Shared awareness among individuals about who knows what is called transactive memory
70% keeps knowledge within small circle
Does your organization know, what the organization knows??
Receiving reciprocal benefits and gaining status lead to positive atitudes and intentions towards knowledge sharingHowever, organizational rewards did not have a positive influence
Gepubliceerd op : dinsdag, 25 mei 2010 - 15:57 Door: Omroep West DEN HAAG - De oudste bewaard gebleven krant van Nederland is tijdelijk te zien in Den Haag. De 'Courante uyt Italien, Duytslandt &C' van juni 1618 is sinds dinsdag te bewonderen in de Koninklijke Bibliotheek. 1e uitzendingen Nederland 1 in 1951
This Internet Timeline begins in 1962, before the word ‘Internet’ is invented. The world’s 10,000 computers are primitive, although they cost hundreds of thousands of dollars. They have only a few thousand words of magnetic core memory, and programming them is far from easy. Domestically, data communication over the phone lines is an AT&T monopoly. The ‘Picturephone’ of 1939, shown again at the New York World’s Fair in 1964, is still AT&T’s answer to the future of worldwide communications. But the four-year old Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) of the U.S. Department of Defense, a future-oriented funder of ‘high-risk, high-gain’ research, lays the groundwork for what becomes the ARPANET and, much later, the Internet.By 1992, when this timeline ends,the Internet has one million hosts the ARPANET has ceased to exist computers are nine orders of magnitude faster network bandwidth is twenty million times greater.
Besides the 33% of non-users, users can be divided into four groups. The Inactives have registered but hardly use the network (19%); the Joiners occasionally read and write a posts (14%); Collectors read many posts and respond now and then (31%); while the Creators initiate and engage in discussions often (3%).
Social networking sites, medium media richness, both text-based communication and sharing of videos, pictures and other media
Inholland 56% teaching staff and 44% non-teaching staff, so non-teaching staff slightly overpresented
Twitter: nr of followers, and nr of people I followFor friends I took nr of followers, usually you follow back
Quote “Enterprise 2.0 is the use of emergent social software platforms within companies, or between companies and their partners or customers.” Andrew McAfee, Associate Professor, Harvard Business School
CRITICAL BUNCH THAT IS NOT AFRAID TO BE CRITICISEDSET1 SM help my careerSET2r SM don't cost me too much time SET3r SM don't cost me too much troubleSET4 SM use is good for my reputation SET5 SM use brings me much valuable knowledgeSET6r SM rather share knowledge, don't expect criticism N Valid 284 284 284 284 284 284 Missing 0 0 0 0 0 0 Mean 3,39 4,05 4,49 3,48 3,88 5,24 Median 4,00 4,00 5,00 4,00 4,00 5,00 Mode 4 4 7 4 4 7 Std. Deviation 1,847 1,993 2,024 1,778 1,846 1,645
In the end only when people are driven and motivated to participate, networks work.
MOT1 I naturally share information on strategy and methods MOT2 I share information on strategies that did not work well MOT3 I go out of my way to help others with a problem or question MOT4 I help without being asked MOT5 I respond quickly to co-workers e-mails MOT6 I send detailed e-mails to co-workers N Valid 284 284 284 284 284 284 Missing 0 0 0 0 0 0 Mean 5,31 5,13 5,56 4,91 5,89 5,05 Median 6,00 5,00 6,00 5,00 6,00 5,00 Mode 6 6 6 5 7 6 Std. Deviation 1,521 1,562 1,348 1,394 1,204 1,411
Sabel Online 2011
Former CEO of Hewlett Packard Transactive memory system (TMS) is a set of individual memory systems in combination with the communication that takes place between individuals. (Wegner)
TM01 I can find information when I need it laterTMT1 To find information I use traditional mediaTMS1 To find information I use Social MediaTM02 I know who to ask certain questionsTMS2 Looking for an expert, I search Social MediaTMT2 Looking for an expert, I ask around personally N Valid 284 284 284 284 284 284 Missing 0 0 0 0 0 0 Mean 5,37 4,93 3,31 5,16 2,75 5,13 Median 6,00 5,00 3,00 5,00 2,00 5,00 Mode 6 6 1 6 1 6 Std. Deviation 1,186 1,405 1,854 1,273 1,740 1,355
“I feel at home at Inholland” 5,36 avarage (on scale from 1 till 7)
Building systems while ignoring media people use every day would be expensive and non-effectiveMedia for professional use used to find info and experts Yammer still small, but importance growing
1. Knowledge sharing• 2/3 of professionals keep knowledge close by• Quarter does not share at all
2. One big brain“If HP knewwhat HPknows, wewould bethree times asprofitable”Lew Platt, former CEOHewlett Packard
3. Not breaking the circle...... means redudancy ofideas!‘the strenght of weakties’ lies in diversity ofideas from differentgroups
