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Finding Midian
 

Finding Midian

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Clive Barker's "Cabal" through queer theory

Clive Barker's "Cabal" through queer theory

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    Finding Midian Finding Midian Document Transcript

    • Kristin Jones
      English 3314
      Dr. Matthews
      May 16, 2009
      Finding Midian: Casting off the “Normal” Skin
      A man slashes the skin around his jaw and peels it back…apparent humans breath out and transform into monsters…a doctor wants to fuck a cold corpse. All of these images may make one think about death and destruction, but there is a deeper meaning. It can be seen when one breaks down all preconceived notions of horror, and attempts to see the connection between death and mutilation with transformation and establishing identity. These two themes are universal and crucial to human survival and enlightenment. One cannot know the world unless one understands oneself and strives to achieve acceptance and peace with one’s own identity. One major source of identity issues can be found in one’s sexuality. Something that was at one time unquestioned, however, throughout history our race has seen a shift to oppression of sexual preferences that are not hetero-normative, and subsequently, a fight to change these narrow-minded views. In Cabal, Clive Barker explores these standards and their deviations, while reversing the ‘natural’ order of things, and celebrating these queer qualities while demonizing cultural norms, which in turn changes the standards and bring awareness to the value of undefined sexuality.
      The origins of man are a topic still up for debate, but early text at least provides some insight for current generations of what life in an earlier time might have been. While we may never know truly what the people of Ancient Greece thought of sexuality, we can assume that it was not a topic of great discussion. At the time people did not classify themselves in a sexual category CITATION Pic06 p 1 l 1033 (Pickett 1).There were no ‘gays’ or ‘lesbians’ in this time, just people. The general thought at the time was that a person could be attracted to members of either sex and it was not a moral issue CITATION Pic06 p 1 l 1033 (Pickett 1). Since this time however, the ideas of same sex acts were hidden and in Annamarie Jagose’s book, Queer Theory An Introduction, she quotes Susan Hayes who very sarcastically says that in the beginning, “there was Sappho…then there was the acceptable homoeroticism of classical Greece…Then casually skip two millennia…”(Hayes, cited in Jagose 75). Although Hayes was trying to make light of the situation, it is clear that there are many years in which same sex acts still occurred, and while sexuality had yet to be defined in terms, it was a hidden aspect of an individual’s life and most people who felt this way suppressed their urges. The year in which society began to define sexuality occurred, according to Michel Foucault, in 1870, and was spawned by an article by Westphal (Foucault, cited in Jagose 10).
      Throughout the better half of the twentieth century the individuals who identify themselves as queer, sought not only to dissolve the oppression and persecution of those who do not follow sexual “standards,” but also to define the many varied versions of sexual preference, much to our own detriment. “Debates in lesbian and gay circles during the late 1970s and early 1980s about bisexuality, sado-masochism, pornography, butch/fem, transvestism, prostitution, and intergenerational sex implicitly questioned the hegemonic binarism of ‘heterosexuality’ and ‘homosexuality’” (Jagose 64). It is unquestioned that these leaps from binary opposition of sexuality to a larger understanding of all deviations of standard sexuality were necessary to help gain equality for the queer nation; however, this customized identity just allows those in power to further control individuals based on their not so individual identity. By sub-categorizing each individual into a neat and tidy box, we are robbing ourselves of ever obtaining a true identity that is not tied to one’s sex, race, religion, etc.
      In Cabal, Barker goes to great lengths to represent the queer community suitably and he romanticizes the previously revolting, in an attempt to humanize a culture that has long been demonized. It is suggested that the Nightbreed are the queer community because they are underground hiding, and Midian is a place that individuals seek out as sanctuary; Midian is a place of forgiveness (Barker 15). Barker also seems to suggest the beauty in blurring lines between ‘normality’ and ‘abnormality’ by the indefinable nature of the Nightbreed and their complete lack of a set category. Although, it is likely that characters such as the two faced Jackie, represent bisexuality, while the very act of transformation that all of the monsters perform, may well represent cross-dressing and transgenderism (Barker 27-29). Yet one may also notice the subtext themes of sado-masochism, necrophilia, pedophilia, and bestiality that are present throughout the book. Yet even though Barker and many other individuals have been working towards breaking out of set categories, other queer individuals choose to suppress their natural desires, and instead take out their frustrations on their own kind.
