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Sec 2 HISTORY chapter 7 part 3 (2010)
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Sec 2 HISTORY chapter 7 part 3 (2010)


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Rendel Constitution and 1955 Elections

Rendel Constitution and 1955 Elections

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  • 1. How did The Local People Respond to British rule After World War II ?
  • 2. Riots in The Early 1950s
    • Social and economic problems after WWII continued into the 1950s.
    • Caused many people to be unhappy with British rule .
  • 3. Riots in the Early 1950s
    • Two riots in the 1950s showed that people in Singapore were getting more and more unhappy with British rule after WWII
      • The Maria Hertogh Riots
      • The Anti-National Service riots
  • 4.  
  • 5. Maria Hertogh Riots
  • 6. Maria Hertogh Riots
    • Born in Java in 1937 to Dutch Catholic parents
    • Parents were imprisoned during the Japanese Occupation
  • 7. Maria Hertogh Riots
    • Maria was taken care care by a Malay woman, Che Aminah and her husband.
    • They brought her up as a Muslim and named her Nadra .
  • 8. Maria Hertogh Riots
    • 1949 – Maria’s mother, Adeline Hertogh wants her daughter back.
    • The case was brought to the High Court in Singapore.
    • Maria Hertogh was placed in the Social Welfare Department .
  • 9. Maria Hertogh Riots
    • May 1950 – the court ruled that Maria be returned to her natural parents.
    • Che Aminah sent an appeal to change the court decision.
    • Two months later , Che’s Aminah’s appeal was successful
      • Maria was ruled by court to be given back to Che Aminah
  • 10. Maria Hertogh Riots
    • Under Che Aminah’s care, Maria was married to a Malay teacher, Mansoor Adabi.
    • She was only 13 years old.
  • 11. Maria Hertogh Riots
    • November 1950, the battle for custody continued.
    • The court ruled that Maria should be returned to her natural parents.
      • The Dutch law did not recognize Maria’s marriage as she was under-aged
      • was not given consent by her natural father .
  • 12. Maria Hertogh Riots
    • This upset the Muslim community as they felt that Muslim law was not respected .
    • Meanwhile, the court placed Maria in a Catholic convent in Thomson Road  worst mistake
  • 13. Maria Hertogh Riots
    • Maria Hertogh in the convent
      • Press was not banned from the grounds
      • Published controversial pictures of Maria Hertogh in the newspapers showing Maria surrounded by symbols of the Christian faith
      • Deeply offended the Muslim community
  • 14. Maria Hertogh Riots
    • Che Aminah appealed again for the custody of Maria Hertogh.
    • 11 December 1950 – the court rejected the appeal within 5 minutes.
    • The large crowd that gathered to hear the verdict at Padang started to riot.
  • 15. Maria Hertogh Riots
    • WHY?
      • Felt betrayed as they thought the British were taking sides with the Dutch
      • Any European and Eurasian in sight was attacked.
      • Cars were overturned and burnt
      • Serious rioting happened around the area of Sultan Mosque, North Bridge and Jalan Besar Roads.
  • 16. Maria Hertogh Riots
    • The riots continued for 3 days and a curfew was imposed for two weeks.
    • Troops were called in to help maintain law and order.
    • The situation was under control by the 3 rd day.
  • 17. About 18 people were killed and 173 were injured during the riot
  • 18. Anti-National Service Riots, 1954
  • 19. Anti-National Service Riots
    • Started by the Chinese-educated students when the government introduced National Service.
    • The National Service Ordinance – all males between 18 and 20 to register by May 1954 for National Service
    • Otherwise, they will be jailed or fined.
  • 20. Anti-National Service Riots
    • Secondary students from Chinese schools do not like the National Service
      • Traditional Chinese belief holds that ‘Good men should never be soldiers’.
      • The students were 20 years old and above as their education had been disrupted by the war
      • Not willing to defend the colonial government which ignored the Chinese students’ interests.
  • 21. Anti-National Service Riots
    • Very few students from Chung Cheng High School and Chinese High School turned up for the 1 st day of registration.
    • 13 May 1954 – more than one thousand students gathered in front of the Government House to present their petition to the Governor.
    • The peaceful demonstration turned into a riot when police were called in to break up the crown.
      • The police and students clashed
  • 22. About 26 people were injured and 48 students were arrested .
  • 23. What Was the Response of the Local People to the Rendel Constitution
  • 24. Rendel Constitution
    • The riots in the early 1950s  a reflection of the discontentment of the local people
    • 1953 – British decided to grant more political power to the local people to win their hearts and minds.
  • 25. Rendel Constitution
    • July 1953 – commission led by a British diplomat, Sir George Rendel was formed to recommend changes to the constitution.
    • The Rendel Constitution recommended limited self-government for Singapore.
      • Certain powers of the government be given to local leaders who were elected by the people
  • 26. Rendel Constitution
    • Limited self-government
      • Certain less important areas of government would be controlled by local representatives
        • Housing
        • Health
        • Trade and industry
        • education
  • 27. Rendel Constitution
    • Areas of Government under nominated British ministers
      • Internal Security
      • External Defence
      • Law
      • Finance
      • External Affairs
  • 28. Rendel Constitution
    • Areas of Government under nominated British ministers
      • Internal Security
      • External Defence
      • Law
      • Finance
      • External Affairs
    • The British gave the local people more power in 1955 but they were still not prepared to give up all their powers.
  • 29. Rendel Constitution
    • Rendel Constitution was an important step to self-government in Singapore
      • More political activity in Singapore with the prospect of elections under the new Constitution
      • More political parties emerged
        • Labour Front (LF)
        • People’s Action Party (PAP)
  • 30. 1955 Election
    • 1955 Election
      • Exciting event
      • 79 candidates contested for 25 elected seats in the Legislative Assembly
      • People were more interested in the election
        • Greater degree of self-government promised
        • Greater number of political parties represented
        • Number of eligible voters increased
  • 31. 1955 Election
    • 1955 Election
      • The different parties worked hard to stir up public’s interest in the election and to win votes
        • Made house-to-house visitis
        • Distributed newspapers and pamphlets
        • Organised rallies
        • Gave speeches
  • 32. 1955 Election
    • 1955 Election
      • Election campaign focused mainly on anti-colonialism
      • The two parties, LF and PAP, targeted the support of the large majority of Chinese-speaking people
        • Unlike the SPP
        • Made people believed they could end British rule in Singapore
  • 33. 1955 Election
    • 1955 Election
      • 160, 000 people turned up to vote on polling day.
      • The LF was the biggest winner, winning 10 out of 25 seats
        • Impressed many Singaporeans because of its strong anti-colonial stand
        • Charismatic leadership of David Marshall
      • David Marshall, the leader of LF, became Singapore’s first Chief Minister
  • 34. 1955 Election 1955 ELECTION RESULTS PARTIES RESULTS Labour Front 10 seats Singapore Progressive Party 4 seats Alliance Party 3 seats People’s Action Party 3 seats Democrats 2 seats Independents 3 seats
  • 35. 1955 Election
    • 1955 Election
      • PAP which fielded 4 candidates won three seats in the election
        • Goh Chew Chua
        • Lim Chin Siong
        • Lee Kuan Yew
  • 36. 1955 Election
    • Outcome of the 1955 election showed that politics in Singapore had changed
      • British expected SPP to win the election
      • Instead people voted for political parties that were strongly anti-British rule.
      • The majority of the people who were working-class Chinese had shown that they were unhappy with British rule
        • Did not vote for political parties that were pro-British and conservative