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Dissertation 1

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Apathy towards alternate energy vehicles.

Apathy towards alternate energy vehicles.


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  • 1. INSTITUTE OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION, KARACHI BUSINESS MBA THESIS “Comparative study of Impact of CelebrityEndorsements on the Purchasing Behaviour of UK and Pakistani college/university students.” MBA THESIS Page 1
  • 2. INSTITUTE OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION, KARACHI BUSINESS MBA THESISABSTRACTCelebrity brand endorsements are believed to influence the purchasing behaviour of consumersall around the world. It is relationship between the two variables i.e. buying behaviour ofcollege students and the celebrity brand endorsement is what this study embarks to fathom.Celebrity endorsements have always been considered worthwhile since organizations getsubstantial return by the campaigns for promotions backed by the celebrities. Huge amounts ofmoney are poured into such campaigns and the results are in shape of the buying patterns thatconsumers portray through their shopping visits. The students from prestigious universities arebrought in to the research through ample representation from the student body of both theinstitutions from Pakistan and UK. Karachi University in Pakistan is a state university with arich history and a sample of twenty has been analyzed through quantitative methods so as tohow much they are influenced by the discussed phenomenon.The university with which the comparison is drawn and analyzed is London School of Businessand Finance that parallels Karachi University in many aspects. The study encompasses all themotivations and stimulus, related to the buying behaviour, which the organizations capitalizeupon with celebrities in their advertisements. The questionnaire has taken care of including allthe areas that address the relevant issues with the youth of both the countries regardingcelebrity brand endorsements. Research methodology is based upon the quantitative analysis ofthe questionnaire responses by different statistical tools further explained in the methodologyand findings are thus listed in order to come up with substantial conclusions andrecommendations. Page 2
  • 3. INSTITUTE OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION, KARACHI BUSINESS MBA THESIS ACKNOWLEDGEMENTI would like to acknowledge the support of my research supervisor Mr. Muhammad IshaqueShaikh, whose valuable feedback has always helped me in keeping up with the best wayspossible to complete this dissertation since it’s so far my biggest achievement in academic life asthis is for every other student also. This piece of work is what I take pride in since I have beenable to explore an area of my interest and this couldn’t have been imagined that I would be ableto accomplish such a mammoth task since it is all because of the support from the administrationof The Institute of Business Administration, KarachiThis phase was rigorous and I contacted the supervisor whenever I felt the need and I am gladthat I always got a positive response that to my delight had also been productive as it can be seenthroughout this thesis. Page 3
  • 4. INSTITUTE OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION, KARACHI BUSINESS MBA THESIS TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION ………..71.1 Backdrop and reason behind the study........................................71.2 Purpose or objective of the study..................................................101.3 Problem Statement.........................................................................111.4 Significance of the study.................................................................12 CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW2.1 Concerns regarding Brands...............................................................14 2.1.1 Definition of Brand...............................14 2.1.2 Brand Strategy.......................................16 2.1.3 Brand Identity........................................17 2.1.4 Brand Management................................18 2.1.5 Brand Audit............................................19 2.1.6 Brand Equity...........................................21 2.1.7 The Brand Equity Pyramid.....................22 2.1.8 Brand Strategy Development..................23 2.1.9 Brand Communications Plan..................24 2.1.10 Brand Experience....................................252.2 Celebrity Aspects..................................................................................25 2.2.1 Definition of Celebrity...........................25 2.2.2 Celebrity as stars.....................................27 Page 4
  • 5. INSTITUTE OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION, KARACHI BUSINESS MBA THESIS 2.2.3 All-seeing, All-knowing, All-powerful..............27 2.2.4 Aspects related to Celebrity...............................28 2.2.4.1 Celebrity Values (Celebrity –Product Match).....................28 2.2.4.2 Costs related to celebrity......................................................28 2.2.4.3 Celebrity controversy risks, popularity and availability.......29 2.2.4.4 Physical appeal to the celebrity............................................30 2.2.4.5 Celebrity – A brand user......................................................302.3 What endorsements entail?.............................................................312.4 Celebrity Brand Endorsements in both the countries..................31 CHAPTER 3: METHODOLOGY 333.1 Research Strategy.............................................................................33 3.1.1 Sampling Technique................................343.2 Objectives behind every research