      For a long time society has oppressed queer individuals and their culture, but often times the individuals making these laws, and shunning these people, are queer themselves. That is because of the stigma that comes with being gay (or any other queer identification). According to Les Brooks, in his book, Gay Male Fiction Since Stonewall, the reason literary works with a queer subtext are often associated with decay, bodily waste, death, etc., is because this represents “the body without a soul and [is] therefore devoid of meaning” (Brooks 148), which seems to be what the heterosexual community, and the repressed, think of the queer community. As one may see, this could create all sorts of problems for those who belong to the queer community. In his book Queer Theory and Social Change, Max H. Kirsch says that,
      “Queerness as a deviant form of heterosexuality results in oppression. When this fact is not confronted, it can lead to maladaptive responses that include the markings of internalized homophobia: depression, psychosis, resignation, and apathy. These are very much reactions to the ways in which we view ourselves, which in turn are, at least in part, due to the ways in which we are constantly told to view ourselves” (Kirsch 97).
      This statement lends to the idea that these labels are only a detriment to the queer community, and they give those in power weapons to use against the queer community and oppress them. It is also interesting to find that one of the main characters in Cabal, Boone’s psychiatrist, Dr. Decker, exhibits signs of being a ‘monster’ but he is afraid to embrace this monstrous side of himself, so he instead persecutes those bold enough to display their true feelings. Decker seems to be the picture of sanity and ‘normality’ but when he pulls on his mask – notice the disconnection between self and identity – he smells his own excitement and, “as he breathed in he got a hard. Not the little sex-hard, but the death-hard, the murder-hard” (Barker 78). In order for one to pull meaning from this, one must think of sex as hetero sex, and death and murder as the acts of a queer individual.
      Actual murder would be a horrible act for anyone to commit; however, having homosexual encounters are not, yet Decker is so ingrained with hetero-normative values and shame, he cannot even realize himself the truth. Instead, he attributes all undesirable aspects of his personality to the mask. He even begins to personify the inanimate mask, which ‘talks’ to him, urging him to give in to these impulses. Nevertheless, Decker still refuses to give into the idea that he might be a monster himself. He deflects this hidden self inside him, and projects it onto Boone and the Nightbreed. In one passage while Decker is pondering how Boone could have survived being shot so many times he thinks, “Boone had even claimed he was dead, for Christ’s sake – and in the chill of the moment Decker had almost shared the psychosis. Now he saw more clearly…They were freaks…things in defiance of nature, to be poked out from under their stones and soaked in gasoline. He’d happily strike the match himself” (Barker 114). Within this passage one can not only see the aforementioned denial Decker has, but the embedded fear of that which is not ‘normal’ in the collective minds of society, and that which they fear and do not know, they must destroy.
      Brooks observes that, “Decker’s greatest fear is that the mask he hides behind, not only to deceive others but to conceal himself from himself, will be torn away (Brooks 146). When Decker and the band of police and citizens from Shere Neck, a town not far from Midian, set Midian on fire one of the officers tells Decker they may need medics, Decker responds, “I can’t help. Don’t even like the sight of blood” (Barker 140). Then the mask laughs from inside the briefcase he carries it in, although he is the only one to hear it. In fact, he is afraid that the cop will hear the mask, further solidifying Decker’s delusion that the mask was something that controlled him, when really the mask was just the way Decker’s psychotic mind dealt with the things he did not want to admit. However, Decker isn’t the only figure in power to oppress the “other” and not all oppressors have to have suppressions.
      At the burning of Midian, a maniacal chief of police by the name of Eigerman argues with the priest, Ashbery, who they have asked to join them. Ashbery tells the men to stop because there are children in the tombs, but Eigerman says they are devil’s children, and then he says to Ashbery, “Maybe you’re more like them than us, is that what it is, Ashbery? Feel the call of the wild do you” CITATION Bar85 p 155 l 1033 (Barker 155)? Eigerman is representational of the narrow-minded homophobes who treat all individuals who are different, like vermin that require extermination. Even before this scene, Barker takes time to subtly present his opinion of the ignorant minds that Eigerman embodies. Barker states, “For Eigerman bright ideas and excretion were inextricably linked” CITATION Bar85 p 124 l 1033 (Barker 124). As if to say that individuals like this, have nothing but shit for knowledge and intellect. Yet another source of oppression comes from hidden heterosexual values so embedded in our culture, that they affect the queer culture in a subtle yet devastating manner.
