CHAPTER 1
Ecology And
Environment
Yogesh, Hiren, Missam Mechanical Dept. LJ Polytechnic
Ecology And Environment
Importance of environment and scope
The science of Environment studies is a multi-disciplinary
sc...
Ecology And Environment
Importance of environment and scope
Lithosphere: Lithosphere is the outer mantle of the solid
ear...
Ecology And Environment
Composition of Atmosphere
Nitrogen - 78%
Oxygen - 21%
Water Vapor – 0 to 4%
Carbon Dioxide - ....
Ecology And Environment
Atmospheric Layers
Yogesh,Hiren,Missam Mechanical. LJ Polytechnic
8 layers are defined by constant...
Ecology And Environment
Atmospheric Layers
Yogesh,Hiren,Missam Mechanical. LJ Polytechnic
Tropopause :
Separates Troposphe...
Ecology And Environment
Atmospheric Layers
Yogesh,Hiren,Missam Mechanical. LJ Polytechnic
Stratosphere
Temperature inversi...
Ecology And Environment
Atmospheric Layers
Yogesh,Hiren,Missam Mechanical. LJ Polytechnic
Mesosphere
Middle atmosphere – A...
Ecology And Environment
Atmospheric Layers
Yogesh,Hiren,Missam Mechanical. LJ Polytechnic
Thermosphere
“Hot layer” – oxyge...
Ecology And Environment
Atmospheric Mixture & Charge
Yogesh,Hiren,Missam Mechanical. LJ Polytechnic
Additional layers
incl...
Ecology And Environment
The Hydrosphere
Yogesh,Hiren,Missam Mechanical. LJ Polytechnic
Water on Earth is a unique feature...
Ecology And Environment
The Hydrosphere
Yogesh,Hiren,Missam Mechanical. LJ Polytechnic
IF* Approximately
70% of the
Earth'...
Ecology And Environment
Lithosphere
Yogesh,Hiren,Missam Mechanical. LJ Polytechnic
 Plants and vegetation are included in...
Ecology And Environment
Biosphere
Yogesh,Hiren,Missam Mechanical. LJ Polytechnic
 It is part consisting lithosphere, hydr...
Ecology And Environment
Green House Effect
Yogesh,Hiren,Missam Mechanical. LJ Polytechnic
Ecology And Environment
Green House Effect
Yogesh,Hiren,Missam Mechanical. LJ Polytechnic
Ecology And Environment
Green House Effect
Yogesh,Hiren,Missam Mechanical. LJ Polytechnic
Ecology And Environment
Green House Effect
Yogesh,Hiren,Missam Mechanical. LJ Polytechnic
Ecology And Environment
Deforestation
Yogesh,Hiren,Missam Mechanical. LJ Polytechnic
The forest cover is rapidly destroye...
Ecology And Environment
DEFINITION OF POLLUTION
Yogesh,Hiren,Missam Mechanical. LJ Polytechnic
When Harmful Substances Co...
Ecology And Environment
Acid Rain
Yogesh,Hiren,Missam Mechanical. LJ Polytechnic
Ecology And Environment
Acid Rain
Yogesh,Hiren,Missam Mechanical. LJ Polytechnic
Ecology And Environment
Acid Rain
Yogesh,Hiren,Missam Mechanical. LJ Polytechnic
Ecology And Environment
Acid Rain
Yogesh,Hiren,Missam Mechanical. LJ Polytechnic
Ecology And Environment
Food Chain
Yogesh,Hiren,Missam Mechanical. LJ Polytechnic
Ecology And Environment
Food Chain
Yogesh,Hiren,Missam Mechanical. LJ Polytechnic
 The energy flow from one organism to t...
Ecology And Environment
Food Web
Yogesh,Hiren,Missam Mechanical. LJ Polytechnic
Most organisms eat more the JUST one orga...
Ecology And Environment
Food Web
Yogesh,Hiren,Missam Mechanical. LJ Polytechnic
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ECOLOGY & ENVIRONMENT

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ECOLOGY & ENVIRONMENT

  1. 1. CHAPTER 1 Ecology And Environment Yogesh, Hiren, Missam Mechanical Dept. LJ Polytechnic
  2. 2. Ecology And Environment Importance of environment and scope The science of Environment studies is a multi-disciplinary science because it comprises various branches of studies like chemistry, physics, medical science, life science, agriculture, public health, sanitary engineering etc. It is the science of physical phenomena in the environment. Scope of Environment : Atmosphere: The atmosphere implies the protective blanket of gases, Hydrosphere: The Hydrosphere comprises all types of water resources oceans, seas, lakes, rivers, streams, reservoir, polar icecaps, glaciers, and ground Yogesh,Hiren,Missam Mechanical. LJ Polytechnic
  3. 3. Ecology And Environment Importance of environment and scope Lithosphere: Lithosphere is the outer mantle of the solid earth. It consists of minerals occurring in the earth’s crusts and the soil e.g. minerals, organic matter, air and water Biosphere: Biosphere indicates the real of living organisms and their interactions with environment, e.g. atmosphere, hydrosphere and lithosphere Yogesh,Hiren,Missam Mechanical. LJ Polytechnic
  4. 4. Ecology And Environment Composition of Atmosphere Nitrogen - 78% Oxygen - 21% Water Vapor – 0 to 4% Carbon Dioxide - .037% Other gases make up the rest Yogesh,Hiren,Missam Mechanical. LJ Polytechnic
  5. 5. Ecology And Environment Atmospheric Layers Yogesh,Hiren,Missam Mechanical. LJ Polytechnic 8 layers are defined by constant trends in average air temperature (which changes with pressure and radiation), where the outer exosphere is not shown. 1. Troposphere 2. Tropopause 3. Stratosphere 4. Stratopause 5. Mesosphere 6. Mesopause 7. Thermosphere 8. Exosphere
  6. 6. Ecology And Environment Atmospheric Layers Yogesh,Hiren,Missam Mechanical. LJ Polytechnic Tropopause : Separates Troposphere from Stratosphere. Generally higher in summer Lower in winter. Troposphere : Temp decrease with height Most of our weather occurs in this layer Varies in height around the globe, but Averages about 11 km in height.