question....................................353.3 Choosing web based survey methodology......................................373.4 Reasons behind not choosing other methodologies.......................39 3.4.1 Disadvantages of telephonic surveys................40 3.4.2 Disadvantages of one to one surveys................403.5 Validity, Reliability, and generalisibility..........................................413.6 Statistical Methodology......................................................................41 CHAPTER 4: FINDINGS 434.1 Buying Motivation...............................................................................434.2 Reasons for celebrities endorsing brands..........................................464.3 Preference of Celebrity Attributes.....................................................484.4 Celebrity Personality influencing Brand Image................................524.5 Price Premium for celebrity endorsements........................................544.6 Brand Recall with Leonardo Dicaprio………………………………574.7 Respondents’ Profile.............................................................................60 CHAPTER 5: ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION615.1 Hypothesis 1...........................................................................................615.2 Hypothesis 2...........................................................................................655.3 Analysis of open ended responses.........................................................68 Page 5
  • 6. INSTITUTE OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION, KARACHI BUSINESS MBA THESISCHAPTER 6: CONCLUSION & RECOMMENDATIONS 73 CHAPTER 7: REFERENCES 77 CHAPTER 8: APPENDICES 81 TABLE OF CHARTSBuying Motivation Page 43For UK students 43For Pakistani students 44Reasons for celebrities endorsing brands Page 46For UK students 46For Pakistani students 46Preference of celebrity attributes Page 48For UK students 48For Pakistani students 50Celebrity personality influencing brand image Page 52For UK students 52For Pakistani students 52Price premium for celebrity endorsement Page 54For UK students 54For Pakistani students 55Brand recall with Leonardo Dicaprio Page 57For UK students 57For Pakistani students 58Analysis of open ended questions Page 68 Page 6
  • 7. INSTITUTE OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION, KARACHI BUSINESS MBA THESISFor UK students 68For Pakistani students 70CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTIONThe area of my research is specified by the topic: Comparative study of Impact of CelebrityEndorsement on the Purchasing Behaviour of UK and Pakistani college/university students. Thestudy is based upon my personal assumption that celebrity endorsements in advertisingcampaigns exercise a considerable influence on dictating and influencing mindsets of targetsegment. Being an international student, I believe that there’s a difference between the extents towhich the students are influenced by such campaigns having different backgrounds in terms ofnationality. CIA World Fact Book (2011) lists UK at 32nd position and Pakistan at 135th positionas far as the GDP per capita of both the countries is concerned, the difference is evidentlyyawning and gives credence to the case that I intend to make in this study. UK is a developedcountry that belongs to Europe. UK’s youth population, according to Grundy & Jamieson (2002)is composed of 12.1% (age 18 to 24). Page 7
  • 8. INSTITUTE OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION, KARACHI BUSINESS MBA THESISOn the other hand, Pakistan is a country that belongs to Asia and is a third world country whichhas been struggling with its economic standing regionally as well as worldwide. WorldPopulation Foundation (2011) states that Pakistan’s population is composed of 64% youth (underage 25) which is a sign of vibrant nation. It’s a major chunk from the whole population which isbelieved to be more receptive and impressionable to the advertisements’ communication. So thestudents from a reputed university in both the countries would be taken into the sample of 40 inorder to compare their motivations regarding celebrity endorsements in the advertisementsprevalent in every medium we come across with in today’s world. The difference in the youthpopulation and economic backgrounds paves the way for undertaking the study with a goal inmind.1.1 Backdrop and reason behind the studyThe reason why this topic is of interest is based on the most prevalent phenomenon throughoutthe globe lately – the power of media, that I intend to gauge across the globe between thestudents of UK and Pakistan. The 20th century ushered in the advent of media that had not beenas vibrant and ubiquitous in previous era as they are today. OGuinn, Allen & Semenik (2009)explain that all the media networks are the tools which organizations employ to churn out profitsthrough creative advertising tactics. They go to the extent of declaring all the relevant gimmicksas branded entertainment. They portray the evolution of advertising till date and eventually hailthe first decade of the 21st century, i.e. 2000 onwards, as “consumer empowerment and brandedentertainment” era. Television and radio ruled the media landscape and the advertising embarkedon the journey to evolution that till date have been indispensible aspects of any business. Thecompetition has been fierce among the firms who have always been trying to assume major Page 8