5. QuestionIf you consider your organization to be one bigbrain, how big is the part you have access to?
6. Answers from the pastBuilding IT systemsUnified theory ofAcceptance and Use ofTechnology frameworkOffering rewardsDid not work either
7. Internet• Dutch people over 31hours per month on theinternet• 25% above EU average• Part of population usinginternet is 88,6%
8. Was not always so...• Oldest newspaper 1618• More newspapers 20thcentury, start TV 1951Information gatheringwatersnoodramp 1953
9. How did you gather information on9/11 Capture of Khadaffi
10. How did I gather information on9/11telephone, televisionCapture of KhadaffiTwitter, web
11. Power of communication• Internet broke through 15years ago• Wide audience couldgather information• Users responded, posedquestions, answered• Unknown people becameexperts• Power of communicationshifted to the public
12. Where is everyone?
13. Social Networks• Around 2005 blogs• Dialogue from, with, to,between all• People shareexperiences, we all havebecome news• Positive & complaints• Personal & business
14. Social Media NLUpdate 2012• Hyves 66%• Facebook 39%• LinkedIn 17%• Twitter 17%(August 2010)
15. How active are you?• Non-users 33%• Inactives 19%• Joiners 14%• Collectors 31%• Creators 3%
16. What makes users participate?• 3 dimensions relate toSocial Mediause, positively ornegativelyOpenness toexperiencesExtroversionEmotional stability
17. Age• Extraversion predictsyoung adults’ use ofSocial Media• Openness to newexperiences predictorfor older people
18. Gender• Extroversion leads tomore Social Media usefor men and women• Only more instable menmore regular users
19. Forms of social media• Wiki’s: platforms toshare knowledge andideas• Social network sites:connect with otherpeople online
21. Share with your neighbourWhat social media are you active on?
22. Media richness & self-disclosure
23. Respondents• 412 (13% of the 3.026employees)• 69% completed survey:284 participants (9%)• 46% male (Inh. 44%)• 54% female (Inh. 56%)
24. Generation87% 13%• Age range between65 and 20 years old• Average age 46• Generation X, digitalnon natives, < 1980• Generation Y, digitalnatives, > 1980
25. Employment years• Mean 9,4• Std. Deviation 8,0• Minimum 0• Maximum 40
26. Inholland56% teaching staff44% non-teaching
27. DomainsDomain Participants InhollandCommunication, Media, and Music 16,5% (+ 2,4%) 14,1%Health, Sports, and Social Work 14,4% (- 4,2%) 18,6%Management, Finance, and Law 11,3% (- 3,5%) 14,9%Marketing, Tourism, Leisure Management 13,7% (+ 3,1%) 10,6%Education, Philosophy of Life 11,6% (- 0,9%) 12,5%Technique, Design and Information Techn. 7,4% (+ 1,5%) 5,9%Unit Agriculture 2,1% (- 0,1%) 2,2%Inholland Main organization 22,9% (+1,6%) 21,3%
28. Grade yourselfWhat grades do yougive yourself?Knowledge sharerSocial media userBe honest!
29. Grades• My job: 8• Knowledge sharer: 7• Social Media user: 5
30. Inholland users on social mediaFriendsM = 86 64 125 47/58 17/24SD = 106 90 137 102/114 42/73min = 0 0 0 0/0 0/0max = 700 365 800 700/650 251/489Inholland employees have 339 friends / relations onsocial networks on average – overlaps possible.
