What is Genetics Genetics is the scientific study of heredity. Heredity is what makes each species unique.
Gregor Mendel Austrian Monk Famous for his work with pea plants He is known as the father of genetics
Mendel’s Work Mendel used true-breeding plants which means if they were left to breed with themselves they would produce offspring identical to themselves. Mendel studied 7 different traits in pea plants. A trait is a specific characteristic that varies from one individual to another.
The Principle of Dominance The principle of dominance states that some alleles are dominant and others are recessive. Dominant alleles are always expressed. Recessive alleles are only expressed if both alleles are recessive.
Probability & Genetics Probability is the likelihood that an event will happen. The principle of probability can be used to predict the outcomes of genetic crosses.
Punnett Squares Diagram used to predict genetic crosses. Individuals with identical alleles are called homozygous Individuals with different alleles are called heterozygous Phenotype – physical characteristic Genotype – genetic makeup
Mendel’s Principles The inheritance of biological characteristics are determined by genes. For two or more forms of a gene, dominance and recessive forms may exist. Most sexually reproductive organisms have two sets of genes that separate during gamete formation. Alleles segregate independently.