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Food and nutrition   mish
 

Food and nutrition mish

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  • Video is in the disc entitled Child malnutrition (FLV file)

Food and nutrition   mish Food and nutrition mish Presentation Transcript

  • Chapter 3
    FOOD AND NUTRITION
  • At the end of the chapter:
    • The students should be able to demonstrate the ability to apply basic principles of nutrition to meal planning.
    • Recognize the importance of good nutrition, meal planning, preparation, and service to the family.
  • Lesson 1
    IMPORTANCE OF GOOD HEALTH AND
    PROPER NUTRITION
    Do you see yourself in this situation? Can this affect your performance as a student? Why is proper nutrition closely related to good health?
    Let us watch a video about malnutrition
  • What is NUTRITION?
    Nutrition is the process by which you take in and assimilate the right amount of nutrients to keep you healthy and strong.
  • IMPORTANCE OF NUTRITION
    Proper nutrition is required for good health. Optimum nutrition results to good health that makes a person productive. Good health makes you lively, gets you interested in many things that you want to do, and makes you a pleasant person to be with.
  • How can you tell if a person is well-nourished and healthy?
    The characteristics of a well-nourished and healthy person are:
    • A well-shaped skeletal frame
    • Normal weight for one’s age and height
    • Good appetite
    • A well-developed body
    • A pleasant disposition
    • Healthy gums and a good set of teeth
  • How can you tell if a person is well-nourished and healthy?
    The characteristics of a well-nourished and healthy person are:
    • Clear eyes
    • Clean and smooth skin
    • A general appearance of vitality and well–being
    • Good body posture
    • Absence of any pain
    • Resistance to infection
  • MALNUTRITION AND UNDERNUTRITION
    Malnutrition is the relative lack or absolute deficiency, or excess of one or more essential nutrients. This results when the body does not get the proper kind and the right amount of nutrients that it needs for growth and survival. It also results when the body takes much more nutrients than it needs.
  • 2 TYPES of MALNUTRITION
    Acute Malnutrition
    - describes the present state of nutrition as indicated by your weight in proportion to your height.
    2. Chronic Malnutrition
    - describes the state of nutrition as shown by your height in relation to your age.
  • SYMPTOMS OF MALNUTRITION
    • Underweight or overweight for one’s age
    • Poor appetite
    • Weak and tired
    • Cannot sleep well
    • Pale
    • Sores appear at the corners of one’s mouth
    • Cannot see well in dim light
  • PROTEIN ENERGY MALNUTRITION (PEM)
    The most common and widespread form of malnutrition. Infants and young children are the ones seriously affected by this form of malnutrition. The most severe forms of PEM are kwashiorkor and marasmus.
  • Kwashiorkor is caused by severe lack of protein and may occur even if the children are getting enough calories from energy foods. Children affected have low resistance against infection.
  • Marasmus is caused by lack of calories or inadequate amount of protein. Children with marasmus are reduced to skin and bones. They look like old people with withered and wrinkled faces.
  • Undernutrition is a form of malnutrition. It results from inadequate intake of essential nutrients over an extended period of time. On the other hand, any amount of food added beyond what is required based on one’s age group and when taken regularly over time, will lead to overnutrition.
  • Lesson 2
    MAINTAINING GOOD HEALTH THROUGH PROPER NUTRITION
    Can you differentiate a well-nourished from a poorly nourished person?
  • DEVELOPING GOOD NUTRITION
    Developing good nutrition is practicing good eating habits. Here are sure ways to develop good nutrition and a sound and healthy well-being:
    Eat the right kind and the right amount of food.
    Pack a home-prepared school lunch.
    Eat nutritious snacks.
    Avoid eating spicy foods.
    Have plenty of rest and outdoor exercise.
    Eat your meals on time and in the company of your family.
  • IMPROVING ONE'S NUTRITIONAL STATUS
    The following ways help improve the nutritional status of the different members of the family:
    Milk, fish, meat, monggo, and eggs should be provided for normal growth and development of growing children. Vegetables and fruits should also be a part of the family’s daily diet.
    Protein-rich and body building foods, such as milk, meat, poultry, and eggs should be given to pregnant and nursing mothers.