  • 9. INSTITUTE OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION, KARACHI BUSINESS MBA THESISmarket share and for this very reason, they always intend to grab and hold the attention ofconsumer. One of the many cogent gimmicks that advertising utilizes is celebrity endorsementsfor their respective products and services.Celebrity endorsement is effectively defined by the branding strategy insider (2010) as the wayof communication with respect to the brands, in which the celebrity speaks about the benefits andattributes of the brand relating it to his or her personal life experiences so as to render originalityin the messages communicated by organization to the consumers through different media. Thereare so many aspects which are prominent among the celebrities like reputation, name, lifestyleand personality that are also the elements of a brand, so the connection between the reputationand personality of the two can do wonders for the brand recall if the match is up to the mark.The celebrity brand endorsements, in view of Majumdar (2010), are effective and result orientedand he associates few aspects with the discussed technique of endorsements such as rapid recalland mass awareness, brand positioning, credibility of the advertisement’s message, and manymore. Majumdar (2010) believes in the sheer ability of brand endorsements to create a deepimpact on consumers’ thoughts so as to elicit purchases from them against something grandiosepromised by the reputed celebrities. The level of impact that the celebrities have on theconsumers’ mindsets has been established as a universal fact. Organizations start withpositioning their proposition and then targeting the consumer section that eventually prompt thefirms to come up with a creative strategy to communicate the message effectively to theconsumers. Tolani (n.d.) states that contemporary trends in advertising have been influenced bythe choices that the consumer is bombarded with now. He mentions internet marketing as theforemost concern in this part of the century that include viral marketing campaigns, socialmarketing, etc in which the role of celebrities could be used to the best interests of organizationalmotives to get the message across by in social terms as well.Young people have always been prone to the behavioural antics of the celebrities they admiresince their impressionable minds hold them in high esteem. This is the reason they emulate themand do whatever they perceive their favourite celebrities do to appear socially famous andacceptable. The case in point is of Australian Department of Health’s deregulation campaign of Page 9
  • 10. INSTITUTE OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION, KARACHI BUSINESS MBA THESISnicotine replacement therapy (NRT) products in 1997 as quoted by Chapman & Leask (2001).The campaign was backed by the advertisements in which the famous Australian cricketer wassigned in as the endorser. The case is a testimony to the celebrity endorsements’ impact onyoung population of the nation that mostly include the students. The case study says that ShaneWarn couldn’t keep up with the terms of not smoking. The act of public smoking by Warne hada huge impact on the nation’s young section of population since he was looked up to as an idealathlete and the impression was being made in the minds of youth that smoking did wonders tothe athletic performance if it is done by Shane Warne. The excerpt from the AustralianDepartment of Health’s deregulation campaign of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) case is asfollows:“But if he accepted an approach from a company wanting to make money out of helping smokersto quit, he was equally reprehensible. It would seem that, based on public reaction, the onlymorally acceptable path for Warne to have taken would be to have refused to have taken themoney.” I am of the view, in conjunction to the above mentioned, that youngsters take more of theimpression from celebrity brand endorsements. Advertising is overall an interesting phenomenonto delve deeper into but my research area is based upon analysing the difference, if there is any,between the buying behaviour or preferences of youth from both the countries so that we couldestablish the degree of contrast through an independent study.1.2 Purpose of the studyThe purpose of the research is to establish whether there’s a difference between the extents ofimpact that the consumers, from two very different countries, have on their purchasingbehaviour. This behaviour is measured in terms of the influence of advertising campaigns thatboast celebrities, who are well known in their respective spheres, endorsing the brands. Thedifference is emphasized on the basis of nationality keeping in perspective the age bracket of 18to 30 years that include both the graduate and post graduate students in the sampling frame. Thestudents are specified to be included in the sample owing to the fact that they are the most Page 10
  • 11. INSTITUTE OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION, KARACHI BUSINESS MBA THESISimpressionable individuals who make extensive use of media through digital and social means.The study is independent in a sense that the personal observation is unique in this regard sincethe researcher has himself observed considerable impact on students in UK as well as inPakistan.The purpose of the study is justified in a sense that organizations worldwide spend major chunkof their marketing and advertising communications, and the impact that is created has alwaysbeen of more concern to the firms. Researcher intends to gauge the impact across the globe onthe students to make it clear for the interested stakeholders to get glimpse of a big picturethrough this modest initiative. As Taleja (2010) quotes numerous factors that the organizationsneed to reign in for the celebrity incorporation in their advertisements. The costs are not onlyrelated to the fee that the celebrities charge to act in the advertisements or for endorsing thebrands but also to the concerns that products and celebrities have to be matched in reputation,availability of the celebrity, and many other