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  3. 3. During the nineteenth century married womenwere expected to stay at home and look after thechildren. One reason why women have equalrights is due to women’s movements3 political reforms:  The married women’s property act (1882)  Sex discrimination act (1975)  Electoral reform act (1928)2 economic changes:  Equal pay act  The married women’s property act (1882) 3
  4. 4. Reasons for the ordination of women:  They will bring different skills/ideas to the job  Jesus lived in a time when he could not have women disciples, they would not have began accepted  The churches organisations were made by men, its time roles changed to give equality  The church’s religious teachings should not be changed, but the custom of having male priests is not religious, it was a rule made by men and it can be changedReasons against the ordination of women:  Keeping with tradition, reminding society that men and women have different vocations but are equal in the sight of God  Lots of women were already involved in the church, they will not be doing much more if they become priests  It will split the church and lots of people will leave which is bad. 4
  5. 5. Jesus, however, always showed by his actions that he respected andvalued women. He included them among his closest companions, andsometimes went against the conventions of his time which kept menand women apart. Jesus made it clear in the Parable of the GoodSamaritan how his followers should treat people – he made nodistinction between men and women.Some Christian denominations have recently begun to allow womento be priests or ministers (e.g. Church of England and the Methodistchurch). Some remain opposed to this (e.g. the Roman CatholicChurch). Some Christians believe that women are second to men, thatmen should lead and women should follow (see 1 Timothy 2:8–15).So although Christianity teaches that everyone should be equal andshould be treated the same, this doesnt always happen. 5
  6. 6. Many people think that the Christian Church is sexist. It does not treat men andwomen equally.The teaching of St Paul is often quoted to support the way some churches today treatwomen. From the extracts below, it would seem that he believed that the role ofwomen was different to that of men, and secondary to it.St Paul said:Women should remain silent in the churches. They are not allowed to speak, but mustbe in submission, as the Law says. If they want to enquire about something, theyshould ask their own husbands at home; for it is disgraceful for a woman to speak inthe church.1 Corinthians 14:34-35Now I want you to realise that the head of every man is Christ, and the head of thewoman is man, and the head of Christ is God. Every man who prays or prophesies withhis head covered dishonours his head. And every woman who prays or prophesieswith her head uncovered dishonours her head - it is just as though her head wereshaved. If a woman does not cover her head, she should have her hair cut off; and if itis a disgrace for a woman to have her hair cut or shaved off, she should cover herhead. A man ought not to cover his head, since he is the image and glory of God; butthe woman is the glory of man.1 Corinthians 11:3-7 6
  7. 7. Traditional Christian roles:Men = provide for family, lead the family in religion, love theirwives. They can be church leaders or teachersWomen = bring up children, run a Christian home, not speak inchurch, submit to their husbands, cannot be church leaders orteachersReasons for traditional Christian beliefs:St Paul taught that woman should not speak or teach in churchGenesis 2 says Adam was created first“wives submit to their husbands as to the lord”“for Adam was formed first… and Adam was not the one deceived”Modern Christian roles:Men = can be ministers and priests, have equal roles, shareauthority with wife, share role in religionWomen = can be ministers and priests, have equal roles, shareauthority with husbands, share role in religionReasons for modern Christian belief:Jesus preached in the court of women in the Jerusalemtemple, means women are importantJesus appeared to a woman first when he resurrected 7
  8. 8. Roles of men and women Roman Catholic:Men= allowed to be priests, love their wife, haveequal rolesWomen = have equal roles, love their husbands, notallowed to be priestsReasons for Roman Catholic beliefs on roles ofmen and women:  Jesus only appointed men as apostles so only men can be priests 8
  9. 9. Islam also teaches that men and women are equal in thesight of Allah. They are individually accountable for theiractions, and will be judged equally by Allah.However, although men and women are equal, they are notthe same. They have different purposes. It is part of Allah’sdesign and purpose for men and women to have differentphysical characteristics; likewise it is the duty of a man toprovide for the financial needs of his family, and for awoman to look after the home and family. 9
  10. 10. Islam also teaches that men andwomen are equal in the sight of Allah.They are individually accountable fortheir actions, and will be judgedequally by Allah.However, although men and womenare equal, they are not the same.They have different purposes. It ispart of Allah’s design and purpose formen and women to have differentphysical characteristics; likewise it isthe duty of a man to provide for thefinancial needs of his family, and for awoman to look after the home andfamily. 10
  11. 11.  O Prophet, direct thy wives and daughters and the women of the believers that they should pull down their outer cloaks from their heads over their faces. This will make it possible for them to be distinguished so that they will not be molested. Surah 33:59 Wives have rights corresponding to those which the husbands have, in equitable reciprocity, though, in certain situations men would have the final word and would thus enjoy a preference. Surah 2:229 Men are appointed guardians over women, because of that in respect of which Allah has made some of them excel others, and because men spend of their wealth. Surah 4:35 11
  12. 12.  Although the rights of women are different to those of men, they do have the right to choose whom they marry, to divorce, to study, to own property, to conduct business and to take part in politics. The Prophet Muhammad stressed the importance of women and the respect that should be shown to them when he said: Paradise lies at the feet of your mother. (Sunan An- Nasa’i). 12
  13. 13. Traditional roles in Islam:Men = provide for their family by working, make sure their children asgood Muslims and go to Madrasah, worship God in the MosqueWomen = to have children and create a halal home, worship God athome and complete all five pillars except hajj.Reasons for traditional roles in Islam:Men meant to support women quote “men stand a step above them”Meant to worship separately to not get distractedModern roles in Islam:Men = have complete equal roles with women, can pray with women.Women = can have careers, but job of being a mother should prioritiseover thisReasons for modern roles in Islam:The Quran teaches that men and women are equal in religion andeducation.There is evidence from the life of the Prophet that Muhammadencouraged both men and women to worship in the mosque.There were women religious leaders during the early stages of Islamwhose advice was asked by the early caliphs. 13