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Report on Router

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  • 1. FINAL REPORT ON ROUTER 1 Contents INTRODUCT ION: ................................................................................................. 2 How r outers wor k ................................................................................................. 7 Like a postal system or courier ........................................................................... 8 Routing Protocol ................................................................................................... 9 Types of routing protocol ...................................................................................... 9 Enhanced Interior Gat eway Routing Protocol (EIGRP) ........................................ 10 Interior Gateway Rout ing Protocol ( IGRP) ......................................................... 11 TYPES OF ROUTERS: ........................................................................................ 12 Broadband Routers: .......................................................................................... 12 Wireless Routers:............................................................................................. 13 OTHER TYPE ROUTERS: ................................................................................... 14 EDGE ROUTER: .............................................................................................. 14 SUBSCRIBER EDGE ROUTER: ........................................................................ 15 INTER-PROV IDER BORDERS ROUTER: .......................................................... 15 Core Router ..................................................................................................... 16 Advantage and Disadvantage of Routers ............................................................... 16 Advantage: ...................................................................................................... 16 Easily Shared Internet ...................................................................................... 16 Security and Adaptabi lity ................................................................................. 16 Disadvantage: .................................................................................................. 17 Complicated Setup ........................................................................................... 17 Data Overhead ................................................................................................. 17
  • 2. FINAL REPORT ON ROUTER 2 INTRODUCTION: A router is a device that forwards data packets between computer network creating an overlay internetwork. A router is connected to two or more data lines from different networks. When a data packet comes in one of the lines, the router reads the address information in the packet to determine its ultimate destination. Then, using information in its routing table or routing policy, it directs the packet to the nex t network on its journey. Routers perform the "traffic directing" functions on the internet. A data packet is typicall y forwarded from one router to another through the networks that constitute the internetwork until it reaches its destination node. The most familiar t ype of routers are home and small office routers that simpl y pass data, such as web pages, email, IM, and videos between the home computers and the Internet. An example of a router would be the owner's cable or DSL modem, which connects to the Internet through an ISP More sophisticated routers, such as enterprise routers, connect large business or ISP networks up to the powerful core routers that forward data at high speed along the optical fiber lines of the internet background. Though routers are typicall y dedicated hardware devices, use of software -based routers has grown increasingl y common. Routers are very common today in every network area, this is mainl y because every network these days connect to some other network, whether it's the Int ernet or some other remote site. Routers get their name from what they do.which is route data from one network to another. Routers capture the information that come through broadband connection via a modem and deliver it to your computer The router choose route for the packet so that you receive the information Firstl y. Routers are multiport devices and more sophisticated as compared to repeaters and bridges. Routers also support filtering bridges. They operate at physical, data link a nd network layer of OS I model.
  • 3. FINAL REPORT ON ROUTER 3 Like bridges, they are self learning, as they can communicate their existence to other devices and can learn of the existence of new routers, nodes and LAN segments. A router has access to the network layer address or logica l address (IP address). It contains a routing table that enables it to make decisions about the route i.e. to determine which of several possible paths between the source and destination is the best for a particular transmission. These routing tables are d ynamic and are updated using routing protocols. The routers receive the packets from one connected network and pass them to a second connected network. However, if a received packet contains the address of a node that is on some other network (of which the router is not a member), the router determines which of its connected networks the best next relay point for that packet is. Once the router has identified the best route for a packet to travel, it passes the packet along the appropriate network to anothe r router. That router checks the destination address, find what it considers the best route for the packet and passes it to the destination network . Router is a network communication device that is used to connect logicall y and physicall y different networks. It can be used in the Ethernet, FDDI, Token Ring, ATM, Frame Relay, ISDN and other t ypes of the LAN/WAN. The router’s main purpose is the sorting and distribution the data packets. Router contains and maintains the routing table that has the in formation of the adjacent routers and other connected networking devices. Router selects the shortest possible path to send the data packets at the destination. It is an intelligent device that can connect ATM with Frame Relay, ISDN with Frame Relay, SONET with ATM or any other two dissimilar networks. Router uses different protocols such as RIP (Routing Information Protocol), OSPF (Open Shortest Path First) and BGP and IGRP (Interior Gateway Routing Protocol) and EIGRP (Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Pr otocol. Routing protocols specifies that how routers will communicate with each other in the WAN.
