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Sec 2 HISTORY Chapter 3
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Sec 2 HISTORY Chapter 3

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Immigrants

Immigrants

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  • In 1822, Lieutenant Philip Jackson was appointed Assistant Engineer by Raffles A plan was drawn up to improve the haphazard way in which building were built in the settlement
  • Transcript

    • 1.  
    • 2. Singapore has been founded!!!!
    • 3.
      • After Singapore’s founding, news about the island spread to other countries in Asia and other parts of the world
        • India
        • China
      • Thousands of people of different races flocked to Singapore
        • bright business prospects
        • many job opportunities
    • 4.
      • Most immigrants who came were men
        • they did not intend stay on permanently
        • they hoped to make enough money to send home regularly
        • they wanted to eventually return home after acquiring some wealth
    • 5.
      • However, some of these immigrants later changed their minds
        • they decided to make Singapore their home
        • they either brought their wives and children to Singapore
        • or they married local women who were mostly Malays or Chinese born in Penang and Melaka
    • 6.  
    • 7. Why Did The Immigrants Come to Singapore?
    • 8.
      • ‘ Push’ Factors
      • Reasons that drive people away from their homeland to settle in another place.
      • The unfavourable conditions found in the immigrants’ homeland.
    • 9.
        • War
        • Natural disasters
              • Droughts, famine, earthquakes, floods
        • Lack of jobs
        • Overcrowding in their homelands
        • Disorder and unrest
    • 10.
      • ‘ Pull’ factors:
      • Reasons that attract people to settle in a particular country.
      • The favourable conditions found in Singapore.
    • 11.
      • ‘ Pull’ Factors
        • No restriction on immigration
        • Singapore was a free port
              • Traders did not have to pay for custom duties or taxes on goods
        • Better jobs and business opportunities
        • Peace and stability
    • 12.
      • The immigrants tend to settle in great numbers near the mouth of the Singapore River
      • Why do you think people tend to settle near the mouth of the Singapore River?
    • 13.  
    • 14.
      • Raffles returned to Singapore in October 1822
      • He appointed Lieutenant Philip Jackson as Assistant
      • A plan was drawn up to improve the haphazard way in which building were built in the settlement
    • 15.  
    • 16.
      • Under the plan, the different races were divided and a kapitan was appointed to take charge of the internal affairs of each community
        • A kapitan is a Malay term for chief or captain
      • The Chinese were also separated according to their dialect group and each had a kapitan to lead them.
    • 17.
      • Raffles left Singapore in June 1923
        • The town plan took shape under the new Resident, John Crawfurd
      • The development was restricted to the southern parts of Singapore
        • Roads were laid out and commercial buildings such as offices and shophouses were put up
        • Roads of the town were widened
        • Street lighting using coconut oil lamps was started
        • Land along the seafront was reclaimed
        • Many churches, government offices and public building were built
    • 18.  
    • 19. Chinatown
    • 20.
      • Chinatown
      • Set aside for the Chinese
      • It was divided into separate areas for the different dialect groups
        • To minimise quarrels
      • Each dialect group had their own kapitan
    • 21. Commercial Square
    • 22.
      • Commercial Square
      • known as Raffles Place today
      • The centre of business in Singapore
        • where European and Asian traders trade side by side
    • 23. Chulia Kampong
    • 24.
      • Chulia Kampong
      • The Indians lived in a street in Chulia Kampong
      • They were moved to the area around Serangoon street later on
    • 25. European Town
    • 26.
      • European Town
      • The Europeans and rich Asians lived in European Town
      • Big houses and tree-lined roads were built
      • Raffles Hotel was built in the area by the Armenian Sarkies Brothers in 1889.
    • 27. Bugis Campong
    • 28.
      • Bugis Campong
      • Malays and other Muslims were assigned to Kampong Glam
      • An Area was set aside for the Sultan, his relatives and followers
    • 29.
      • After the British took over the island I 1824, jungles outside the town area were cleared for plantations
      • By the 1840s, there were plantations all over the island
        • Crops like gambier and rubber were grown
      • Some of these plantation owners were Chinese immigrants who provided employment for other Chinese immigrants who came to Singapore.
    • 30.  
    • 31.  
    • 32.