      Looking carefully at human behavior, one may see the way that hetero-normative values are weaved into the minds of some individuals of the queer community. Many lesbians dress in clothing normally for men, and they may have short hair and talk in a deeper voice. Many homosexual males likewise dress like women, grow out their hair, and talk in a higher voice. Many queer couples one sees have a ‘male’ partner and a ‘female’ partner. It is not to say that one should not dress a certain way or live a certain role if that is how one feels comfortable, but these roles are ones established by the heterosexual community, and feeling one has to live by a certain defined identity only sustains hetero-binaries. Another problem with hetero-normative values in queer culture is the self-hatred – as seen in Decker – and self-suppression practiced by queer individuals as a result of the ‘normal’ values placed on them. According to Kirsch, our society has a tendency to, “dichotomize categories of gender and sexuality into either or patterns” (Kirsch 49). If one has a label that is not considered acceptable or equal to another however, that individual will feel a sense of shame and marginalization (Kirsch 92).
      The internalized homophobia of Decker is obvious, yet he is not the only character in Cabal that exhibits identity issues. In Cabal the character Ashbery, mentioned above, also struggles with his sexual identity, although not to the extreme that Decker does. When the mob burns Midian down, Ashbery attempts to stop the men, and is successful in convincing some of them to back down (Barker 156-157). After Boone dispatches of Decker, and answers the call of Midian’s leader, Baphomet, he is baptized in Baphomet’s fire, and comes out Cabal (Barker 171-172). Then, the baptizer explodes into pieces and Ashbery, who was drawn to the light of Baphomet’s fire, feels the pressure build in the earth but can’t get away from what happens next:
      “The fire caught him sweeping him up as it hurtled heavenward. He shrieked at its touch and at the aftertaste of Baphomet that flooded his system. His many masks were burned away. The robes first, then the lace he’d not been able to pass a day of his adult life without wearing. Next the sexual anatomy he’d never much enjoyed. And finally, his flesh, scrubbing him clean” (Barker 173-174).
      It is evident that Ashbery’s source of shame is from the society that he lives in. He was told he had to be a man, not the woman he felt like. This may be the reason why he chose to be a man of the cloth, because people would not question his apparent asexuality. He hides the lingerie under his robes because he is ashamed of his true self. He is a man who society forced to wear those masks, and his death is a glorious event for him, because it brings him back to the undefined nature of the human at birth. He is naked and clean, scrubbed of all the roles society placed him in; he is free.
      As one has witnessed, the values that hetero-culture places on queer individuals can be harmful, whether by internal or external forces. Earlier in the book Ashbery argues with Eigerman on the subject of burning the inhabitants of Midian, and rallies Eigerman’s men telling them, “‘They’re not animals in there,’ He said, ‘They’re people! And you’re killing them just because this lunatic tells you to’” (Barker 156). Eigerman too, is a product of society, ready to destroy whatever is not ‘normal’ in his eyes, and he like many people – including individuals of the queer community – equate queerness with an animalistic, savage beast-like mentality. His men are influenced by his ignorance and develop their hatred because of a pack-mentality that drives them to destroy a place full of people they have never even seen themselves. Nevertheless, Barker’s message is not that we should destroy the queer community or that there is anything wrong with queer individuals, it is that the sub-culture is discriminated against, and that the queer community needs to come out of hiding. In the Cabal when Lori finds Midian, one of the Nightbreed, Lylesburg tells her, “What’s below…remains below” (Barker 61). This statement indicates the embedded need in the queer community to hide themselves for fear of persecution by the heterosexual community. Even so, Barker is not the first to call for action against discrimination of the queer community, or the first to realize that no progress can be made as long as hetero-normative restrictions hold back the queer community. Around the same time as Barker was working on his writings, other individuals fighting for equality spoke out against the unfair treatment of queer culture. According to Brooks, this time was a, “resurgence of belief in the revolutionary potential of dissident sexuality; and of course this belief entailed a corresponding condemnation of assimilationist politics and complacent lesbian and gay accommodation to bourgeois ways of life” (Brooks 26). Brooks also states that other works of the time establish self-defined homosexuality as being able to draw back to heterosexual norms, while Cabal shows an entirely different motivation, “an urge, that is, to reject heterosexual norms and explore the otherness of queer experience as the dangerous cutting edge of psychosexual adventure” (Brooks 188). Still, how does one find oneself in a world that is so clearly biased?
