2. What is
3. Definition of Culture…..?
According to Herskovits: Man made part
of environment is called culture. The code of
According to Tylor: Culture is that complex
whole which include knowledge, belive, morals,
law, custom. And any other capability and habits
acquired by man as a member of society
According to Linton: the culture is social
heredity which is transmitted from one generation
to other with the accumulation of individual
1) Culture is learned.
2) Culture is Social.
3) Culture is Shared.
4) Culture is Transmitive.
5) Culture is Continues.
6) Culture is Cumulative.
7) Culture is Changing.
8) Culture Varies from Society to Society.
5. Culture is Learned:
culture is not inherited biologically but learned
socially by man. It is not and in born tendency.
Culture is often called learned ways of behavior .
Shaking hands or saying tanx and shaving and
dressing, cooking etc…
Is learned is culture similarly, wearing clothes,
combing the hair, drinking from the glass, reading
newspaper etc are all ways of behavior learned by
Culture is Social: culture is not individual
phenomena. It is product of society. it originated
and through social interaction. it is shared by the
member of society. no man can acquire culture
without association with other human beings.
For e.g: man become man only among man.
6. Culture is Shared: culture is something shared
it is nothing that and individual can possess.
For e.g: custom, tradition, be lives, ideas, values etc
are all shared by people of a group or society.
Culture is transitive: culture is capable of
being transmitted from one generation to the next.
Parents pass on traits to their children and they in
turned and so on. culture is transmitted not through
genes but by means of language. language is the man
vehicle of culture. Languages makes it possible for
the present generation to understand the
achievements of earlier generations.
7. Culture is continues: culture exists as a
continues process. Culture may thus be
concaved of as a kind of stream flowing down
throw the centuries from one generation to
another. Culture is the memory of the human
Culture is cumulative: culture become
cumulative. It is growing hold which include in
itself, the achievement of the present and past and
make provision for the future achievement of man.
The now culture elements are added up as the
8. Culture is changing: culture never remains
static but changing. Pakistani culture is very
delicate to change culture. Change occur in every
society but with different speed and intervals.
Culture constantly under goes change and adopts
itself to the environments
9. Culture varies from society to society:
Every society has a culture of his own. It differs
from society to society. Culture of every society is
unique to itself. Culture are not uniform. Culture
such as customs, tradations, morals, ideas, values,
idealogies, beliefs, practices, institution etc are
uniform every where.
10. Elements of Cultures:
11. 1) Traits: Trait is the smallest unit of culture and
we cannot think to subdivide it becouse
subdivided part or unit will lose its significance in
the existing cultural sittings. It is not easy to count
the exact number of cultural traits in a given
society. But he number of traits represents the size
of cultural base. If there are many traits in a base. It
will be brad base and will easily absorb changes.
And if the traits are less in number the base will be
smaller and will be a rigid culture, which resist
12. 2 Complex: when two or more then two traits
are combine it called complex. The number of
complex in a culture is less as compared to the
cultural traits. With the complexes of culture
human behavior comes complex and complicated.
3 Pattern: when two or more then two complex
from combined its called pattern. Due to patterns
we found uniformity in human behavior.
For example, the same kind of behavior is expected
from the individuals belonging to the particular
age group, sex , class, occupation etc. the number of
patterns in a culture is less as compared to cultural
13. 4) Theme: When two or more then two pattern
are combined they form theme. It is the public
declaration to control or encourage a given human
activity. It includes both desired and undesired
elements. Themes do not come unconsciously or by
chance but these are the result of organized and
deliberate efforts of the individuals. For example,
all human being are equal in our culture.
5) Configuration: When two or more then two
themes are combined they form configuration.
For example, cast, marriage system etc. it is not
necessary that a social institution may wholly
share a single configuration.
14. 6) Ethos: It is the flavor or the central point of a
culture. It is the philosophy or the ideology of
entire culture., around which (ethos) the entire
society rests. The behavior of individuals in a
given culture is directly or indirectly affected by its
Pakistani culture is attributed as religious.
Japanese culture is cooperative.
American culture is competitive.
Russia culture is accommodative etc.