      • Singapore attracted a lot of traders from all over the world because it was a free port .
        • This meant that traders and ships from all nations could trade freely with one another
        • Did not have to pay custom duties or taxes on the goods they carried to and from the port
    • 33. Europeans who came to Singapore set up big trading companies and agency houses that had links with Europe
    • 34. When the ships arrived in Singapore, the goods on the ships were unloaded and brought into warehouses.
    • 35.
      • Agency houses brought in goods in bulk
        • manufactured products from Europe,
        • cotton cloth and opium from India,
        • tea and silk from China and coffee,
        • and pepper and bird’s nest from the Malay Archipelago
    • 36. The goods are repackaged in smaller quantities
    • 37. The goods are then exported to places like Europe, India, the Malay Archipelago and China
    • 38.  
    • 39. The Chinese
    • 40.
      • The Chinese Middlemen
      • Traders from Europe and the Malay Archipelago bought and sold their goods mainly through Chinese middlemen in Singapore
      • The Chinese middlemen could speak sufficient English, Malay and local dialects to communicate with their clients.
      • This allowed trade to take place easily
        • people could understand each other
    • 41.
      • Coolie-Agents
      • Helped traders and merchants look for workers from India and China
      • These Indian and Chinese workers provided the much-needed labour
      • As trade prospered, more workers were brought into Singapore
        • Increase in population
    • 42.
      • Merchants
      • With increasing population support services were needed for the immigrants
        • Transportation
        • Provision of daily necessities
          • Medicine
          • Cloth
          • Snacks
      • Merchants opened shops that catered to these needs
        • Created employment for the immigrants who came
    • 43.  
    • 44.  
    • 45.  
    • 46.  
    • 47.  
    • 48.
      • Coolies
      • Large number of Chinese came as unskilled labour
        • Worked at docks and construction sites
      • They were called coolies
      • Some of the Indians also worked as coolies
        • Carried cargoes at the docks
    • 49.  
    • 50.  
    • 51.  
    • 52.  
    • 53.  
    • 54. The Indians
    • 55.
      • The Indians were successful in the areas of banking and transportation
      • They held the monopoly of transportation in Singapore until the 1860s
    • 56.  
    • 57. The Malays
    • 58.
      • The Malays mostly provided basic necessities like firewood and foodstuff
      • They became gardeners and huntsmen
      • Some were skilled shipbuilders
        • Made ships and boats for the Malay traders to ferry their goods to neighbouring islands
    • 59.
      • Many of these immigrants worked very hard
      • Some succeeded in fulfilling their dreams
      • Some did not and lived in poverty and hardship till death
    • 60. What Social Impact Did The Immigrants have on Singapore?
    • 61.
      • The immigrants who came were very poor .
      • They suffered from diseases like malaria, cholera, typhoid, smallpox and tuberculosis.
        • Many of them were lying on the road with sores on their bodies, too weak to move.
        • When they died, their bodies were left on the roads.
    • 62.  
    • 63.
      • This became a disgrace for Singapore
      • The Europeans who came felt it was a disgrace for so many beggars to be around in a place controlled by Europeans.
      • WHY?
    • 64.
      • Motivated by the need to help their less fortunate countrymen, people from the various races came forward to provide social services like hospitals and schools
        • Especially the more successful businessmen
    • 65.
      • Tan Tock Seng and Syed Mohamed bin Alsagoff are examples of such philanthropists .
        • Spent large sums of money on providing medical services and amenities like water wells for their community
        • Spent money to ensure the poor had proper burials
    • 66.
      • The establishment of the Paupers’ Hospital on Pearl’s Hill in 1844 and the Thong chai Medical institution in 1867
        • Examples of care shown by the rich businessmen for the less fortunate
      • Their acts of philanthropy made life less miserable for the immigrants.
    • 67.
      • Christian missionaries from Europe and America came and set up schools
      • One of the earliest schools started by an English lady missionary as a home for young Chinese girls rescued by the police before they could be sold off as slaves
        • Later became St. Margaret’s School
    • 68.
      • Another growing concern was the widespread of crime in the settlement
        • Abuse of coolies, slave trade, secret societies, prostitution and opium smoking became rife from the 1850s
    • 69.
      • Despite the social problems, the immigrants played an important ole in making Singapore prosper.
      • How so?

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