1   basic computer operations
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    1   basic computer operations 1 basic computer operations Presentation Transcript

    • INTRODUCTION TO LINUX CS 11 Lab Introduction to Computer Science Cheza Marie R. Vianzon Lecturer
    • History of Linux
      • Mid 1980's
        • Richard Stallman & Free Software Foundation has developed functional alternatives to every major UNIX component except the kernel
      • 1991
        • Linus Torvalds at the University of Helsinki (Finland) developed the original Linux kernel
      • March 1992
        • Linux v1.0 was officially released
    • History of Linux
      • 1992 onwards
        • Red Hat Linux – most commonly used distribution
        • Slackware – offers the full range of expected utilities, tools, and applications
        • Caldera OpenLinux – comes into two editions: eDesktop 2.4 (workstations) and eServer 2.3 (servers)
        • S.u.S.E. Linux – popular Linux distribution available in Europe
        • Debian/GNU – offers more than 3950 software packages using its own package-management system
        • Corel – newest major Linux distribution; explicitly targeted as a replacement for Microsoft Windows on desktop
    • File System
      • Linux has a hierarchical, unified filesystem
      • Supports 256-character filenames
      • All command line entries are case sensitive
      • Uses slash '/' and not backslash ''
      • Four types of files
        • Ordinary files
        • Directories
        • Links
        • Special device files
    • Prompt
      • Login as root -> machinename:~#
      • Login as user -> machinename:~$
      • Tilde charcater (~)
        • Represents home directory
        • Appended to the end of a filename, which means a backup of a file that has been edited
    • Shell Account
      • echo $SHELL
        • Bourne Shell - /bin/sh
        • Bourne Again Shell - /bin/bash
        • Korn shell - /bin/ksh
        • C-shell - /bin/csh
    • 10 Basic Linux Commands
      • man – Unix manual
      • ls – lists files
      • pwd – shows what directory you are in
      • cd – changes directory
      • more – shows the contents of text files
      • whereis – same with 'find' and 'locate'
      • vi – editing program
      • grep – extracts info from files
      • chmod – change file permission
      • rm – delete file
    • LAN and Internet Exploration Tools
      • telnet – allows you to login remotely from a remote computer to a host server running any linux or linux clone system
      • who – shows you who else is currently logged in on you ISP's LAN
      • netstat – all sorts of statistics on your LAN, including all Internet connections
      • whois – get lots of info on Internet hosts outside your LAN
      • nslookup – get a whole bunch more info on other Internet hosts
    • LAN and Internet Exploration Tools
      • dig – even more info on Internet hosts
      • finger – get you valuable info about users on other Internet hosts
      • ping – to find out if a distant computer is alive and run diagnostic tests
      • traceroute – maps Internet connections, reveals routers and boxes running firewalls
      • ftp – use it to upload and download files to and from other computers
    • Listing Directories
      • List files in alphabetical order
      • Useful options:
        • '-a' lists all files, including hidden files
        • '-A' lists all files, except the current and parent directory
        • '-c' sorts file by time (oldest first)
        • '-d' lists only the name of a directory, not its contents
        • '-l' lists in long format (permissions and other details)
    • Listing Directories
      • Other useful options:
        • '-r' lists in reverse order
        • '-t' sorts files by time (newest first)
        • '-x' lists all files across the page instead of in columns
      • Current directory (.)
      • Parent directory (..)
    • Permissions
      • Read, write, or execute a file or command in a directory
      • chmod
        • Numeric system
          • chmod 764 SomeFile
        • Symbolic system
          • chmod g+x SomeFile
    • Wildcards
      • Three types
        • Asterisk (*)
          • Any number of characters anywhere in the filename
        • Question mark (?)
          • Single character
        • Brackets ([ ])
          • Specific characters
    • Processes
      • Shell acts as the intermediary between the user and the operating system
      • Shell can run multiple commands at one time
      • Shell can run commands in the background
      • Multiple requests to the shell are called processes
      • Use 'ps' to list the current processes
      • Use 'kill' to stop a process
    • Using the VI editor
      • Two modes
        • Insert
          • Everything you type appears in the document at the place where the blinking cursor is
        • Command
          • Keystrokes perform special functions rather than actually inserting text to the document
    • Running an Executable File in Linux
      • Create a C program i.e. Hello.c
      • Compile
        • gcc -o Hello Hello.c
      • Execute/Run
        • ./Hello