  7. 7. Ecology And Environment Atmospheric Layers Yogesh,Hiren,Missam Mechanical. LJ Polytechnic Stratosphere Temperature inversion in stratosphere Ozone plays a major part in heating the air At this altitude
  8. 8. Ecology And Environment Atmospheric Layers Yogesh,Hiren,Missam Mechanical. LJ Polytechnic Mesosphere Middle atmosphere – Air thin, pressure low, Need oxygen to live in this region. Air quite Cold -90°C (130°F) near the top of mesosphere
  9. 9. Ecology And Environment Atmospheric Layers Yogesh,Hiren,Missam Mechanical. LJ Polytechnic Thermosphere “Hot layer” – oxygen molecules absorb energy from solar Rays warming the air. Very few atoms and molecules in this Region.
  10. 10. Ecology And Environment Atmospheric Mixture & Charge Yogesh,Hiren,Missam Mechanical. LJ Polytechnic Additional layers include: a) the homosphere with 78% nitrogen and 21% oxygen b) the poorly mixed heterosphere c) the electrically charged ionosphere
  11. 11. Ecology And Environment The Hydrosphere Yogesh,Hiren,Missam Mechanical. LJ Polytechnic Water on Earth is a unique feature that clergy distinguishes our "Blue Planet" from others in the solar system. Not a drop of liquid water can be found anywhere else in the solar system. Earth has just the right mass, the right chemical composition, the right atmosphere, and is the right distance from the Sun that permits water to exist mainly as a liquid.  Water is the universal solvent and the basis of all life on our Planet.
  12. 12. Ecology And Environment The Hydrosphere Yogesh,Hiren,Missam Mechanical. LJ Polytechnic IF* Approximately 70% of the Earth's surface is water 30% of the Earth's surface is Percentage of Earth's land Surface Covered by Water
  13. 13. Ecology And Environment Lithosphere Yogesh,Hiren,Missam Mechanical. LJ Polytechnic  Plants and vegetation are included in lithosphere.  This crust contains minerals organic and inorganic matter and some extent water and air.  Soil texture like fine, granular depend on the qualitative composition of soil particle size in the soil mass.  Soil particles may be subdivided as sand, silt & clay.  Soil classification is done on amount of various types of soil particles present in given soil mass.  The arrangement of soil particles into aggregates is identified as soil structure.
  14. 14. Ecology And Environment Biosphere Yogesh,Hiren,Missam Mechanical. LJ Polytechnic  It is part consisting lithosphere, hydrosphere and atmosphere where organisms live and interact with one another.  Life live in biosphere.  The lives are also available in biosphere.  Community of organism and its total environmental acting as an ecological unit is known as an ecosphere.  These ecosphere are collectively known as biomes.
  15. 15. Ecology And Environment Green House Effect Yogesh,Hiren,Missam Mechanical. LJ Polytechnic
  16. 16. Ecology And Environment Green House Effect Yogesh,Hiren,Missam Mechanical. LJ Polytechnic
  17. 17. Ecology And Environment Green House Effect Yogesh,Hiren,Missam Mechanical. LJ Polytechnic
  18. 18. Ecology And Environment Green House Effect Yogesh,Hiren,Missam Mechanical. LJ Polytechnic
  19. 19. Ecology And Environment Deforestation Yogesh,Hiren,Missam Mechanical. LJ Polytechnic The forest cover is rapidly destroyed due to population explosion urbanization and industrialization. This process of deforestation also adversely affect the forest wealth, wild life, atmospheric changes and enhanced desertification.
  20. 20. Ecology And Environment DEFINITION OF POLLUTION Yogesh,Hiren,Missam Mechanical. LJ Polytechnic When Harmful Substances Contaminate the Environment it is Called Pollution Pollution refers to the very bad condition of Environment in terms of quantity and quality Types of Pollution : Air pollution Water pollution Noise pollution Radio active pollution Land pollution
  21. 21. Ecology And Environment Acid Rain Yogesh,Hiren,Missam Mechanical. LJ Polytechnic
  22. 22. Ecology And Environment Acid Rain Yogesh,Hiren,Missam Mechanical. LJ Polytechnic
  23. 23. Ecology And Environment Acid Rain Yogesh,Hiren,Missam Mechanical. LJ Polytechnic
  24. 24. Ecology And Environment Acid Rain Yogesh,Hiren,Missam Mechanical. LJ Polytechnic
  25. 25. Ecology And Environment Food Chain Yogesh,Hiren,Missam Mechanical. LJ Polytechnic
  26. 26. Ecology And Environment Food Chain Yogesh,Hiren,Missam Mechanical. LJ Polytechnic  The energy flow from one organism to the other is know as a food chain  A food chain is simple and direct  It involves one organizing at each trophic level Primary Consumers — ebautotrophs (producers) - Secondary Consumers — eat the primary consumers — Tertiary Consumers — eat the secondary consumers — Decomposers — bacteria and fungi that break down dead organisms and recycle the material back into the environment
  27. 27. Ecology And Environment Food Web Yogesh,Hiren,Missam Mechanical. LJ Polytechnic Most organisms eat more the JUST one organism When more organism are involved it is know as a FOOD WEB Food webs are more complex and involve lots of organisms
  28. 28. Ecology And Environment Food Web Yogesh,Hiren,Missam Mechanical. LJ Polytechnic
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