      Many individuals understand the struggle of dealing with a “deviant” sexual nature in a hetero-biased world. In spite of what the rest of the world says, these individuals feel differently. Part of Cabal is the story of an individual struggling with their sexual identity. Boone at first feels different from other people, because he is a psychiatric patient, and his doctor – who serves as the example of our repressive society – tries to convince Boone into believing he is a monster. Boone feels like an outcast; an abject monstrosity that has no place in the world, and when he meets someone who speaks of a place where he might be accepted he jumps at the chance. Boone then finds Midian, his holy land and sanctuary. He is surprised to find just as much suppression of self in Midian as there is in the rest of the world. He makes the world aware of Midian’s presence, and he destroys the way the Nightbreed live. He then must find a way for continued existence of the Nightbreed on earth. The beginning of this story is very similar to what a queer individual goes through in life before they find themselves. According to Andrew Sullivan quoted in Kirsch, queerness is something one is born with, not something that one chooses (Sullivan, cited in Kirsch 15). An individual with these feelings may feel like there is something wrong with them, and that they are monstrous. Even Boone believed Decker after he forced Boone to think of himself as an abomination. When one discovers one’s sexuality, it is a moment of great relief. Boone feels this relief when he gains entrance to Midian, after his heterosexual self ‘dies.’ According to Linda Badley in her book, Writing Horror and the Body, “In the Nightbreed characters, the grotesque is a sign of Dionysian energy, to Barker the equivalent of soul. More specifically, the grotesque represents the self with potential for transformation” (Badley 102). As Boone discovers when he meets the Nightbreed, they are the celebration of the body in extremis.
      Narcisse – another character in Cabal seeking his holy land – is miserable, suffering from depression and psychosis because he feels he is not in the place where he belongs. As Badley states, “Narcisse suicidally strips the skin from half of his face, rendering it a mask, thus transforming himself into a dualism and a paradox, a freak ‘worthy’ of such a utopia” (Badley 102). Narcisse dreams of Midian. It haunts him because he knows Midian is a place where he can be himself. When Narcisse first meets Boone he distrusts him, but he comes to believe that Boone was sent by Midian to test his worthiness. Narcisse laughs and tells Boone, “I never doubted. Never once. I always knew somebody’d [sic] come” (Barker 19). For Narcisse, finding Midian is representative of finding one’s sexuality; until it happened, Narcisse was not able to feel comfortable, much like a queer individual cannot know true comfort until the individual finds their sexuality. This is maintained by Kirsch, who states, “If we do not ‘come out’ we cannot identify our sexuality or gender in the sense of knowing exactly who we are” (Kirsch 92); at least in the beginning this is an important distinction one must make to free themselves. Going beyond this identification, one interesting thing going on in the queer sexual community today is a rising trend of people breaking all the so-called rules of sexuality.
      There is a movement currently going on in the queer community that may have begun during the time of the revolution of queer theory. Pat Califia, who talks about her sexual experiences in Jagose’s work writes:
      “These combined experiences have resulted in a lifestyle that doesn’t fit the homosexual stereotype. I live with my woman lover of five years. I have lots of casual sex with women. Once in a while, I have casual sex with gay men. I have a three-year relationship with a homosexual man who doesn’t use the term gay. And I call myself a lesbian” (Califia, cited in Jagose 67-68).
      People during this time were starting to identify themselves in other ways, and not relying on the gender of the people they were attracted to define themselves. So this begs the question, is bisexuality (or something like it) normality? In Cabal, Barker seems to agree with this view on sexuality. Not only do the Nightbreed defy categorization, but it is also apparent that Boone/Cabal is himself most comfortable in a dual role, as a human and as a monster. When Lori and Boone go to the hotel together, they find Decker’s mess, and he cannot help but feast on the meat. As he goes for it, Lori tells him to stop and, “For an instant he seemed to weigh up love and appetite. Then he forgot her, and lifted the human meat to his lips” (Barker 107). As one can see, Boone can’t suppress his ‘monstrous’ side, but he also cannot let go of the human world and Lori. Boone is caught between two worlds, much like some bisexuals in our culture. Badley also writes on the overwhelming themes of unclear sexuality in both Cabal and its film adaptation, Nightbreed. Badley says:
      “The Nightbreed are Jungian masks or faces of the unconstructed self, grotesques, and they stand for Barker’s concept of transformation. ‘You call us monsters but when you dream you dream of flying, changing,’ one of the Children of the Moon explains to Lori. They also incarnate the modern view of life and death as relative conditions: some are predators (while others are not); some are alive and some technically dead but ‘living’ in the liminal state that Midian’s underground space, otherwise signified as carnival, represents” (Badley 103).