  • 4. FINAL REPORT ON ROUTER 4 They determine that which path to select to send the data towards its destination. There are three main t ypes of the routing protocols i.e. link state, path vector and distance vector. Router contains the operating system, Flash memory, NVRAM and processor. High level routers contain the Application Specific Integrated Circuits to perform parallel proce ssing. A router is also act as a gateway that connects LAN with the inte rnet For home and business users that use the high speed DSL connection a router also act as a hardware firewall device. It filters and blocks the unwanted traffic based on the IP address, port, protocol, application and service. Before buying router for deploying in your home or office network make sure it is compatible with other devices in your networks. It is recommend that you buy and deploy the all the network devices from the same vendor. Computers that specialize in sending packets over the data networ k.They are responsible for interconnecting networks by selecting the best path for a packet to travel and forwarding packets to their destination Function of router is to take out the destination IP address from the packet and determines the next network p oint to which a data packet should be forwarded towards its destination. Before reaching the destination from source, packet may have to follow a long path, in between it may go through many routers, like first router m ay send it to second and so on number may rise up to 10 to 20 routers .
  • 5. FINAL REPORT ON ROUTER  Data is sent in form of packets between 2 end devices  Routers are used to direct packet to its destination There are two major groups of router interfaces LAN Interfaces: 1: Are used to connect router to LAN network 2: Has a layer 2 MAC address 3: Can be assigned a Layer 3 IP address 4: Usuall y consist of an RJ -45 jack 5
  • 6. FINAL REPORT ON ROUTER 6  WAN Interfaces: 1: Are used to connect routers to external networks that interconnect LANs. 2: Depending on the WAN technology, a layer 2 address may be used. 3: Uses a layer 3 IP address In such cases router can act as hardware firewall, it does not allow computer’s IP address to directly expose to the internet A router work at layer 3 on OS I Model and have functions on Layer 4 (filtering AC L, NAT) and don't perform any scan on Hosts. Basicall y, He only route packets so onl y know the source/destination IP and if the PC is on a subnet directl y connected he know the MAC address. Some routers can capture packet or monitoring and by this information you can determine Port of a Host. If you use overloaded an encrypted VPN can prevent the reading of information of packets.
  • 7. FINAL REPORT ON ROUTER 7 How routers work A router passes data between multiple networks. It works at the “layer 3” (the network link layer), which means that it must be able to understand the data packets so that it can route them to their destination. Routers are essentially computers optimized for handling p ackets that have to be transferred between separate networks. Routers attempt to send packets from their source to their destination in the fastest way possible,
  • 8. FINAL REPORT ON ROUTER 8 which is not always the absolute shortest path. On a network, packets with destinations on th e LAN go directl y from the sending machine to the destination machine without any intermediaries. However, if the destination address of a packet is outside the LAN, the sending machine sends it to the router, which the sending machine knows as the default gateway, and has no further interaction with that packet. When the router receives a packet destined for a point outside the LAN, it looks to see if it has a route to get the packet to that destination network. If it does (or if it has a default gateway of its own), it will send the packet to the next stop. Like a postal system or courier Routing between a LAN and a wide -area network (WAN) is like a postal s ystem or a courier network. A package traveling from New York to San Francisco might travel through a hub in Memphis or Chicago and be re sorted in Reno before heading to its final destination. If the package had to be hand-delivered quickl y, you could do that, but the cost would increase significantly, and hopefull y, the package won't get routed the long way around, because that tends to be inefficient and difficult to trace. In the same manner, routers send packets according to the available routes between networks and try to determine the shortest possible route at any given time. How does a router do this? Well, inside a router is a set of data called routing tables. Routing tables include: • • All possible routes the router is aware of Information on which connections lead to particular groups of addresses Priorities for connections to be used Rules for handling both routine and special cases of traffic Routing tables are dynamic — they are updated by routing protocols such as Routing Information Protocol (R IP) or Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) that constantl y pass messages between routers. Th e router consults them to determine whether or not it has a route to a particular destination address.
