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Sec 2 HISTORY Chapter 5


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External Events and Singapore

External Events and Singapore

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  • 1. How Did External Events Before World War II Affect Singapore?
  • 2.
    • Singapore had to depend on trade with other countries for her growth
    • How would events outside the country affect Singapore’s trade?
  • 3. The Industrial Revolution
  • 4.
    • Industrial Revolution (1750 – 1850):
      • The invention of new machines and the discovery of new sources of power to drive these machines brought about changes that led to the Industrial Revolution.
  • 5.
    • In the 18 th century, making cloth by hand was a slow process in Britain .
    • Workers could only produce enough cloth for themselves .
  • 6.
    • New machines like the spinning machine were then invented.
      • These machines greatly changed the ways good were produced and shortened the production time.
  • 7.
    • Another important invention was the steam -engine.
      • Coal was burnt in the steam-engine to turn water into steam.
      • The pressure from the steam provided the energy for machines to produce goods in great quantities.
    • Very soon, the use of machines spread to the rest of Europe.
  • 8.  
  • 9.
    • As these machines were located in factories, workers began to work in factories instead of working at home.
    • The use of machines meant that the Europeans could produce their goods cheaply in great quantities and at a faster rate.
  • 10. Workers working in the factories
  • 11.
    • Raw materials were needed to manufacture these goods.
    • The Europeans also needed new markets outside their own countries to sell their goods.
    • They began to look to the East for raw materials and markets for their goods.
    • One place they turned to was Asia
  • 12.
    • At the same time, railway trains and steamships were invented after the discovery of the steam-engine.
      • People could travel longer distances in a shorter period of time to look for markets and raw materials.
  • 13. How Did The Industrial Revolution Affect Singapore?
  • 14.
    • With the invention of the steamship, more Europeans could now sail to the East
      • to obtain raw materials such as tin, and find markets to sell their goods
    • This meant that more ships visited Singapore
      • led to the growth in trade
  • 15.
    • From the 1880s, many European and American steamships made Singapore their port-of-call
      • where their ships stopped to refuel and obtain food supplies
    • The Asians in Singapore also used steamships to transport their goods between Singapore and other ports in the region
    • Impact :
      • Thus, Singapore’s position as a port for the collection of goods from the East and the distribution of manufactured goods from the West gained importance
  • 16.
    • Communications also improved as a result of the arrival of steamships.
      • Letters which previously took about four to five months to arrive from Europe in the days of sailing ships, now took about five weeks
    • Impact:
      • With the shorter time taken to deliver letters and documents , Singapore came into closer contact with Britain and the rest of the world
  • 17. Opening of the Suez Canal Alternative route for trade
  • 18.
    • Opening of Suez Canal in 1869
      • Great impact on world trade in the second half of the 19 th century
      • The need for raw materials and new markets to sell their goods caused many merchants to seek a shorter route to the East
  • 19.
    • Opening of Suez Canal in 1869
      • Before this, ships travelling between Europe and Asia had to sail around the southern tip of Africa, called the Cape of Good Hope.
      • This long and dangerous journey from London to Singapore too sailing ships at least 120 days
  • 20.
    • A French engineer, Ferdinand de Lesseps, drew up plans to avoid the sea route around Africa
      • by cutting a long canal to link the Mediterranean Sea with the Red Sea
    • Work on the modern Canal began in 1859 with the money raised in France, the Ottoman Empire and Egypt.
  • 21.  
  • 22.
    • Within a few years after its opening, the Suez Canal became one of the busiest waterways in the world.
    • Faster steamships replaced slow sailing ships as they used the shorter Suez Canal route instead of the Cape route.
    • The journey from London to Singapore took only 50 days.
  • 23. How Did The Opening Of The Suez Canal Benefit Singapore?
  • 24.
    • Singapore benefitted from the opening of the Suez Canal
      • People, mail and cargo took a shorter time to travel from Europe to Singapore
      • As a result, the cost of shipping goods was reduced because of savings in distance and time
  • 25.
    • The opening of Suez Canal also brought about a great expansion in Singapore’s trade
      • Due to increased speed and volume of ships passing through the Straits of Melaka and calling at the port of Singapore to refuel and collect food supplies
      • Singapore thus maintained its role as an important trading centre and a port-of-call
  • 26.
    • 3. With the expansion in Singapore’s trade and the arrival of more steamships, the Old Harbour became overcrowded
      • There was not enough space along the banks of the river to build storehouses for keeping goods and coal or to build dry docks for ship repairing
    • In 1852, the New Harbour was built in the strait between the southern coast of Singapore Island and two smaller islands – Pulau Brani and Pulau Blakang Mati (Sentosa)
      • Renamed Keppel Harbour in 1900
  • 27.  
  • 28.  
  • 29.
    • Keppel Harbour
    • Steamships and sailing ships could sail right up to the harbour because of the deep waters