      The differences in the film version and the book are also notable, as many of the queer undertones are presented in more subtle way in the movie, or are taken out all together. The passage that Badley quotes is not found in the novel, but was inserted in the movie, and it may have been a sly attempt by Barker to suggest those themes that were censored. The statement made by Babette, seems to suggest that many people do long to at least experiment outside of the sexual standards, and is this not the case? Many individuals experiment at some time in their life, or at least fantasize about a sexual taboo. Jan Clausen, also cited in Jagose, questions the exclusivity of heterosexuality and homosexuality. Leading into a quote by Clausen, Jagose says she, “Understands bisexuality not as a taxonomic solution to her impasse but as an identity that is not one… ‘bisexuality is not a sexual identity at all, but a sort of anti-identity, a refusal…to be limited to one object of desire, one way of loving’” (Clausen cited in Jagose 69). Even Midian’s leader, Baphomet is dualistic in nature as described in this passage from the perspective of Ashbery, “He would have known the deity as god and goddess in one body. Would have known too how its worshipers had suffered for their idol, burned as heretics or for crimes against nature” (Barker 171). It seems that Baphomet embodies all categories of queerness, and the worshipers mentioned are all of the queer individuals throughout time that have been persecuted for their sexuality and gender identity. So what is the standard then? Given that there are many cultures that still practice homosexual acts on a regular basis, (and don’t consider it deviant behavior) and for most of recorded history there have been people and entire societies that approved of same-sex acts, it can be concluded that maybe heterosexuality is the ‘other’ the sexuality that is ‘deviant.’ According to Brooks, “In Midian all values are put to the test and even the meaning of abjection is probed. For in this context, who are the abject? Midian’s undead are at least undeceived about themselves and prepared to challenge the narrowness of petty bourgeois mentality” (Brooks 148). As if all of this is not enough evidence to sway one’s mind about the context of Cabal, this quote taken from an interview by Adam Corolla with Clive Barker on Loveline, should make his intentions apparent. While actually talking about his own sexual quest Barker says, “I think of sexuality as being this incredibly malleable, protean, changeable, wonderful, flowery thing. I don't think that it is fixed. I don't think that it is about saying I am this and I will always be this. I think that it is about being aroused by the world and finding the world sexy” CITATION Cor96 l 1033 (Corolla). This statement leaves no questions about Barker’s view on sexuality, and it would seem based on the information that Cabal is somewhat autobiographical – in the sense that all writers inject some part of their lives in their works. Not to say that Barker ever died, became a monster and subsequently revealed a secret community causing their destruction, but Barker did have sexual relations with women until early adulthood, and then found himself questioning his sexuality. Moreover, Barker emerged as a writer in a time when queer theory was first becoming defined, and much of queer theory is about discarding previous labels, which in the next section of this work, one will find is also a theme of Cabal.
      Once one finds one’s sexuality, the way to help adjust is to establish a new sexual identity, and find others who have or are going through a similar experience, and create for oneself a network of support. However many queer theory pundits suggest that once one has identified themselves as some version of queer, one should then discard this identity in favor of undefined sexuality. As seen in the previous section, many queer individuals are finding new ways of expressing themselves sexually, and many are breaking the rules of sexual standards and thinking outside of the norm. These individuals are the trailblazers of our time, and are some of the few individuals in our society discovering true comfort within their own skin. Kirsch maintains this point stating that, “Gender is made up and idealized in a way that no one can actually be that category” (Kirsch 87). That is to say, the standards by which we judge sexuality and gender are often distorted views of these subjects, and therefore hold little insight to the true individual being stereotyped. Kirsch also says that an individual is made up of all incidents and interactions in one’s life, and that to define anyone by any category that they may apply to, is an unfair estimation of the person’s character and speaks very little about their actual personality (Kirsch 90). Several passages in Cabal exemplify this point, such as an exchange between Boone and Lylesburg, in which Lylesburg says, “A few days here and you’re rewriting the law” (Barker 85). Many queer theorists know the distrust that the older gay community had for such new concepts, as they were met with this resistance to change. Barker works to shed this binary thinking, as Badley states, “When Barker’s anti-horror fantasy unmakes the world, he does so in part to open spaces, to appeal to the reader’s or viewer’s desire to recreate the world” (Badley 103).