    If there are vacant spaces outside the house, plant fruit trees and vegetables. Raise poultry, farm animals, and fish in the backyard in order to supplement some of the food needs of the family.
  • IMPROVING ONE'S NUTRITIONAL STATUS
    The following ways help improve the nutritional status of the different members of the family:
    Parents who space the birth of their children will be better able to provide the proper kind and amount of food for their children.
    The family should be given a well-balanced diet. Green, leafy, and yellow vegetables should be provided and fats and oil should be used at a minimum.
    The best milk for infants is still breastmilk from their mothers.
  • Lesson 3
    NUTRIENTS AND THEIR SOURCES AND FUNCTIONS
    A nutrient is an essential substance in natural food sources. It provides body heat and energy, builds and repairs body tissues, and regulates life processes.
  • Lesson 3
    NUTRIENTS AND THEIR SOURCES AND FUNCTIONS
    There are three general classifications of nutrients: macronutrients, micronutrients, and water.
    Water is a basic component of all foods and is essential to life.
    Fiber helps regulate the body functions, particularly the gastrointestinal tract.
  • Lesson 3
    NUTRIENTS AND THEIR SOURCES AND FUNCTIONS
    Nutrients can also be classified as organic, like carbohydrates, proteins, fats, and vitamins or inorganic, like minerals and water.
    Nutrients have very important physiological roles in the body.
    The function of each nutrient is equally essential as that of the other.
  • MACRONUTRIENTS
  • MICRONUTRIENTS
  • MICRONUTRIENTS
  • Lesson 4
    THE BALANCED MEAL
    Studies have shown that people who are well nourished generally eat balanced meals.
    A balanced meal contains all the food nutrients needed by the body in the right amount.
    The simplest and easiest way to check the nutritional adequacy of a meal is by using the Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA) guides provided by the Food and Nutrition Research Institute (FNRI).
  • THE FILIPINO PYRAMID FOOD GUIDE FOR TODAY'S LIFE STYLE
    fats, oils, sugar, salt
    fish, poultry, dry beans, nuts, egg, lean meats, low fat dairy
    vegetables, green salads, fruits or juices
    rice, root crops, corn, noodles, bread, cereals
    water, clear broth
    Eat a little
    Eat some
    Eat more
    Eat most
    Drink a lot
  • HEALTHY PYRAMID FOOD GROUP CHOICES
  • HEALTHY PYRAMID FOOD GROUP CHOICES
  • TIPS IN PLANNING A BALANCED MEAL
    In planning a balanced diet, the following points should be remembered:
    Limit your intake of fats to or below 30% of your total food intake and limit your intake of saturated fats to no more than 10% of your total food intake.
    Eat more food rich in carbohydrates, like grains, legumes, vegetables, and some fruits.
    Protein intake should be limited to just 12 to 15% of your daily diet.
  • TIPS IN PLANNING A BALANCED MEAL
    In planning a balanced diet, the following points should be remembered:
    Avoid too much sugar because not only does it contribute to tooth decay, but also because many foods high in sugar are high in fats.
    Take adequate amounts of vitamins and minerals particularly iron and calcium.
    Use the “Guide to Good Nutrition” in planning a balanced meal.
  • TIPS IN PLANNING A BALANCED MEAL
    In planning a balanced diet, the following points should be remembered:
    Distribute into three meals of the daily food requirements into the day.
    Take into account that foods must be provided in sufficient amount to meet the normal body requirements.
    Provide a variety of food daily.
  • TIPS IN PLANNING A BALANCED MEAL
    In planning a balanced diet, the following points should be remembered:
    Substitute cheap foods for expensive ones which have the same nutritive value.
    Prepare foods in such a way that the nutrients are conserved.
    Prepare nutritious snacks.
    Make leafy, green, and yellow vegetables a part of your daily meals.
  • EFFECTS OF A BALANCED DIET
    A balanced diet
    Provides children with the nutrients for growth and muscle-building;
    Supports the rapid increase in height of pre-adolescents;
    Provide adolescents with the nutrients for accelerated physical activities;
    Provides the elderly with food that will give them the energy for their daily activities and protect them from illnesses.