  • 9. FINAL REPORT ON ROUTER 9 Routing Protocol A routing protocol specifies how routers communicate with each other, disseminating information that enables them to select routes between an y two nodes on a computer network. Routing algorithms determine the specific choice of route. Each router has a priori knowledge onl y of networks attached to it directl y. A routing protocol shares this information first among immediate neighbors, and then throughout the network. This way, routers gain knowledge of the topology of the network. Although there are many t ypes of routing protocols, three major classes are in widespread use on IP networks: Interior gateway routing via link state routing protocols , such as OSPF and ISIS Interior gateway routing via distance as R IPv2, IGRP and EIGRP vector routing protocols, such Exterior gateway routing . The Border Gateway Protocol (BGP), a path vector routing protocol , is the routin g protocol used on the Internet for exchanging traffic between Autonomous S ystems . Many routing protocols are defined in documents called RFCs Some versions of the Open S ystem Interconnection (OS I) networking model distinguish routing protocols in a special sub layer of the Network Layer (Layer 3). The specific characteristi cs of routing protocols include the manner in which they avoid routing loops, the manner in which they select preferred routes, using information about hop costs, the time they require to reach routing convergence, their scalabilit y, and other factors. Types of routing protocol Some of the most common routing protocols include IGRP, EIGRP, OSPF, IS -IS and BGP. There are two primary routing protocol t ypes although many different routing protocols defined with those two t ypes. Link state and distance vector protocols comprise the primary t ypes. Distance vector protocols advertise their routing table to all directl y connected neighbors at regular frequent intervals using a lot of bandwidth and are slow to converge. When a route becomes unavailable, all router tables must be updated with that new information. The problem is with each route r having to advertise that new information to its neighbors, it takes a long time for all routers to have a current accurate view of the network. Distance vector protocols use fixed length subnet masks which
  • 10. FINAL REPORT ON ROUTER 10 aren't scalable. Link state protocols advertise routing updates onl y when they occur which uses bandwidth more effectivel y. Routers don't advertise the routing table which makes convergence faster. The routing protocol will flood the network with link state advertisements to all neighbor routers per are a in an attempt to converge the network with new route information. The incremental change is all that is advertised to all routers as a multicast LSA update. They use variable length subnet masks, which are scalable and use addressing more efficientl y. Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP) Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol is a hybrid routing protocol developed by Cisco systems for routing many protocols across an enterprise Cisco network. It has characteristics of both distance v ector routing protocols and link state routing protocols. It is proprietary which requires that you use Cisco routers. EIGRP will route the same protocols that IGRP routes (IP, IPX, use the same composite metrics as IGRP to select a best path destination. As well there is the option to load balance traffic across equal or unequal metric cost paths. Summarization is automatic at a network class address however it can be configured to summarize at subnet boundaries as well. Redistribution between IGRP and EIGRP is automatic as well. There is support for a hop count of 255 and variable length subnet masks. Convergence Convergence with EIGRP is faster since it uses an algorithm called dual update algorithm or DUAL, which is run when a router detects that a particular route is unavailable. The router queries its neighbors looking for a feasible successor. That is defined as a neighbor with a least cost route to a particular destination that doesn't cause any routing loops. EIGRP will update its routing table with the new route and the associated metric. Route changes are advertised onl y to affected routers when changes occur. That utilizes bandwidth more efficientl y than distance vector routing protocols. Autonomous Systems EIGRP does recognize assignment of different autonomous systems which are processes running under the same administrative routing domain. Assigning different autonomous system numbers isn't for defining a backbone such as with OSPF. With IGRP and EIGRP it is used to change route redistribution, filtering and summarization points.