    • The two small islands sheltered the harbour from strong winds and big waves.
  • 30.
    • In 1912, the government set up the Singapore Harbour Board to make more improvements to the port
      • New wharves, docks, storehouses and machine shops were built
      • Modern machinery such as forklifts, cranes and tractors were used for loading and unloading of goods
      • A railway system was also set up to link the port to other parts of Malaya
    • All these improvements provided better and faster services in handling goods from ships which called at the port
    • As the volume of goods brought in by ships grew, Singapore became one of the busiest ports in Asia
  • 31. World War I
  • 32.
    • Countries in Europe had divided themselves into two opposing groups by 1914
      • Germany, Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire formed one group and called themselves the Central Powers
      • Britain, France and Russia formed another group called the Allied Powers
        • Later Italy joined the Allied Powers
  • 33.
    • The situation in Europe thus became very tense
      • The rivalries meant that war was likely to break out at any moment
      • Europe was like fuel, ready to burst into flames should a spark fall on it
  • 34.
    • This spark was produced when the Archduke of Austria-Hungary, Franz Ferdinand, was murdered
  • 35.  
  • 36.
    • Although World War I was fought by only a few Europeans countries, it eventually involved some thirty countries
    • Approximately 10 million people died as a result of the war
  • 37.
    • Effects on Singapore
      • Frantic rush to buy food when news of the war in Europe broke out
      • Traders from neighbouring islands stocked their shops with food which they brought from Singapore
  • 38. How Did World War I Affect Singapore?
  • 39.
    • Effects on Singapore
      • As prices increased, people became worried
        • To bring prices down, the government did not allow the export of large quantities of foodstuff to neighbouring countries
        • It also increased the imports of rice from Siam and Vietnam and assured the people that there was enough food for everybody
  • 40.
    • A few days after the outbreak of war, things returned to normal
    • Prices came down and trade carried on as usual
  • 41.
    • For a short period of time, Singapore’s shipping and trade were threatened by the presence of a German warship, the Emden
      • The Emden arrived in the East in September 1914
    • Although it did not attack Singapore, its presence in the area affected trade between Singapore and Europe
      • as it attacked British trading ships in the Indian Ocean
  • 42.
    • The Emden was finally destroyed off the Cocos Islands by the HMAS Sydney, an Australian warship, in November 1914
    • With the German naval threat removed, the British ordered the sepoy regiment stationed in Singapore to depart for Hong Kong in November 1914
  • 43.
    • The sepoys, however, heard rumours that they might be sent to Europe or Turkey to fight the Muslims.
    • In February 1915, when the sepoys received orders to sail to Hong Kong, some decided to rebel.
      • On February 15, 1915 the sepoys rose up against the British.
      • The rebellion was known as the Sepoy Mutiny
      • The rebels went around killing Europeans
  • 44.
    • The mutiny was finally put down after ten days
      • 56 mutineers, three Chinese and two Malay civillians died in the mutiny
      • 41 mutineers were sentenced to be shot while 126 mutineers were sentenced to jail
  • 45.
    • Although the mutiny caused anxiety in Singapore, the sepoys failed to gather any support from the local population
      • The majority of the Indians in Singapore did not take part in the mutiny or help the sepoys
      • The Sikh police also remained loyal to the government throughout the mutiny
      • Even among the men in the sepoy regiment, a large number did not take part in the mutiny
  • 46.
    • The Sepoy Mutiny helped the British government realized that it could not afford to be careless about Singapore’s defence
    • It also highlighted that threats to Singapore’s peace could come from both inside and outside the country
  • 47. The Great Depression How Did It Affect Singapore And Its People?
  • 48.
    • The Great Depression
    • In the early 1930s, Singapore was affected by a worldwide event called the Great Depression
    • As Singapore’s economy depended largely on overseas trade, the Great Depression caused companies in Singapore to suffer losses
  • 49.
    • The Great Depression
    • They had to cut expenses by retrenching workers
    • Conditions were so poor that many businessmen who depended largely on overseas trade lost their wealth or became bankrupt
    • There was widespread unemployment and hardship
  • 50.
    • Given the limited jobs available, it was difficult for the unemployed to find jobs
      • Whenever there was job vacancy, hundreds would rush to apply for it
    • Even the government had to cut down the number of workers and reduce the pay of the remaining workers
    • Many of the unemployed had to depend on their friends or relatives to help them out
      • Many chinese and Indians had to return to their homeland when their friends and relatives could not support them
  • 51.
    • To improve the economic situation, the government passed a law in 1930 to restrict and reduce the number of immigrants coming into Singapore
      • Especially the unskilled male Chinese labourers
    • It also arranged for large number of unemployed Chinese and Indians to return to their homeland
  • 52. By
    • By 1934, business conditions in America and other countries improved, exports from Singapore began to increase again