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1450 1750 overview

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Introduction to the period.

Introduction to the period.


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  • 1. 1450-1750 Global Change
  • 2. I. Changes in Trade, Technology, and Global Interactions
    • The Atlantic Ocean trade eventually led to the crossing of the Pacific Ocean.
    • New maritime technologies made these interactions possible, and global trade patterns changed dramatically.
  • 3. Technological Advancements-Caravel
    • Developed by the Portuguese
    • Deep-draft, round-hulled
    • Capable of carrying heavy armaments
    • Sail fast and into the wind
    • 65 ft long and could carry 130 tons of cargo
  • 4. Technological Advancements-Maritime Tools
    • Compass
      • Invented by Chinese
      • Introduced to Europe by the Arabs
      • Used to find direction
    • Astrolabe
      • Invented by the Arabs
      • Used to determine latitude at sea by using stars
    • Cartography
      • A new science used to assist explorers
      • “ Growing it” becomes an obsession
  • 5. Results: World became smaller as our experiences increased.
  • 6. II. Major Maritime and Gunpowder Empires
    • Major maritime powers
      • Portugal
      • Spain
      • England
      • France
    • Major Gunpowder Empires
      • Ottoman Empire
      • Ming and Qing China
      • The Mughal
      • Russia
      • Tokugawa
      • Songhay (Songhai)
      • Benin.
    Led the world in terms of exploration of the seas. Empires in older civilization areas gained new strength from new technologies in weaponry. Basing their new power on "gunpowder," they still suffered from the old issues that had plagued land-based empires for centuries: defense of borders, communication within the empire, and maintenance of an army adequate to defend the large territory. By the end of the era, many were less powerful than the new sea-based kingdoms of Europe.
  • 7. III. Slave systems and slave trade
    • This was the big era for slave systems and slave trade, with the new European colonies in the Americas relying on slavery very heavily.
    • The slave trade was an important link in the Atlantic Ocean trade.
  • 8. FOUNDATIONS OF THE SLAVE TRADE
    • Slavery common in Iberian society
      • Iberians never had serfdom because slaves were plentiful
      • Iberians tended to enslave Muslims during their wars
      • Iberians knew of Africans, African slaves: they had invaded Iberia
    • Slavery common in traditional Africa
      • Typically war captives, criminals, outcasts
      • Most slaves worked as cultivators
      • Some used as administrators, soldiers
      • Were a measure of power, wealth
      • Assimilated into masters' kinship groups
      • Could earn freedom
      • Children of slaves were free
    • Islamic slave trade well established throughout Africa
      • North African to S. W. Asia Route
      • Indian Ocean Route to S. W. Asia, Persian Gulf
    • Europeans used these existing networks
      • Redirected the slaves to the coast (Atlantic Route)
      • Expanded slave trade through increased demand, high prices
  • 9. PORTUGAL AND AFRICA SET PATTERN
    • Portuguese explore Africa
      • Established factories, trading stations
        • Portuguese not powerful enough to control trade
        • Diseases kept Europeans from penetrating interior
        • Had to work cooperatively with local rulers
        • Mulattos penetrated interior for Portugal
      • Exchanges
        • Portuguese obtained ivory, pepper, skins, gold
        • Africans obtained manufactured goods
        • Portuguese successful because their goods sold
        • Many cultural ideas exchange, images in art
      • Portuguese dominated shipment, demand out of Africa
    • How Portugal dealt with Africans
      • Missionary efforts, Catholicism spread; Ambassadors exchanged
      • Portugal begins to see Africans as savages, heathens, pagans
      • Began with Portuguese attitude towards African Muslims
      • Slavery introduced as Africans seen only as a commodity
        • As slaves became a primary trade commodity, Portugal became greedy
        • Many Africans limited, attempted to limit Portuguese influence
  • 10. HUMAN CARGOES
    • Early slave trade on the Atlantic
      • Started by Portuguese in 1441
      • By 1460 about five hundred slaves/year shipped to Portugal, Spain
      • By 15 TH century slaves shipped to sugar plantations on Atlantic islands
    • American planters needed labor
      • Indians not suited to slavery, most had died out
      • Portuguese planters imported slaves to Brazil, 1530s
      • Slaves to Caribbean, Mexico, Peru, Central America, 1510 - 1520s
      • English colonists brought slaves to North America early 17 TH century
    • Triangular trade
      • All three legs of voyage profitable
      • In Africa, finished goods traded for slaves
      • In Americas, slaves traded for sugar, molasses
      • In Europe, American produce traded
    • At every stage slave trade was brutal
      • Individuals captured in violent raids
      • Forced marched to the coast for transport
      • Middle Passage and First Year
        • Between 25-50 percent died on passage
        • Another 25 percent died first year
  • 11. Results:
  • 12. IMPACT OF THE SLAVE TRADE ON AFRICA
    • Volume of the Atlantic slave trade
        • Increased dramatically after 1600
        • c. 1800 100,000 shipped per year
          • About 12 million brought to Americas
          • Another 4 million died en route
    • Volume of Muslim trade
        • Ten million slaves may have been shipped out of Africa
        • By Islamic slave trade between 8 th and 18 th centuries
    • Social Impact
      • Profound on African societies
        • Impact uneven: some societies spared, some profited
        • Some areas had no population growth, stagnation
        • For generations, many leaders, intellectuals missing
      • Distorted African sex ratios
        • Two-thirds of exported slaves were males