considerations.The study also serves its purpose in exploring positive aspects of brand celebrity endorsementsby recognising the legible impacts on the youth which is supposed to be the most receptive andmentally agile section of society. As far as the negative perceptions of celebrity brandendorsements are concerned, Bhandari (2009), in his article regarding endorsements’ worth,defines the celebrity brand endorsements as “nothing but lazy advertisement”. What caused thiscritique from Bhandari are the varied costs related to such endorsements as he states that thebrands are associated with the celebrities to communicate the message in best possible wayconsuming fraction of the time against the advertisements with no prominent celebrity, but whatturns this phenomenon ugly is the fact that most of the times the brands themselves could havebeen worked upon before endorsing them through any celebrity.These links and missing links are what this study has to consider, keeping in perspectives, theyounger generation’s motivations to purchase the brand with a celebrity’s endorsement.1.3 Problem statement Page 11
  • 12. INSTITUTE OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION, KARACHI BUSINESS MBA THESISThe problem is related to the degree of difference between the level of impact that the celebritybrand endorsements has on the students’ buying behaviours from different national and culturalbackgrounds. The questions that this research work sets out to address are related to themotivations of consumers in relation to the celebrity appeal used in the advertisements:-In what ways do the students get influenced by the celebrity brand endorsements in theadvertising campaigns worldwide?-What is the level of attention that the celebrity brand endorsements grasp from the studentsection of a society?-Does the country’s economic and social setup practice the influence over the celebrity brandendorsements campaigns’ objectives?The underlying assumption is the study is that the difference is not there since the youth fromboth the countries have got ample access to the global media and they are always subjected to thesame kinds of celebrity brand endorsements most of the times. The study furthers this hypothesisin the best way possible through quantitative methods entailed by administering close-endquestionnaires among all the respondents. Questionnaire includes all the areas addressed relatedto the celebrity brand endorsements so the results and analysis do possess substance.Aim of the research and its objectives:The hypotheses or assumptions that are assessed through this research work are:Assumption 1:HoConsumer perception about the influence of Celebritys Personality to a Brand Personality inboth the countries is the same i.e. P1 - P2 = 0HaConsumer perception about the influence of Celebritys Personality to a Brand Personality inboth the countries is not the same i.e. P1 - P2 ≠ 0Assumption 2: Page 12
  • 13. INSTITUTE OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION, KARACHI BUSINESS MBA THESISHoSame proportion of Consumer will pay extra money for the brand endorsed by their favouritecelebrity in both countriesHaSame proportion of Consumer will not pay extra money for the brand endorsed by theirfavourite celebrity in both countries1.4 Significance of the studyThe endeavor is significant in the light of the magnitude of efforts that the firms put intorealizing profits from their marketing communications, advertisements, promotional campaign,etc. Brands have always been significant as far as the marketing communication goes. The brandis emotionally oriented phenomenon that, in words of Herman (2003), is reoriented inaccordance with today’s competitive dynamism. Herman (2003) opines that brand is theexpectation and anticipation of how the consumers would be feeling through the experiences ofavailing the product or services.The sphere of branding is as vast as the landscape of marketing communications, and in additionto the brand, every other element in the topic possesses significance in a sense that celebrityitself has a legitimate definition and Haywood (2011) affirms this by portraying the relationshipbetween the celebrities and brands on the basis of reputation that they both mutually possess.Haywood states that firms have been successful in identifying the celebrity characteristics thatmatch with the characteristics of their proposition that include both products and services andsign those celebrities in the promotional campaigns to add glamour and emotional appeal in theadvertising message.The last thing, but not the least, is endorsement that can ideally be regarded as ethical benchmarkfor communications in advertising. Whether they are by celebrities or previous patrons of aproduct or services, endorsements do entail ethical responsibility and this is what makes this partvery significant. Thus the research as a whole is significant indeed as it will add value to the Page 13
  • 14. INSTITUTE OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION, KARACHI BUSINESS MBA THESISknowledge base of the concerned segment by parallels in order to make the connection crisp,between the celebrity brand endorsements, being an integrally important part of marketingcommunications, and the buying behaviour of consumers who are the main focus of the firms.CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEWThe theoretical framework for this research work entails the detailed analysis of all thecomponents that make up the phenomenon of celebrity brand endorsements. The various factorsthat make up the whole concept are discussed in detail in accordance with relevant literature andresearches. The brand is the part which makes up the major chunk in this regard since everythingis exclusively attached to the brand recognition and personality makeup while celebrity makeshimself available for the brand for various reasons behind that relates to his or her own interestsand personality and other motivations. The research work has got two nationalities involved, i.e.Britain and Pakistanis, so the comparative analysis precede a considerable account of what they Page 14