  • 11. FINAL REPORT ON ROUTER 11 Characteristics Advanced Distance Vector Routes IP, IPX Routing Advertisements: Partial When Route Changes Occur Metrics: Bandwidth, Delay, Reliabilit y, Load, MTU Size Hop Count: 255 Variable Length Subnet Masks Summarization on Network Class Address or Subnet Boundary Load Balancing Across 6 Equal or Unequal Cost Paths (IOS 11.0) Hello Timer: 5 seconds on Ethernet / 60 seconds on Non -Broadcast Holddown Timer: 15 seconds on Ethern et / 180 seconds on Non -Broadcast Metric Calculation = destination path minimum BW * delay (msec) * 256 Split Horizon Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP) Interior Gateway Routing Protocol is a distance vector routing protocol developed by Cisco systems for routing multiple protocols across small and medium sized Cisco networks. It is proprietary which requires that you use Cisco routers. This contrasts with IP RIP and IPX RIP, which are designed for multi-vendor networks. IGRP will route IP, IPX, Decnet and AppleTalk which makes it very versatile for clients running many different protocols. It is somewhat more scalable than RIP since it supports a hop count of 100, onl y advertises every 90 seconds and uses a composite of five different metrics to select a best path destination. Note that since IGRP advertises less frequentl y, it uses less bandwidth than R IP but converges much slower since it is 90 seconds before IGRP routers are aware of network topology changes. IGRP does recognize assignment of different autonomous systems and automaticall y summarizes at network class boundaries. As well there is the option to load balance traffic across equal or unequal me tric cost paths. Characteristics Distance Vector Routes IP, IPX, Decnet, Appletalk Routing Table Advertisements Every 90 Seconds Metric: Bandwidth, Delay, Reliabilit y, Load, MTU Size Hop Count: 100 Fixed Length Subnet Masks Summarization on Network Class Address Load Balancing Across 6 Equal or Unequal Cost Paths ( IOS 11.0 ) Update Timer: 90 seconds
  • 12. FINAL REPORT ON ROUTER 12 Invalid Timer: 270 seconds Holddown Timer: 280 seconds Metric Calculation = destination path minimum BW * delay (usec) Split Horizon TYPES OF ROUTERS: There are several t ypes of routers in the market. Broadband Routers: Broadband routers can do different t ypes of things. Broadband routers can be used to connect computers or to connect to the Internet. If you connect to the internet through phone and using Voice over IP technology (VOIP) then you need broadband router. These are often a special t ype of modem (ADSL) that will have both Ethernet and phone jacks. A device that provides access to the Internet for multiple computers. It t ypicall y includes a netwo rk switch with four or more Ethernet ports for wired connections to desktop and laptop computers. "Wireless routers include a wifi access point The device forwards Internet traffic from the computers to the cable or DS L modem and switches non -Internet traf fic between the connected machines. It combines a router, network switch and DHCP server (to assign IP addresses to stations). The router also provides network address translation (NAT), which allows multiple users to reach the Internet with one public IP address assigned by the cable or telephone company to the service outers capture the information that come through broadband connection via a modem and deliver it to your computer The router choose route for the packet so that you receive the information Firstl y. Routers are multiport devices and more sophisticated as compared to repeaters and bridges. A broadband router utilizes the Ethernet standard for wired connections. Traditional broadband routers required Ethernet cables be run between the router, the broadband modem, and each computer on the home network.
  • 13. FINAL REPORT ON ROUTER 13 Wireless Routers: Wireless routers create a wireless signal in your home or office. So, any PC within range of Wireless routers can connect it and use your Internet. In order to secure your Wireless routers, you simpl y need to come secure it with password or get your IP address. Then, you'll log on into your router with the user ID and passwords will that come with your router.A network device that combines a router, switch and Wi -Fi access point (Wi -Fi base station) in one box. Wireless routers provide a convenient way to connect a small number of wired and any number of wireless computers to the Internet. For more about wireless networks It is commonl y used to provide access to the Internet or a computer network. It does not require a wired link, as the connection is made wirelessl y, via radio waves. A wireless router is a device that enables wireless network packet forwa rding and routing, and serves as an access point in a local area network. It works much like a wired router but replaces wires with wireless radio signals to communicate within and to external network environments. It can function as a switch and as an Int ernet router and access point A wireless router is the router found in a wireless local area network (WLAN) for home and small office networks. It enables Internet and local network access. Typicall y, the wireless router is directl y connected to a wired or wireless WAN. Users connected to the wireless router are able to access the LAN as well as the external WAN, such as the Internet. Depending on the capabilities of the wireless router, it can support from a few to hundreds of simultaneous users. Moreover, most wireless routers can also function as a firewall with the abilit y to block, monitor, and control and filter incoming and outgoing network traffic.