        • Polygamy encouraged, often common
        • Forced women to take on men's duties
      • Gender involved in trades
        • Atlantic Route: men and women
        • Trans-Saharan Route: men only
        • Indian Ocean Route: women and young boys (eunuchs)
    • Political and economic disruption
      • Firearms traded for slaves
        • Led to war and new state formation
        • Fostered conflict and violence between peoples
      • Failed to develop economics, industry, trade beyond slave trade
      • Beginning of a process which impoverished Africa until today
  • 13. IV. Demographic and environmental changes
    • The new trade patterns greatly altered habitats for plants and animals and resulted in changes in human diet and activities as well.
    • Major migrations across the Atlantic Ocean also altered demographic patterns profoundly.
  • 14. Colonial Expansion The Americas: Loosely Controlled Colonies
    • Spain
      • Cortes in Mexico
      • Balboa in Panama
      • Pizarro over the Incas
    • French, Dutch and British
      • Settled on the Atlantic sea board
        • Primarily religious refugees
        • Also gave governmental land grants
      • Also in the West Indies and became involved in the slave trade
  • 15. Colonial Expansion Africa & Asia: Coastal Trading Stations
    • Exception to rule of trading fortresses in Africa
      • Portuguese sent slave expedition into Angola
      • Dutch Cape Colony
    • India
      • French and British fought for control
  • 16. Results:
    • The acquisition of colonies in North and South America led to major changes in labor systems.
      • After many Amerindians died from disease transmitted by contact with Europeans, a vigorous slave trade from Africa began and continued throughout most of the era.
      • Slave labor became very important all over the Americas.
      • Other labor systems, such as the mita and encomienda in South America, were adapted from previous native traditions by the Spanish and Portuguese.
  • 17. Results:
  • 18. V. Cultural and intellectual development
    • This era also was shaped by the European Renaissance, Protestant Reformation, and Enlightenment.
    • Neo-Confucianism grew in influence in China, and new art forms developed in the Mughal Empire in India.
  • 19. Cultural and intellectual development—Europe
    • The Renaissance , or "rebirth" was characterized by an attempt to revive the values of the classical civilizations of the Mediterranean, Greece and Rome.
      • Although most of the major Renaissance figures did not actively defy the church, they put emphasis on other aspects of life than the religious.
      • An important philosophical influence restored from ancient civilizations was humanism, which focused on the accomplishments, characteristics, and capabilities of humans, not of God. Humanism is reflected in Renaissance art, with newly skilled artists showing individual differences in faces and beautiful examples of human physiques.
      • The Renaissance spread from Italy north, and by the 16th century had inspired new art styles in the Netherlands and Germany, as well as such literary geniuses as William Shakespeare in England.
    • The importance of the European Renaissance goes far beyond art and literature because it encouraged people to think in different ways than they had before, a quality that Europeans would need as they ventured in science, technology, and eventually across the Atlantic to the Americas.
  • 20. Cultural and intellectual development—Europe
    • The Catholic Church had been a very important societal force in medieval Europe. Not only had people's lives revolved around religion, but the church had actively defined many other aspects of society, including politics, art, and science.
    • During the era from 1450 to 1750 the church lost significant power in almost every way. Not only were scientists and literary writers beginning to challenge the church, but the Pope's political power was compromised as centralization of government gave more authority to kings.
    • Starting in the early 16th century, the church's religious authority was seriously weakened by the Protestant Reformation, a movement led by Martin Luther, a German priest who believed that the church was seriously flawed.
  • 21. Cultural and intellectual development—Europe
    • The Catholic Church was very rich by the early 1500s.
      • Popes were often from Italian merchant families, and their wealth was bolstered by the many lands that church officials claimed all over Europe.
      • Their land ownership in turn led to great political power that many kings deeply resented.
    • Martin Luther, a priest and teacher at the University of Wittenberg, was troubled by all of these trends, especially as he compared the situation to the modest beginnings of Christianity and his interpretation of the teachings of Jesus. His doubts were provoked by priest named Tetzel.
  • 22. Causes of the Reformation
    • Immediate Causes
    • Merchant wealth challenged the church’s view of usury.
    • German and English nobility disliked Italian domination of the Church.
    • The Church’s great political power and wealth caused conflict.
    • Church corruption and the sale of the indulgences were widespread and caused conflict.
  • 23.
    • The Reformers
    • Martin Luther
    • • Believed in salvation by faith alone
    • • Posted the 95 theses
    • • Led the movement that gave birth to the Protestant Church
    • John Calvin
    • • Believed in predestination
    • • Expanded Protestant movement
    • King Henry VIII
    • • Dismissed authority of the popes in Rome
    • • Divorced, broke with the Catholic Church
    • Formed the Church of England
  • 24. Results:
    • By the end of the 16th century, large parts of Europe, particularly in Germany and Britain, were no longer under the authority of the Catholic Church.
    • The church responded with its own internal reformation, but the result was a Europe deeply divided between Protestants and Catholics, a dynamic that fed the already intense competition among European nations.