  • 15. INSTITUTE OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION, KARACHI BUSINESS MBA THESISboth differ in their knowledge of the subject and how are they projected to the media, i.e. to whatextent they are exposed to the celebrity brand endorsements. In this way the underlyingphenomenon of consumer buying behavior will also be discussed with respect to the literature.2.1 Concerns regarding Brand:2.1.1 Definition of BrandThe very important aspect in the phenomenon that this study has assessed is brand. Middleton(2010) regards brand as the other word for meaning and he defines the term in equivalent mannerby associating the brand with all the meanings that reside in hearts and minds of the consumersregarding a certain experience or product. The brand is highlighted as everything that thecustomers and potential customers think and feel about a particular product or service. ThePersuasive Brands (2011) defines the brand as a perception that consumer garners in his mindregarding the product or service and the collection of all the relevant perceptions and imagesmake up a set that is called brand. The consumers generally respond to the brands in connectionto the different aspects like logo, jingle in the ad, tagline or something of the same proportion butthe scope of brand is more that these factors and brand is regarded principally by the professionalas the promise or essence for the delivery of required experience or product quality to theconsumer. The brand management is an aspect that the businesses strives the most at. Thebranding per se is a vast subject professionally as well as academically. There are plethora ofarea and dimensions associated with the term that are discussed ahead in this literature review soas to create a substantial background of the study.Hahn (2007) is of the view that ever since the birth of man branding has made choices easy forthe customers and performance measurement easy for the organizations. It is now a commonperception that business performance is bolstered to a great extent by strong brands. Brands havethe power to elevate the image of company in the eyes of informed buyers as well as foruninformed buyers since brand makes the product prominent in the market place and makes itstand out of the lot. Hahn states that brand is ideally defined as the connection which is formed Page 15
  • 16. INSTITUTE OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION, KARACHI BUSINESS MBA THESISon emotional and personal basis that it becomes very intimate with the customers who then.There’s a mention of accumulate experience in the texts that relate to the various aspects ofbranding.Hahn (2007) endorses the value of brand to appear positively before the consumers’ eyes sincethis is the tactic through which the virtues of loyalty, trust and satisfaction could be cultivatedbetween the brand and the end consumers. The credibility gives organization the benefit ofenhanced shareholder value and consequently the long run acceptance and growth in the market.Brand exudes a feeling and conviction that is believed to be a practice for business integrationand success. Hahn (2007) believes that brand should be communicated through every procedurethat the organization take part in and through every action and inaction that the company takes.Branding is an unstoppable phenomenon that needs to be weaved across all the organizationalelements in order to enhance the services and image at every customer contact point so as tocreate customer loyalty and advocacy.The branding is composed of few exhaustive disciplines that Hahn (2007) elaborates and thosedisciplines further have their own elements that contribute to the development and sustainabilityof a brand. What Hahn mentions as the disciplines are: Brand Strategy, Brand Identity, BrandManagement, and Brand Experience. The detailed discussion of theses disciplines, with relevantsources is as follows:2.1.2 Brand StrategyAhmad & Clifton (2009) states the importance of branding as a strategic tool in a sense that heequates brands with a lot more than devising logo and other communication gimmicks. Theauthors condemn the perception of early organizational managers who took branding as merely acosmetic approach to tinker with the logo and this was tantamount to saying bluntly that thecustomers are not of their concern. The branding is all about generating sustainable wealth that isthe core element of the strategy devised at strategic levels of all the companies worldwide. In thedecision making process of organizations, the brand adds the most valuable inputs so as to makeorganizations able to cut costs where necessary and to invest where needed. The major benefits Page 16