  • 14. FINAL REPORT ON ROUTER 14 It enables you to run a computer or gaming system from anywhere in the house without having to ru n cables through the walls. OTHER TYPE ROUTERS: EDGE ROUTER: A router is a device that forwards data packets between computer networks, creating an overlay internetwork. A router is connected to two or more data lines from different networks. When a data packet comes in one of the lines, the router reads the address information in the packet to determine its ultimate destination. Then, using information in its routing table or routing policy, it directs the packet to the next network on its journey. Router s perform the "traffic directing" functions on the Internet. A data packet is t ypicall y forwarded from one router to another through the networks that constitute the internetwork until it reaches its destination node
  • 15. FINAL REPORT ON ROUTER 15 The most familiar t ype of routers are home and small office routers that simpl y pass data, such as web pages, email, IM, and videos between the home computers and the Internet. An example of a router would be the owner's cable or DSL modem which connects to the Internet through an ISP. More sophisticated routers, such as enterprise routers, connect large business or ISP networks up to the powerful core routers that forward data at high speed along the optical fiber lines of the Internet backbone. Though routers are typicall y dedicated hardware devices, use of software -based routers has grown increasingl y common. This t ype of router are placed at the edge of the ISP network, they are normall y configured to external protocol like BGP (Border gateway protocol) to another BGP of other ISP or large o rganization. SUBSCRIBER EDGE ROUTER: This t ype of router belongs to an end user (enterprise) organization. It’s configured to broadcast external BGP to its provider’s . INTER-PROVIDER BORDERS ROUTER: This t ype of router is for Interconnecting ISPs, this is a BGP speaking router that maintains BGP sessions with other BGP speaking routers in other providers .
  • 16. FINAL REPORT ON ROUTER 16 Core Router A router that resides within the middle or backbone of the LAN network rather than at its periphery. In some instances, a core router provides a step down back bone, interconnecting the distribution routers from multiple building of a campus (LAN), or Large enterprise Location (WAN). They tend to be optimized for a high bandwidth. A core router is a router that forwards packets to computer hosts within a network but not between networks). A core router is sometimes contrasted with an edge router, which routes packets between self contained network and other outside networks along a network backbone. Advantage and Disadvantage of Routers Advantage: Easily Shared Internet One of the biggest reasons for using a router is to connect multiple users to the Internet. Connecting to the Internet requires a publicl y -unique IP address. As such, Internet provi ders t ypicall y onl y offer a single IP address or charge fees for large amounts of publicl y routable addresses. The solution is to add a router with network address translation enabled. Connecting to the Internet through a router with NAT allows the router to use the single public IP address and a series of UDP ports to share the connection. Without NAT, connecting a large organization’s computers to the Internet becomes virtuall y impossible . Security and Adaptability Connecting an Internet modem directl y to a PC exposes that PC to a host of securit y issues. Furthermore, expanding a direct -connection network becomes complicated without the addition of switches or a router and communicating between the individual PCs becomes difficult. Using a router as an i ntermediary between the “outside” network of the Internet and the “inside” network of your
  • 17. FINAL REPORT ON ROUTER 17 organization provides a scalable environment that is also, to a degree, easier to secure. A router is not a replacement for a firewall or anti -malware measures, but it’s an important first step towards a largel y secure network environment. Disadvantage: Complicated Setup The aforementioned router requires NAT to be set up. In addition, each computer must be assigned a private IP address that is t ypically organized by a DHCP server. This is required for the simplest connections. Connecting to additional IP -based networks adds additional complication in the form of routing tables -- a table that describes the best route for reaching a desired network. If IP telephony or video services are to be running on the IP network, you’ll also need to consider qualit y of service configu rations. helps prioritize one t ype of traffic, such as voice, over others when bandwidth is limited. As additional services are added, more configuration becomes required of the router Data Overhead Unlike a point-to-point “layer 2” link, routers add addit ional IP -based headers. These headers include information such as source and destination addresses, UDP information and checksums. These headers are attached to every payload of data. Large pieces of data are t ypically broken into thousands of smaller headers, making this header data consume a percentage of the total available bandwidth.