Objectives in Self-Learning Materials
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Objectives in Self-Learning Materials

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2k50515: A telecon presentation for the students of PGD in Higher Education

2k50515: A telecon presentation for the students of PGD in Higher Education

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Objectives in Self-Learning Materials Objectives in Self-Learning Materials Presentation Transcript

  • Formulation of Objectives Sanjaya Mishra
  • Overview
    • What are objectives?
    • Conceptual developments
    • Writing objectives
    • Why should you use objectives?
  • What are objectives?
    • Dictionary meaning: aim, goal and intention
    • It is an aid to the learners as well as to the teacher
    • It helps in planning the lesson
    • It also helps in identification of appropriate activities, methods and techniques
    • It helps in assessment of learner performance, and then provide feedback on learning/ teaching
    • Objectives are defined as what the students should be able to do following instuction
  • Anecdote Person A : Where does this road goes? Person B : Where do you want to go? Person A : I don’t know. Person B : Then it does not matter, where this road goes. Moral : If you don’t know where you are going, then you will reach no where.
  • Conceptual developments
    • Educational objectives
    • Bloom’s taxonomy
    • Mager’s instructional objectives
    • Behavioural objectives
    • Learning outcomes
  • Educational objectives
    • Change in behaviours that an educational institution seeks to bring in its students
    • Taylor, 1948
  • Blooms’ taxonomy (1956)
    • Primarily for assessment of student performance
    • Knowledge-Understanding-Application-Analysis-Synthesis-Evaluation
  • Instructional Objectives (1962)
    • Unambiguous action verbs, conditions and standards
    • Though instruction is used, Mager believed objectives to be what the students should be able to do at the end of instruction
  • Behavioural Objectives
    • Excess emphasis on the use of action verbs and behavioual objectives led to this phrase
    • Duchastel and Merrill (1973) said behavioural objectives serve three functions: direction for teaching and curriculum development, guidance in evaluation, and facilitation of learning
  • Learning Outcomes
    • Personal outcomes: interpersonal skills, teamwork
    • Learning objectives: subject centred, but not necessarily behavioural
    • Generic outcomes: critical thinking, analysis, synthesizing
  • Objectives and Knowledge Domain Affective Receiving Responding Valuing Organization Value concept Psychomotor Perception Set Guided response Mechanisms Complex overt response Adaption Origination Cognitive Knowledge Comprehension Application Analysis Synthesis Evaluation
  • Revised Bloom’s Taxonomy
    • Originally one-dimensional
    • Now in 2-dimensions:
    • Knowledge dimension
    • Cognitive process dimension
  • Remember Apply Understand Analyze Evaluate Create Factual Conceptual Procedural Meta-cognitive
  • Writing objectives
    • Performance : use action verbs
    • Conditions : circumstances under which the students are expected to perform
    • Standard : criterion that defines acceptable performance.
  • Performance
    • The learner will be able to define…
    • The learner will be able to identify the components…
    • The learner will be able to determine the kind of nutrients…
  • Condition
    • Given a list of examples…
    • Given a list of terms…
    • While in the laboratory…
    • Using a soil sample kit…
    • After observing a videotape…
  • Standard
    • … accurate to the nearest tenth
    • … according to the steps listed in the manual
    • … within twenty minutes
    • … at the rate of 100 per hour
    • … without any errors
  • Example
    • Given a list of generic drugs, the learner will be able to identify the antibiotics with 95% accuracy.
  • Criticism
    • Objectives are written at a minimum acceptable standard
  • Criticism
    • Objectives dehumanize by focusing on requirements and not on students
  • Criticism
    • It takes time, and teachers’ workload are unrealistic
  • Criticism
    • Objectives are difficult to set for affective domain
  • Criticism
    • Objectives ‘lock’ the curriculum and are not flexible
  • Criticism
    • It sets the tone of “teach and test”
  • Criticism
    • Objectives stop creativity
  • Criticism
    • It is not useful to the teachers in colleges
  • ABCD of objectives
    • A udience
    • B ehaviour
    • C onditions
    • D egree of performance
  • Objectives should be SMART
    • S pecific
    • M easurable
    • A chievable
    • R ealistic
    • T ime-bound