Experimental archaeology also helps maritime archaeologists understand the various dimensions of boat or ship building, and how this may or may not have played a symbiotic role in their day to day lives. Photo is a T-shaped axe, 11 th century site in Milk Street, London (Photo: Museum of London) McGrail, Sean. Ancient Boats I North-West Europe, p.153.
Experimentation requires total control over all variables to say that a hypothesis has been falsified or proven by an experiment. Observational is usually aims at testing one aspect of a vessel, say the rigging or hull design, steering etc.
Cheops In Greek.
The picture shows temporary binding that was used in the reconstruction of the ship. This type of fastening was used to hold together planks as thick as 15cm
Experimental Archaeology Reconstructing the Past Presented by: Janelle Harrison 2006
Why do Maritime Archaeologists use Experimental Archaeology? <ul><li>It is a tool to understanding how past maritime cultures perceived, interpreted, and advanced in technology </li></ul><ul><li>Reenactment is a key, or window into the minds of the builders and the cultures </li></ul>Fig I
Dimensions to Maritime Archaeology Experimental Archaeology Interpretation
Defining Experimental Archaeology <ul><li>Ole Crumlin-Pedersen defined it in this statement: “Experimental archaeology has been described by John Coles as ‘…the collection of facts, theories, and fictions in the reconstruction and function of ancient remains…’ To me, experimental archaeology is the study of the past by methods reproducing and testing conditions for and elements of man’s life in the past.” </li></ul>
Two Methods of Experimental Archaeology <ul><li>1 st Method: Experimentation </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Usually used in combination with deductive reasoning </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Establishing a hypothesis through tested and designed experiments </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>2 nd Method: Observation </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Is the recording of the results form the testing of the reconstructed vessel and trails </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Observation may lead to changes in hypothesis’ or in the design & procedure of constructing a vessel </li></ul></ul></ul>
Replica or Not? <ul><li>According to McGrail, few archaeological finds allow for exact replication of a vessel. </li></ul><ul><li>Usually the portions of the puzzle that are missing deal with steering & propulsion </li></ul><ul><li>In these cases archaeologists can use, if available, the other dimensions of archaeological evidence already mentioned: ie. Iconographic, Historical or Ethnographic </li></ul>
Reasons for Proper Experimental Workshops for Boat Archaeology <ul><li>Workshops give students a chance to experience the conditions the seamen endured in the vessel once it has been built and tests </li></ul><ul><li>Allows students to understand the boat building process during reconstruction </li></ul><ul><li>By reconstructing as the builders did in the past, the skills are regenerated and a better understanding of the builders thought process is gained </li></ul>
The Khufu Ship: (Cheops) <ul><li>Dated c.2600 BC </li></ul><ul><li>Dismantled & buried beside Khufu’s pyramid, found in 1954 </li></ul><ul><li>Found by Kamal el Mallakh </li></ul><ul><li>Oars, planks, columns, beams, matting & rope </li></ul>Fig IV
The Khufu Ship <ul><li>The ship measures over 130.8ft long & 17.7 ft beam </li></ul><ul><li>It was originally built shell first, hull was made of cedar, the fastenings of sidder </li></ul><ul><li>It is one of the oldest reconstructed ships in the world </li></ul><ul><li>The Khufu ship is on display in Cairo right over the spot where she was found </li></ul>Fig V
Knowledge Gained: Construction <ul><li>Planks to build the ship ranged form 21 to 69 feet long </li></ul><ul><li>Planks ranged from 4.7 to 5.9 inches thick </li></ul><ul><li>Massive amount of capital was invested in ships that were built of this design </li></ul><ul><li>Strakes were fastened together in long S-shaped scarfs </li></ul>Fig VI
Propulsion & Steering on the Khufu Ship <ul><li>No evidence of a mast, rigging, or sail was found (at a time when Egyptians were using sail) </li></ul><ul><li>The oars that were placed in the burial chamber allow archaeologists to infer that the ship was propelled by 5 oars men on each side </li></ul>
Only the Original Reconstructed <ul><li>A replica has not been built to test experimentally </li></ul><ul><li>Still archaeologists discovered a great deal from the reconstruction of the original ship </li></ul>Fig VIII
The Kyrenia Ship <ul><li>It differs form the Khufu ship in that this was a merchant ship that sailed the seas around 4 th century BC </li></ul><ul><li>This was around the time of Alexander the Great </li></ul>Fig IX
Original Cargo Artifacts from The Kyrenia Fig XI-XIII
Housed at the Kyrenia Crusader Castle <ul><li>The castle where these artifacts and the original ship are housed and on display is located on the Northern part of Cyprus </li></ul><ul><li>The Island of Cyprus is divided between Turkey and Greece and the museum is located on the Turkish side </li></ul>
About Kyrenia I <ul><li>More than 75% of her was recovered </li></ul><ul><li>Each piece was recorded, recovered, & conserved in PEG and reconstructed for the Museum </li></ul><ul><li>Steffy of the INA supervised the process </li></ul>Fig XIV
