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Phylum Chordata - Class Reptilia, Aves, and Mammalia
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Phylum Chordata - Class Reptilia, Aves, and Mammalia



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  • 1. Reptiles, Birds, and Mammals are Amniotes Have a membranous sac called the amnion that surrounds & protects the embryo
  • 2. Three characteristics of amniotes decrease their dependency on water 1. Amniotic egg – waterproof egg with a covering – inside the egg is a fluid-filled cavity in which the embryo develops
  • 3. 2. Internal fertilization – male deposits sperm within the reproductive system 3. Water-tight skin – made out of a protein called keratin ; prevents dehydration & acts as a barrier May be hair, nails, scales, or feathers
  • 4. Endotherm Ectotherm -”regulator” -”conformer” -temperature stays constant -temperature changes with -birds, mammals external environment -reptiles, amphibians, fish
  • 5. Reptiles (Class Reptilia)‏ Turtles, lizards, snakes, crocodiles, alligators Water-tight skin is made out of scales – hard, overlapping layers of protein Scales cannot expand, so to grow bigger a reptile must molt Most lay eggs, but some give birth to live young
  • 6.  
  • 7. Birds (Class Aves) are endothermic amniotes with specialized adaptations for flight Evolved from small dinosaurs
  • 8. Because birds are endotherms, they lay eggs that must be kept warm by brooding Song Sparrow brood patch
  • 9. Special adaptations for flight: 1. Wing shape – produces lift for flight
  • 10. 2. Feathers – modified scales – function in flight, waterproofing, and endothermy
  • 11. 3. Air sacs – function with lungs in respiration – needed to meet intense oxygen demands for flight – reduces body density (makes it lighter for flight)‏
  • 12. 4. Honeycombed bones makes lighter Bird bone (much lighter)‏ Human bone
  • 13. 5. No teeth to reduce weight of head -instead they have a gizzard , a muscular organ that grinds food
  • 14. Structure fits Function – Beak Shape
  • 15. Arguably the Most Exquisitely Evolved Mating Behaviors Belong to Class Aves
  • 16.