.ar nghs, to.. - he - ^toaom ns rhe Venerans T.r! rooroa- tpr)rppr6, thus bjpasr This aftecte.t venjces position asan e;iebot p94 The Oulch and Britrsh had betler desgned shps than the Venetians too esa Lesult otthese naaitime challenqes, Venice imposed a prctectionist potjcv. Ihev iOboie.r hiqherduties on roreidn tattets. This poticv d/oi;i;e;- awav from Venetian pons. Thus Verice last some ot itsttadind partn* Anolher ser ous crralenge faced by Ven ce was lhe io€isn threals coming toh three sources Fisty lher nvovemenl in the ma n ard was brolght abo;r by ther desire lo protecl rhe I tertores a.d commercial tnre€srs Th s th;y d d by taiins advanlageofthe valry among the maint.nd states Ve.tce constanliv swlch.,ad q ar6 rhr atlacked)and soVence had to buid up a mercenary army Anotherthreatwas ^o
  • 34. from lhe Olloman Empirewhch compeled wLth Vencelor conlroloi lheAdnaticSea Vencehadlouse ts preclous galeys to lghtthe Oilomans This disrlpled iisuse oigalleys for lrad ng purposes Aso, to conlaf lhe Ottomans Ven ce tred tostrke a baance of powerwith the Onomans and their European neighbouB al lhesame I me. This action calsed itsE!!9p9?!r Dejsbb9llslq deyhostilitv towaKts venice. enice s growng inluence in lhe reqion made tunpopular among the varous main and states This led them to creale a m litaryaliafce againslVen ce llwas known aslhe League oi Cambra ll foughlwarsagalnsl Venice and had some slccess n laknq oversome ofVenices tertoriesAs a rcsuh ol the manv wats foudht bv Venice adainst its various fareidnthreats. venices reaources were weakened. This forced venice to take theunpopular steo of raisina taxes to tinance the emolovmenlol its nercenaNPoliticalchallenges also posed a serous challenge toVence Prosperily broughtwth it aweaken ng oithe governmenl. rhs gradually led lo Ven ce s polticadec ne For exampe. the shrlnking numberofnobiily as olderfamiles dedaflecred lhen appoinlmenl 10 the hghestofii@s Polc es were created nollo seruethe inieresls oflhe ciiy slate bul the seflnleresls oflhe nobiLly From lhe 16i"cenluryasmall grcupof rch noblesdominatedthe government Asaresutrenewa of eadership became a cha lenge and coruplion became nevrabe Duelo lhe poicy oi.otation oldulies, evef when tlrere werc no competenl oflicetsava able 1o take over power was handed lo incompelent oriiceF. Ths led 1odisastrcus consequencesforVen ce Ln ilswars againsl lhe Ollom.ns fro exampleThere was a so qrow ng conlption in thegove.nmentas poor nobles sord the rates al a hgn pi.e. This meant that leadership was determined bv wealth andnottalent ot capabililv. fhis led to incomoetent leaderstakina oositions inqovemnent. Duero its snal population and nanv enemies. Venice becaneover-dependent on mercenaries to fiohl itswats. This was a cos v decisionas the lovafty af these ttoops was quesircrab/e. CE5)Do it yoursetf( Refet ta yout notes on Venice)........ On (4) llere are lhree.easons rir. -Corupl on n lhe govemmenl The discovery oia new hade roule Which orlhesewas more responslble for Venice s dec ne?oo ityoursefi( Refer ta youtnates on venice)
  • 35. on (5) Doyo! aqree lhat lheVenelanswere responsble iorthe r own dec .e? Explain yo!,answer 0!A!e!Y!E49t!91 (cvs) e responsible as the "J") svstem ofThe Venetians were resDonsible lor their own dectine ?5rll entire thenaovernance became weak and co(uoted All these were lhe result ol ooor inlernalpann na and superulsion lhat escaaled Lnto senous ooltical. economlc and soclalprob ems that brouoht about lhe ercd!4 dlrlllqlL Sl !!!taq The.e we.e fewelpeope lo choose from as Venice faced the cha e.ge of a shrnkng poo of nobiltyWith fewer peope lo take up posito.s lhe quaily ol eadershp weakened Asmore power and wearh were n lhe hands oi a iew iamlies lhey used lheqovernmefl as a oo to fu.lher then own inleresls al the expense ol lhe cily-slatesThe rolalon oi dulies also meanl that a compelenl officer wolld leave offce aJterone lerm. n unfonlnale cases. an rncompetenl office. would be chosen Anincompetenl leade. or oflicer woud nol be able to pan or mpleme.l polcies to-ansur.ave.l..as s!stai.able.rowlhCo.ruplion becanre lhe nor;irom the rsrh cenlury onwa.ds Eectons were riggedthrouqh the buyifg oi votes There were also nstances of pos I ons being sold torarse funds for lhe governmenl 10 fght wars At the core of lhe governmefl.coirlplrcn added lo the ineflciency of the clyslale This was due to ilreappo nlmenl of incompelent eaders who were less concerned wlh lhedevelopment of lhe cily slatewth irs smar popuation. Vence was unable lo form a sizeabe amy ior ilsexpanson n the manand lt therefo.e employed mercenaries As lhe VeneiLansbecanre more weathy and compLacenl lhey slarted lo beieve that lhey coulddepend on mercenaries to nghl lheirwars and became depeide.l o.lhem withoulihe commlmenl ol its peope Venice coilnued lo depend on mercenar.s Thswas