  • 17. INSTITUTE OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION, KARACHI BUSINESS MBA THESISthat commonly are generated out of branding are the loyal customers and some extent of securitywith respect to the patterns of demand. Ahmad & Clifton (2009) cites one of the chief executivesas he attributes ultimate success to all those organizations where the brand is not only regardedas something to advertise and market but also is permeated throughout the modus operandi oforganizations at all hierarchical levels. Each and everything that the organizational member doesshould exude the brand as a holistic and universal phenomenon that should span over the wholeentity.Brand is strategized by the factors that Nissim (2005) enumerates as perception, value anddifferentiation. He elaborates the logic behind the connection between all of them by stating thatperception is the starting point in building a brand since whatever organization does, howeversmall or big, eventually becomes the part of the brand. The perceptions relate to the customerswho observe the behaviour of all the members of organization. Nissim exemplifies McDonald’srestaurants in the discussion and says that everything from the taste of meal to the behaviour ofemployee in the parking lot with a customer represents brand. The value is ingrained in theproduct and services that the organization offers amidst tough and dynamic competition in whichthe alternatives are abounding. What makes one stand out of others is the value that a certainbrand can offer without any parallel. Differentiation is an extended aspect of value in which thecustomers actually recognize the difference between the product offerings of various players inthe field or industry. Nissim emphasizes on creating a compelling story that could help the brandevolve and sore heights. Merely following suit with the industry trends is not an option to build abrand but what the branding entails as a strategy is some daring action to lodge a specializedcorner in consumers’ minds and hearts and this is where differentiation gets the wonders done.2.1.3 Brand IdentityTemporal (2002) defines and differentiates among various identities that the organization striveswith throughout its life span. He opines that it is very crucial to tell such identities apart fromeach other since they make up the reason for the organizational existence. Corporate identity isdefined by Temporal (2002) as an area related to the visuals of the company’s existence. Theexercises for corporate identity are undertaken by various companies on frequent basis. These Page 17
  • 18. INSTITUTE OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION, KARACHI BUSINESS MBA THESISexercises bring innovation and changes in to the designs, logos and collaterals that areinstrumental to the image of the organizational brand. These endeavours are directed towardsmodernizing the aspects of branding but the core essence of brand remains intact. The brand isalways regarded with what it stands for making its personality perpetually recognizable. Theidentity is most of the time mistaken by the corporate entities to be changeable by these actionsbut the fact remains that changing logos and imagery do not change the brand itself as theagencies and consultancies. The quality is an aspect which is most primarily related to the imageof organization that ultimately make the brand identifiable so the quality remains at the heart ofall the functions in the organization and it needs overhauling not the logos and signage alone.Brand identity or personality is therefore defined in terms of entire notion that an organizationcarried with itself in its operations and deeds. The brand identity reins in the various componentsof quality, service, values, and the benefits that the product of a particular brand promises.Identity of a brand is what consumers perceive about the brand so that it personifies before themin a certain manner, for example charismatic in case of Mont Blanc. Brand identity is ultimatelyeverything that the company wants to be before the eyes of customers. Brand image is most ofthe times confused with the phenomenon of brand identity. Both the terms are different in asense that image is what customers actually perceive about the organization and this perceptiondoesn’t have to be in line with what organization wants it to be seen so there can be some gapbetween the communications that causes image to be different from actual brand identitycultivated by the organization.Airey (2010) further simplifies the aspect of brand identity and says that brand identity is theidentity that customers think of when the brand name is mentioned rather than thinking of theproduct or service related to the brand. He enumerates various brands, including TIME,Microsoft, Ford, Apple etc that appeared positively before customers’ eyes. Brand identity istherefore related to the way that customers look at the brands and this has been of huge concernfor the organizational heads ever since the emergence of dynamic competition since creating abrand identity has to do a lot with the investments necessary for achieving recognition rates butnevertheless organizations always try to put their best façade before the customers. Montoya & Page 18
  • 19. INSTITUTE OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION, KARACHI BUSINESS MBA THESISVandehey (2009) puts the phenomenon of brand identity is disciplinary manner by declaringsome crucial elements that make up the official identity that is then communicated consistentlyto the target audience. The elements included company name, slogan and an icon which all makeup the organizational brand identity.2.1.4 Brand ManagementBrand management is a discipline that takes care of everything mentioned above and all theaspects that relate to the overall branding of the organization. Phillips (2004) elaborates thebrand management as the way to build brands by putting customer needs at the centre of theorganizational spectrum. The brand management is about differentiating the brand andinculcating emotional connections with them so as to benefit the organization in the very longrun.Developing a brand entails rigor and persistence over a period of time so that the endeavourscould bear fruits. Entrepreneur.com (2011) represents branding as a fully fledged discipline thatpossesses concrete decisions regarding: - Mission of the organization - The benefits that products and services offer to the target market - Prevalent image and perception of the customers from the very beginning - Aspirations of the company regarding the level of quality they want to be associated withThe process of developing a brand starts after realizing the above mentioned and recognizing theneed of modern times. Phillips (2004) has further expatiated upon the brand management andsays that the customers are the base of understanding the brand whether it’s the essence oranything related remotely to it. The other customers are the internal stakeholders that speciallymake up the employees of the organization. All the perceptions and concepts that all the Page 19
