A Course to survive Marina`s Classes. Basic Syntax
- Grammar is the study of the rules governing the use of a given natural language, and, as such, is a field of linguistics.
- Traditionally, grammar included
- In modern linguistics these
- subfields are complemented
- by phonetics, phonology, semantics,
- In Linguistics Syntax are the rules of a language that show how the words of that language are to be arranged to make a sentence of that language.
What is Syntax ?
- It is the study of how words are combined together to form sentences.
- The five grammatical units:
- The Sentence: Composed by one 0r more Clauses.
- The Clause: Composed by one 0r more Phrases.
- The Phrase: Composed by one 0r more words.
- The word: Composed by one 0r more morphemes.
- The Morpheme: The smallest unit in form and meaning.
- Classification by structure :
- consists of a single independent Clause with no dependent Clauses.
- consists of multiple independent clauses with no dependent clauses. These clauses are joined together using Conjunctions, punctuation, or both. (and, but, so, etc)
- consists of one or more independent clauses with at least one dependent clause (That, if, whether, etc)
- A compound-complex sentence
Classification of Sentences
- consists of multiple independent clauses, at least one of which has at least one dependent clause. (Coord and subordinators)
Are you ready for a little quiz?
What type of sentence are these? The Inspector abandoned the investigation. Simple sentence!!! Fantastic!
What type of sentence are these? The Inspector abandoned the investigation but I didn’t. Compound Sentence!! Fantastic!
What type of sentence are these? He said that the man was dead. Complex Sentence!! Fantastic!
What type of sentence are these? He said that the man was dead and he abandoned the investigation. Compound-Complex Sentence!! Fantastic!
- According to Syntax the component parts of a sentence are called CONSTITUENTS Which are the natural groupings of a sentence.
- a Grammatical Category (Whether it is a noun phrase, a verb phrase, etc)
- a Grammatical Function (whether it is the subject, or object, or predicate, etc)
- A constituent is formed if…
- 1) Constituents can stand alone
- Ex. “What did you find?” “A puppy” (not “found a”)
- 2) Constituents can be replaced by one word.
- Ex. “Where did you find a puppy ?” “I found HIM in the park.”
- 3) Constituents move together.
- Ex. It was [a puppy] that the child found.
- [A puppy] was found by the child.
Subject Predicate Verb – Auxiliary Verb Direct Object Indirect Object Subjective Complement Objective Complement Quasi-predicative Adverbial Adjunct Real Subject in Extra Position Anticipatory Subject Anticipatory Object Predicator Complement Prepositional Complement Adjectival Complement Noun Phrase Verb Phrase Adjectival Phrase Adverbial Phrase Prepositional Phrase Gerundial Phrase Infinitival Phrase Participial Phrase Noun Clause That Noun Clause If/Whether or not Clause Wh- interrogative Clause Nominal Noun Clauses Defining Relative Clause Non-Defining Relative Clause Functions Categories CONSTITUENTS
- Categories Functioning as Subject:
- A Noun Phrase The Car is White.
- A Gerund Smoking is bad .
- An Infinitive To study Grammar is Fun.
- A Noun Clause What he said is right.
- Verbs can be either Transitive or Intransitive ; and their predication can be either Complete or Incomplete .
- I.V.C.P = S + [ V + (A.A) ]
- T.V.C.P = S + [ V + D.O + (A.A) ]
- BI T.V.C.P = S+ [ V+ D.O . + I.O + (A.A) ]
- T.V.I.P = S + [ V + D.O. + O.C + (A.A)]
The Predicate – The Verb
- I.V.I.P = [V + S.C + (A.A) ]
- Categories that function as S.C :
- An adjective: It was Dark
- A participle: That is interesting
- A prepositional Phrase: It is near London.
- A noun Phrase: This is a book
- A gerundial Phrase: That is cheating!
- A noun Clause: That is what I want
- An Adverbial Phrase: He is out.
- An Infinitival Phrase: To see him is to love him.
- Look,sound, taste, smell, feel
- Lie, Stand, rest, remain, keep
- Dynamic Verbs or Inchoative Verbs:
- To become, to come, to get, to go, to grow, to fall, to run, to turn.
- Has the following characteristics:
- It may become the subject of the passive.
- It answers the question “What”.
- Categories Functioning as D.O:
- A Noun Phrase He has lit a cigarret .
- A Pronoun Don’t hit me .
- A Gerund He loves reading .
- An Infinitive I want to go away .
- A Noun Clause Describe what you saw
- Categories Functioning as I.O :
- A Noun Phrase I gave the beggar a coin
- A Pronoun Give me that.
- A Gerund Give studing a bit of chance.
- A Prepositional Phrase He gave it to me
Indirect Object The person who receives something (D.O) For + NP= Intended I.O I bought a Sweater for John .
- A Noun Clause Give whoever comes this box.
- Categories Functioning as O.C :
- A Noun Phrase We appointed Newton President.
- A Noun Clause We made him what he is.
- A Gerund I call that Cheating .
- An Infinitival Phrase I don`t want anyone to know
- A Prepositional Phrase We left her in tears
- An Adjectival Phrase I found the box empty.
Objective Complement The relation between D.O and the O.C is that of S –P An easy test for O.C I thought her beautiful She (her) is beautiful
- A Participial Phrase I heard my name called
The Predicator Complement
The Agentive Complement
The Quasi Predicative