    Provides pregnant women with enough food for themselves and their baby.
  • Lesson 5
    PROPER STORAGE OF FOOD
    The Food Storage Network (FSN) have compiled some tips on food storage:
    Always follow the FIFO method (first in, first out).
    Always store cooked and ready-to-eat food away from raw food to prevent contamination.
    Keep storage area clean.
    Keep food items in clean wrappers and containers.
  • Lesson 5
    PROPER STORAGE OF FOOD
    The Food Storage Network (FSN) have compiled some tips on food storage:
    Store food only in areas intended for food storage.
    Store ready-to-eat foods at the upper portion of the refrigerator compartment.
    Raw food should be placed inside the freezer or any cold storage to avoid spoilage.
    Cover food to prevent drying and contamination.
  • HOME STORAGE PERIODS FOR VARIOUS FOODS
  • HOME STORAGE PERIODS FOR VARIOUS FOODS
  • HOME STORAGE PERIODS FOR VARIOUS FOODS
  • Lesson 6
    MEAL PREPARATION AND SERVICE
    Look at the picture below. What does it convey to you?
  • Steps in Meal Preparation:
    Decide on the menu for the occasion.
    Prepare the recipes, take note of the ingredients needed, and go through the procedure.
    Make a list of ingredients and equipment needed for the meal.
    Make a market list.
    Make a work and time schedule by referring to the recipes, the time of preparation, and the time the meal is to be served.
    Decide on the scheduled assignment of tasks if you are working with somebody.
  • Steps in Meal Preparation:
    Prepare the dishes by following these steps:
    - Wear your cooking outfit.
    - Wash your hands before handling food items.
    - Refer to the schedule and take note of your work assignment.
    - Assemble ingredients, cooking implements, and table and serving appointments from the list made in step three.
    - Serve the meal.
    - Clear away the table, wash the dishes, and put everything in their proper places.
    - Evaluate the meal and the occasion.
  • HOW TO AVOID LOSING NUTRIENTS DURING FOOD PREPARATION
    Cook fish quickly and at high temperature to retain its flavor and juices.
    Cook eggs at low to medium heat to keep them from becoming tough and discolored.
    As soon as hard boiled eggs are cooked, dip them in cold water at once so that their shells can be easily removed.
    Meat drippings contain the B vitamins. These can be used to make gravies and sauces.
  • Before cooking rice, remove the dirt and husk. Wash the rice once or twice without rubbing the grains.
    Eat the fresh fruits as soon as possible.
    Cook vegetables in a covered pot with a small amount of water until they are tender but not mushy.
    Use the water in which vegetables have been cooked for soups and sauces since most of their nutrients are dissolved into the cooking water.
    HOW TO AVOID LOSING NUTRIENTS DURING FOOD PREPARATION
  • HANDLING FOOD
    Wash hands and any exposed portion of the arms with soap and water before and after handling food.
    Do not handle food if you have severe colds.
    Keep fingernails clean and trimmed.
    Wear clean clothes when handling food.
    Do not smoke while cooking.
    Do not sneeze or cough near food.
    When handling food, remove rings and bracelets which can be possible sources of contamination.
    Use a tasting spoon for sampling food.
  • MEAL SERVICE
    Table setting – creates a certain atmosphere that adds to the enjoyment of the meals served.
    Table appointments – the flatware, dishes, liners, and centerpiece included in a table setting.
    Cover – an individual place setting.
  • Sample table settings for breakfast, lunch, and dinner:
    BREAKFAST LUNCH
    DINNER
  • PREPARING A SIMPLE BREAKFAST
    Breakfast is the first meal of the day. It should not be planned haphazardly or taken for granted because the amount and quality of your breakfast affects your performance of daily tasks.
    Lesson 7
  • Planning a simple breakfast menu
    A menuis a list of food served at mealtime while a menu pattern is the guide used in planning a menu. Food served during mealtime depends upon a menu pattern. A sample menu may be:
    * light meal
    * medium meal
    * heavy meal
  • Samples of healthy breakfast
    LIGHT BREAKFAST MEDIUM BREAKFAST
    HEAVY BREAKFAST