unwise because I ed to increased erpendture In addtion venices weath o.onorb.,or!,e..omTa- lo lPmE - oi4Veice oile. look ldlanlage olreudfg.va sta(es and oifered lo hepone rightagainsr Ihe orhe. Vefices lnvolvement n the frarnland draied lhe clly slalesina.caland manpower resources as t had lo employ a mercenary army 10 fighl lsbalt es I was a so cof slanl y al rsk ol be ng atlacked by aeer states as there wasno certainty wh ch a iance wou d ultrfraley beneiilVeniceConslanl balles touqhl .lhe region also afiecled vences overland commercalIhe Venetians were NOT responsible for their own decline as develoomentsoutsde ther countres lexlerna deveLoomefts) whch are bevond ther controbeqan to affect them polticarv econoncalv and 99rq€lly. The Oltoman Empreexpanded ts .iuence bolh by a.d and by sea Al sea t cha enged lo lake overoulposls belonging to Venice A mlllary campaign agansl tlre Otlomans waslaunched in 1463 l-owever Venrce fouoh( againsl lhe Ollomans on ts own Alhese reduced lhe ledtora power and inflence of Ven ce as a grcal cily slate Byconquerng ands aong the coasls ol the Mediteifare.i aid Adralc seas lheOllomans colld €unch altacks on Venel an sh ps As a resL t. Ven ce s lrade wasbad y atlected and thal afiecled Venices economy badly
  • 36. on (7) How farls nilialve and roresighl oiihe Venelans an imponant !9qq9! iorihe olvenice? E,paln your answer se (osslDo h youtself( Refet to you. rotes or Venice)........ on (8) Wh ch is the more imporlant iaclor thal led to the dec tne orVenice : Fore dn Thrqql!!4l9!9!challenses? Explain your answer (oss)Do it yourse4( Relet to yout notes on venice).,....-.Make use or theinfomation from Qn(s)ta explain the Foteisn Threats (Extemal Facto) andSoc ial Chal I en s e s (t nte rn at Facto 4 on (9) Towhal ertenl waslrade monopo y rcspons be it increase in Venice s kadeT E,pla n you answer. (sMs) (Factors that improve Venices economy)As Vencewas strateqlca ly located at lhe nodhern tip of the Adriatc Sea. centrarnd Soul Fl lLop- ph-do-rF.e elcn)o goodc ron l- Lo>t .., dsprces, sugar and even d anronds usrng a comb nation ofovedand and sea.outesthey were abLe to buy and aler selllhese goods to olher slales. These ooodswer. sold al a verv hioh prrce. endblinq the Venetidns lo reap ta-ae o/otits.Unlike Genoa and the Hanseatic Leaque, Venice was able to provide a tarqervarielv ofooods from th€ East. The European states had verv titUe choiceotherthan to buv from Venice causino theirtrade lo increaseTre Venelans aso possessed an enlerp.s ng spnt To slay ahead otrhecompeltion fortrade lhey expored new lrade.oules, slpp es afd markets bylrave ng to unknown ands Forexampe lhe Poofam ly took catcutated rsks loextefd lEde furlher from beyond the Midd e Easl. Their exotoration ofthealqrland kade route to China earned Venice qood relations with counrriesthe Far Eastenablinq itto increase its trade.Wlh lherextensve knowledge in shlpblildins. the Venetiansdesraned and buirsuperiorvesseLs to meet then sailng needs Therefore. untike traditional sail ngsh ps, the Ve.etian feet was prope ted by bolh oa.s and sa s Therefore th--y didnotdepefd on wind aofe This enabled them to travetfu.ther. thus. facitirarinthe erpansion of 1.ade and ter.itorialqonirol.
  • 37. --n (1dt T rh*ysrm oi swment was more ot a n rdrance thaf a he p to Venlc; How rar do vo! asr-e wlh lhLS stalement? Exp ain vour *n lffil. "to*.me ,*.o@ or,h.drc rn"n " r"rp r"- + {sru9 ".*" r." . ,*,a"i-oc.,-. n t--o"q11-qb ^anorbr" o ^o/-d overcome some chalLenqes as lime passed The rotalon oldlties ensurcd lhtt no indivLdua o. famiLv coud domLnate the governmenl tslaw s lhatcompete ofi.ers woud halelo leave ofiice after onelerm This meant that incomtetent -"6ole could be saiected to replace and in times ofcrisis this was nota qood Mo,eov",, many not." who were p€vrouslv scholars compeled lo serue as ;;lcommande6 in thewars againsl lhe Oltomanselen rhoush thev d d nol have ol>-oi--, e, - 4ed "r., o e5 n ba " Ihrs slows lhete weF lraws rn lhe wdv the V"nlian ove;nment selected iis naval comru!dq$*!9!9l44sj! ! the leaders selected and theskills required -lOeg. rdraqree,a,l- 5-r o go/e mnre.. d ho ooooFm abewc- d o po^,d. "" -;.", counc Lnlneoo,cnm6nr rherc s Ihe ..n ofTen th;lwould monitorthe acuviles oforganzatons and ofticals lo ensure lhal there were no coftupt practices or abuse ofpowerbvthe Doa"o d,"rqrJ d c01 _dce rplo .oo.arm6 wo d oe- L ea b. or- .o o d" " o o J"ao," Noo o dooarlr*dnd . msef There was the Nominalnq ^r rlr s lncluded the Dodge h Commillee added lo rha e e.l on Drocess to identilv slilabe mae candidales ior allelecled p.ocess to .reirfv surtabe male cand dales for a leiecled positions through the process of baLot;q Sqch a svstem ensured thatthe qovernmentwas efiicientand clean ll,lso ;etrithat the qovernmentwould workfor!he beneritof the counlrv and rlris is deiinite v a help