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The first hydroelectric power stations for the production of electricity were bult in England as erly as 188os.
But as diffrent as these various types of hydroelectric power station are-they all function in similar ways: a power station generally consists of weir or dam witch stores the water in front of the power station or in resevoir located on higher grond.from here, thee water enters the suply pipe or penstock via the intake.
Today there are river power plants, storage power plants, tidal power stations and wave power station. Depending on the type of the tubine, either potentail or kinatic engy drives a turbine witch is connected to a genator.
This is finally tronsforms the mechanical enegy into electricity .If the water has passed the turbine it is channeld back into the natrul course of the river or the equalising reservoir.
About water Power Modern "water wheels" such as the francicis or pelton turbine can convert almost all of the water power into mechanical enegy. They can attain 95 pecent efficiency.
Wave power stations
The power of the seas can also be used to produce enegy.A
wave power station on the scottish island of Isay has been
providing electricity since 2001. The technology is actually quite simple: it is not the water whitch creates enegy but the air whitch the water displaces.
wave power statios
The plant consists of a pipe-shaped resevoir whitch reaches under the surfiace of the water . The water levele rises and falls with the waves and the air in the pipes is pushed upwards or sucked downwords. The air flow which this creates powers the walls turbines, named after thir inventor.
These turbines are remarkabkle in that they turn in the same dirction whether there is an inflow outflow of air. Optimum use of wave power is achieved as the turbow genorater driven by the turbins also suppels electricty when the waves subside. In a way,the "limpent 500" produces 500 killowatts enough for around 400 households.
tidal power traditionally involes erecting a dam across the opening to a tidal basin. The dam includes a sluice that is opend to allow the tide to flow into the basin ,the sluice is then closed , and the sea level drops ,traditional hydropower technologies can be used to generate electricty from the elevated water in the basin. Some researchers are also trying to extract enegy directly from tidal flow streams .
when the wave goes dowen, air flows through and back into the chamber through doors that are normally closed.
this is only one type of wave enegy system. Others actually use the up and down montion of the wave power a piston that moves up and down inside a cylinder. That piston can also turn a generator. Most wave enegy systems are very small.But, they can be used to power a warning buoy or small light house.
Hydropower is renewable enegy source that produces the most electricity in the United States.