1 basic computer operations

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  • 1. INTRODUCTION TO LINUX CS 11 Lab Introduction to Computer Science Cheza Marie R. Vianzon Lecturer
  • 2. History of Linux
    • Mid 1980's
      • Richard Stallman & Free Software Foundation has developed functional alternatives to every major UNIX component except the kernel
    • 1991
      • Linus Torvalds at the University of Helsinki (Finland) developed the original Linux kernel
    • March 1992
      • Linux v1.0 was officially released
  • 3. History of Linux
    • 1992 onwards
      • Red Hat Linux – most commonly used distribution
      • Slackware – offers the full range of expected utilities, tools, and applications
      • Caldera OpenLinux – comes into two editions: eDesktop 2.4 (workstations) and eServer 2.3 (servers)
      • S.u.S.E. Linux – popular Linux distribution available in Europe
      • Debian/GNU – offers more than 3950 software packages using its own package-management system
      • Corel – newest major Linux distribution; explicitly targeted as a replacement for Microsoft Windows on desktop
  • 4. File System
    • Linux has a hierarchical, unified filesystem
    • Supports 256-character filenames
    • All command line entries are case sensitive
    • Uses slash '/' and not backslash ''
    • Four types of files
      • Ordinary files
      • Directories
      • Links
      • Special device files
  • 5. Prompt
    • Login as root -> machinename:~#
    • Login as user -> machinename:~$
    • Tilde charcater (~)
      • Represents home directory
      • Appended to the end of a filename, which means a backup of a file that has been edited
  • 6. Shell Account
    • echo $SHELL
      • Bourne Shell - /bin/sh
      • Bourne Again Shell - /bin/bash
      • Korn shell - /bin/ksh
      • C-shell - /bin/csh
  • 7. 10 Basic Linux Commands
    • man – Unix manual
    • ls – lists files
    • pwd – shows what directory you are in
    • cd – changes directory
    • more – shows the contents of text files
    • whereis – same with 'find' and 'locate'
    • vi – editing program
    • grep – extracts info from files
    • chmod – change file permission
    • rm – delete file
  • 8. LAN and Internet Exploration Tools
    • telnet – allows you to login remotely from a remote computer to a host server running any linux or linux clone system
    • who – shows you who else is currently logged in on you ISP's LAN
    • netstat – all sorts of statistics on your LAN, including all Internet connections
    • whois – get lots of info on Internet hosts outside your LAN
    • nslookup – get a whole bunch more info on other Internet hosts
  • 9. LAN and Internet Exploration Tools
    • dig – even more info on Internet hosts
    • finger – get you valuable info about users on other Internet hosts
    • ping – to find out if a distant computer is alive and run diagnostic tests
    • traceroute – maps Internet connections, reveals routers and boxes running firewalls
    • ftp – use it to upload and download files to and from other computers
  • 10. Listing Directories
    • List files in alphabetical order
    • Useful options:
      • '-a' lists all files, including hidden files
      • '-A' lists all files, except the current and parent directory
      • '-c' sorts file by time (oldest first)
      • '-d' lists only the name of a directory, not its contents
      • '-l' lists in long format (permissions and other details)
  • 11. Listing Directories
    • Other useful options:
      • '-r' lists in reverse order
      • '-t' sorts files by time (newest first)
      • '-x' lists all files across the page instead of in columns
    • Current directory (.)
    • Parent directory (..)
  • 12. Permissions
    • Read, write, or execute a file or command in a directory
    • chmod
      • Numeric system
        • chmod 764 SomeFile
      • Symbolic system
        • chmod g+x SomeFile
  • 13. Wildcards
    • Three types
      • Asterisk (*)
        • Any number of characters anywhere in the filename
      • Question mark (?)
        • Single character
      • Brackets ([ ])
        • Specific characters
  • 14. Processes
    • Shell acts as the intermediary between the user and the operating system
    • Shell can run multiple commands at one time
    • Shell can run commands in the background
    • Multiple requests to the shell are called processes
    • Use 'ps' to list the current processes
    • Use 'kill' to stop a process
  • 15. Using the VI editor
    • Two modes
      • Insert
        • Everything you type appears in the document at the place where the blinking cursor is
      • Command
        • Keystrokes perform special functions rather than actually inserting text to the document
  • 16. Running an Executable File in Linux
    • Create a C program i.e. Hello.c
    • Compile
      • gcc -o Hello Hello.c
    • Execute/Run
      • ./Hello