What Knowledge was gained from Reconstruction of the Original Kyrenia? Fig XV, XVI
Experimental Testing Knowledge <ul><li>She could reach speeds of 4 to 5 knots </li></ul><ul><li>She used a square sail and the test documented how well she handled rough seas and long journeys across the Mediterranean </li></ul>
4 th Century BC: Scandinavia’s Hjortspring Canoe Fig XXIV
Design & Construction <ul><li>The hull was built from 7 main parts </li></ul><ul><li>2 hollowed bottom planks </li></ul><ul><li>2 hollowed block stems </li></ul><ul><li>4 side strakes </li></ul>Fig XXV
Details of the Boat <ul><li>The oldest Nordic ship found </li></ul><ul><li>The oldest clinker-built boat </li></ul><ul><li>75.4ft long </li></ul><ul><li>Beam of 13.1ft </li></ul><ul><li>Carried 15 pairs of oars </li></ul><ul><li>Documentary evidence written by Tacitus stated that Nordic ships didn’t use sails </li></ul>
The Reconstruction? <ul><li>The only reconstruction is the original that is housed in the Archäologisches Landesmuseum in Schleswig </li></ul>Fig XXXIII
Controversy in Testing Scaled Down Models Fig XXXIV
Sæ Wylfing: A Half Size Sutton Hoo <ul><li>“ For economy, our 13m Sae Wylfing was built of pine except for the two upper strakes which were of oak. The laminated frames were widely spaced to ensure that the hull strength was to scale with the original. The sailing rig is hypothetical and based on Roman practice. The size of the sail was guided by our experience with the Graveney model, Ottor; it was made of cotton, whereas Anglo-Saxons would probably have used flax.” </li></ul>Fig XXXV
Skuldelev 1: A Trading Vessel <ul><li>The Skuldelev Ships all date from circa 1000AD </li></ul><ul><li>Excavated in Roskilde fjord, Denmark </li></ul><ul><li>They were deliberately sunk to create a burrier in the channel </li></ul>
The Original <ul><li>Material: pine, oak and linden </li></ul><ul><li>Length: 52.5ft </li></ul><ul><li>Beam: 15.7ft </li></ul><ul><li>Cargo capacity: 20-24 tonnes </li></ul><ul><li>No. of oars: 2-4 </li></ul><ul><li>Crew: 6-8 men </li></ul><ul><li>Average speed: approx. 5 knots </li></ul><ul><li>Top speed: approx. 13 knots </li></ul><ul><li>Dating: ca 1030 </li></ul><ul><li>Place of building: Western Norway </li></ul><ul><li>Preserved: approx. 60% </li></ul>vikingeskibsmuseet Fig XLI
Conclusions <ul><li>Experimental Archaeology is a tool that uses various dimensions of Maritime Archaeology to draw further clues for interpretation in the past and the cultures that developed from and around the maritime culture </li></ul><ul><li>Its helps Maritime Archaeologists understand, early forms of trade, migration, ritual, and war </li></ul><ul><li>Experimental Archaeology brings the past to life </li></ul>
Bibliography An introduction to the history and culture of Pharaonic Egypt (fig VII). Internet 18.11.06 http://www.reshafim.org.il/ad/egypt/timelines/topics/shipconstruction.htm British Archaeology . Internet 7.11.06 http://www.britarch.ac.uk/ba/ba80/feat2.shtml Kyrenia: North Cyprus Homepage . Internet 18.11.06 http://www.cypnet.co.uk/ncyprus/city/kyrenia/castle/shipwreck/index.html Pyramids: Houses of Eternity (figs II, III) Internet 18.11.06. http://www.ancientegypt.co.uk/pyramids/index.html The Guild of the hjorspring Boat . Internet 18.11.06 http://home6.inet.tele.dk/hjortspr/milestones.htm#350%20years%20Jubilee%20of%20Agustenborg The Trireme Trust . Internet 18.11.06 http://www.atm.ox.ac.uk/rowing/trireme/ The Sea Stallion . Internet 18.11.06 http://www.havhingsten.dk/index.php?id=446&L=1 The Viking Ship Museum .Internet 18.11.06 http://www.vikingeskibsmuseet.dk/default.asp?contentsection=3964B7C731974A1DA15F5741EA743FE9&zcs = The Classics Pages: The Trireme . Internet 18.11.06 http://www.users.globalnet.co.uk/~loxias/trireme.htm Trireme: How was a Trireme Built . Internet 18.11.06 http://home-3.tiscali.nl/~meester7/engtrireme.html The National Museum of Denmark . Internet 18.11.06 http://www.nationalmuseet.dk/sw20374.asp The Nydam Boat . Internet 18.11.06 http://web.telia.com/~u31118336/stone_struck/nydam2.htm Nordic Underwater Archaeology . Internet 18.11.06 http://www.abc.se/~m10354/uwa/ Replicas of Nordic Ships . Internet 18.11.06 http://www.abc.se/~m10354/bld/replicas.htm The Ghost Ship of the Wuffings . Internet 16.11.06 http://www.wuffings.co.uk/MySHPages/SHTreasure/SHGhostShip.htm Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia. Khufu Ship (fig IV) Internet 18.11.06 . http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Khufu_ship
Bibliography Cont. <ul><li>Brøgger, A.W. and Haakon Shetelig 1951. The Viking Ships: Their Ancestry and Evolution. Oslo, Norway: Dreyers Forlag </li></ul><ul><li>Delgado, J. P. (ed) 1997. Encyclopedia of Underwater and Maritime Archaeology. London: The British Museum Press. </li></ul><ul><li>Delgado, J. P. (2001). Lost WarShips. New York: Checkmark Books </li></ul><ul><li>McGrrail, S. 2001. Boats of the World: From the Stone Age to Medieval Times. Oxford: Oxford University Press. </li></ul><ul><li>Shaw, T. (1993). The Trireme Project. Oxford: Oxbow Books. </li></ul><ul><li>Steffy, J.R. (1994) Wooden Ship Building And The Interpretation Of Shipwrecks. Texas: Texas A&M University </li></ul>
A particular slide catching your eye?
Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.