31. Social Media in the workplace• Boundaries betweenprivate and businessblurring, emergence of“Enterprise 2.0”• Social Media duringwork hours allowed by87% of all organizations• Rules or “codes ofconduct” by 63%
32. Internal use of Social Media• 42% of companies useSocial Mediainternally, but withoutdirection• 17% fully integrated• 28% plans for future• 13% no Social Media atall and no plans
33. Advantages of Social Media useProfessionals:• Increase network• Gather informationOrganizations:• Marketing• Relationship building• Knowledge sharingwithin the company
34. Professionals• Use Social Media toshare information, posequestions, give answers• Positions as expert• Gives network boost• Social media supports:co-operation 26%finding people 65%sharing knowledge 77%networking 81%
35. Advantages for Inholland professionals
36. Costs for Inholland professionals
37. Summing up: “Social Media....”• Help my career• Good for my reputation• Brings me valuableknowledge• Don’t cost too much time• Don’t cost too much trouble• Rather share knowledge,don’t expect criticismSlightly disagreeSlightly disagreeSlightly disagreeNeutralNeutralSlightly agree
39. How about knowledge sharing?Virtual communitieswithout rich knowledgeare of limitedvalue, content is king!Sharing isnatural, knowledgesharing withinorganizations iscomplex.
40. Will tools do the trick?Companies facilitateinternal communicationwith IT, intranets andmore, and have a corethat is Social Media.But... It’s easier to givecommunities tools, thantools communities.
41. Motivations to share• I naturally share info onstrategy and methods• I share info on strategies thatdid not work well• I go out of my way to helpothers with a problem• I help without being asked• I respond quickly to e-mails• I send detailed e-mailsSlightly agreeSlightly agreeAgreeSlightly agreeAgreeSligtly agree
42. TrendCommunicationprofessionalsconsider the increaseof sharingexperiences, knowledge and informationthrough SocialMedia the mostimportant trend toanticipate.
43. Shared awareness who knows whatIf HP knew what HPknows, we would be threetimes as profitable. – LewPlattSharing alone notenough, knowledge has tobe applied. Who knowswhat? Can be improvedwith informationtechnology.
44. Transactive Memory of Inholland• I can find info and knowwho to ask questions• To find info or expertI use traditional media• To find info or expertI use Social MediaOftenOftenSometimes
45. Hypotheses (or assumptions)
46. What do you expect?Will social media use have positiveeffect on knowledge sharing?
47. BenefitsThe more benefitsoutweigh thecosts of socialmedia use, themore people usesocial mediaactively
48. InformationThe more peopleuse social media,measured by theactivity andnumber ofcontacts, the moreoften people findinformation(only: reading LinkedInupdates & co-workercontacts on LinkedIn)
49. Finding expertsThe more peopleuse socialmedia, measuredby the activity andnumber ofcontacts, the moreoften people findexperts(only: co-worker contactson LinkedIn)
50. Weak tiesThe more peopleuse social media,measured bycontact intensity,the moreknowledge isbeing shared withweak ties(contacts with externalprofessionals)
52. Tacit informationThe more peopleuse social media,measured bycontent creation,the more tacitknowledge peopleshare(main effect ‘creatingprofessional content’)
53. Better knowledge workerImproving transactivememory, sharingwith weak ties, andsharing tacitknowledge, ispositively related toperformance asknowledge worker(effects of TransactiveMemory and SharingTacit Knowledge)
54. SoUsing social media is good forknowledge sharing. Now what?
55. Fish where the fish areDon’t ignore the professional media people useevery day
56. Benefits vs costsUse of social media driven by making up balanceDecreasing time and trouble (costs) willencourage social media use
57. How?Make it easy!Integrate social media onplatform of organizationSupport inexperiencedpeopleOffer trainings
58. QuestionAre social media integrated on the platform ofyour organization? Any plans?
59. Cherish your expertiseWant to bring knowledge to the workplace?Do not first look to outside professionals,with help of social mediaexperts can be found inside the organization
60. Increase tacit knowledge sharingStimulate people toshare professionalknowledgefor examplethrough(micro) blogs
61. Differences between generationsTake them into account
62. Value all members,learn from each otherBabyboomers bestknowledge workersDigital natives good socialmedia users
63. Please use my data and share alike
64. email@example.com misscomm
65. Discussion with a drinkHandouts at the exitFace-to-face will never die (also be social offline)Offer your expertise to a strangerStay in touch through LinkedIn or YammerHow can you contribute to sharing knowledgeusing social media in the workplace?