      Boone’s openness and acceptance of himself even inspires others. After a conversation that Boone had with Ashbery about his lingerie, Ashbery seems liberated by Boone in this exchange:
      “I want to see,’ Ashbery said.
      ‘Why?’
      ‘Please. Take me with you.’
      ‘It’s your risk.’
      ‘I’ll take it’” (Barker 158).
      While Boone may inspire Ashbery, he still cannot fight against homophobic individuals such as Decker, and towards the end of the book, they have a showdown of which, “wasn’t a patient’s revenge on his corrupted healer: this was a beast and a butcher, tooth to knife” (Barker 169). Both stand opposed, as the gay man in denial and the liberated queer.
      In the end, one can see the comfort that Boone finds in his power, when he battles Decker, he undergoes his transformation, and muses on the fact that, “In life he’d never felt so alive as he did at these moments, stripping off his humanity and dressing for the night” (Barker 169). Still, the story isn’t just about Boone’s comfort with his undefined self, it is about Boone being a pioneer in the queer theory movement, or rather, Barker is the pioneer, impressed upon the character Boone. During the time that Barker wrote Cabal, queer theory was emerging. In Jagose’s book, Barbara Smith writes about the movement saying that so many of the conventions used in gay and lesbian relationships were saturated with homophobic and heterosexual values that they, “wanted something entirely new. Our movement was called lesbian and gay liberation, and more than a few of us, especially women and people of color, were working for a revolution” (Smith cited in Jagose 61). At the end of the story, after Midian is destroyed by the town, Baphomet baptizes Boone in the fire and renames him Cabal. When Boone/Cabal asks Baphomet what to do now, Baphomet telepathically tells him, “Rebuild what you’ve destroyed…you must discover for us in the human world [a new way to exist]…Now you must remake it…Find me, and heal me. Save me from my enemies” (Barker 173). Speaking in relation to the queer movement, this passage represents the growth of people standing up for a new perspective on sexuality; destroying the roles and norms, and finding a new meaning in desire. Badley remarks about the previous passage saying that he:
      “Transforms his human [self]…into the powerfully beast-like Cabal the savior-priest who is also Midian’s ‘undoing.’ It is through the same deconstructive logic that Boone can fulfill his destiny only by dying and becoming a ‘beast,’…and by becoming Midian’s unmaking. By causing the deconstruction of this refuge of Otherness…Boone forces Carnival back into the world where it can remain vitally subversive” (Badley 102).
      In the end of the novel, Boone/Cabal is given a special power, he is able to walk in the sun, unlike the other Nightbreed (Barker 175). As if saying that he flaunts his sexuality openly, and even though then the Nightbreed, the queer, had to mask their true natures, the hope is that one day – which may even be in the present or near future – all Nightbreed could ‘walk in the sun;’ all queer individuals could be open about their sexual interests.
      The importance of a tale such as this, is not just that it shows all of these ‘deviant’ interests, but that it was offered to a mainstream society, and maybe many do not even realize what values and messages are in the piece because the themes go beyond understanding, and individuals internalize these beliefs subconsciously. Works such as Cabal might help – or have already helped – to bring queer culture out of hiding and let it shine for its true greatness; allow it to cast off the heterosexual standards that have pervaded popular opinion for too long, and redefine what sexuality is and can be. Until this shift in culture acceptance happens, with the queer movement as well as other revolutions, the human race will never evolve and achieve its destined greatness. We as a species are very close to reaching new heights in intelligence, and negative outdated stereotypes and cultural norms only hinder our progress in filling our purpose as an advanced race.
      Badley, Linda. Writing Horror and the Body: The Fiction of Stephen King, Clive Barker, and Anne Rice. Westport: Greenwood Press, 1996.
      Barker, Clive. Cabal. New York: Poseidon Press, 1985.
      Brooks, Les. Gay Male Fiction Since Stonewall: Ideology, Conflict, and Aesthetics. New York: Routledge, 2009.
      Corolla, Adam. " Interview with Clive Barker." Loveline, 21 August 1996. Revelations. 24 April 2009
      Jagose, Annamarie. Queer Theory An Introduction. New York: New York University Press, 1996.
      Kirsch, Max H. Queer Theory and Social Change. London: Routledge, 2000.
      Pickett, Brent. " Homosexuality." 29 November 2006. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. 24 April 2009 .