  • 20. INSTITUTE OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION, KARACHI BUSINESS MBA THESISstakeholders garner in their mind about the image, reputation and reliability of the stakeholderscan be exploited in order to add more appeal and value to the branding aspect.The factors and images are abounding and can be explained as the level of familiarity ofcustomers regarding the market competition in the relevant industry with the company ororganization, the extent to which the perceptions are positive or negative regarding the brand, thelevel of depth with which the views regarding the organizational brands are held by theconsumers – which is something very important regarding the creation of emotional appeal withthe brand. The perception also is counted regarding the chance of brand strength afforded to itthrough barriers and existent opportunities. The management of the branding aspect requiresrigorous work on the part of relevant managers who have to make sure that the brand hasconsiderably positive impact on the consumers, their decisions and lifestyles, and ultimately howprofound the impact is there on the organizational financial position.Brand Management has come up with different concepts of branding that helps to evolve andsustain the brand over a long period of time. Few of the concepts are described below:2.1.5 Brand AuditBrand audit is entirely a customer based phenomenon that is basically the assessment of brand’shealth and hygiene. The brand audit is different from the normal audit that has financialunderpinnings since it’s carried out internally, as Phillips (2004) quotes. In the audit, managersand relevant workforce strive to unearth what sources have been adding to the brand equity andconsequently ways to capitalize upon those to enhance and leverage equity. Brand audit is allabout exploring the current trends and information regarding a particular brand and this auditdoes entail a primary research. This brand audit serves the organization In a way that wholebrand strategy is then predicated upon its findings. The relationships between brand andstakeholders are of importance and audit connects information of such relationships with thedevelopment of brand on strategic levels. Page 20
  • 21. INSTITUTE OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION, KARACHI BUSINESS MBA THESISPhillips (2004) enumerates the following steps that make up the whole brand audit which areexplained as follows: - The perusal and analysis of the data both of primary and secondary nature, through which the trends and impacts of the brand could be elicited on the industry as well as on the consumer. - The reviews and analysis also are carried out in order to know the impact of the competition prevalent in the industry. This entails the data collection on the crucial competitors and the market dominating firms with their own brands. - The internal stakeholders are assessed through different techniques of interviewing in order to know what the managers and sales force think of the business and the brand being assigned with the huge responsibilities to manage it. - The impact is very important with regard to the influence of media, analysts and other constituencies that are constantly in touch with the internal and external stakeholders involved in building up the brand. - The customers, as mentioned before, are crucial for the branding decisions by the organizations so they are to be researched rigorously time to time in order to disclose what thoughts and perceptions the customers keep with them related to the particular brand. For this very purpose, the customer research is regarded most important as the primary data on which the future actions could be predicated upon. - The research is also thoroughly carried out regarding the connection of sales revenues with the past trends. The factors are recognized that drive the revenues and point out the potential sources of danger in line with the analysis. Each and every aspect of consumer demographics is also researched in this regard to minimize the risks as much as possible. Page 21
  • 22. INSTITUTE OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION, KARACHI BUSINESS MBA THESIS - The analysis of strengths and weaknesses is carried out along with that of opportunities and threats so that the marketing 4 Ps could be brought in sync with the extracted. The brand is strong with such vigorous research behind to bolster its actions. - The impact is really important to be analyzed with the consistency levels of the brand and this is carried out through assessing the attributes related to the product’s strengths and weaknesses, the strategy of pricing and positioning in the competitive environment, the strategy related to the distribution, and the factors related to brand personality and characteristics.2.1.6 Brand EquityPhillips hails the differentiated bond as brand equity, an area that relates to the customers’loyalty, profitability, and shield against negative word of mouth or competitive abuse. These allthe aspects are in terms of original and valuable asset with financial and tangible outcomes.LePla, et al (2003) expands upon the concept of brand equity and says that brand equitymeasurements do allow the quantification of the nature of relationship the consumers have with abrand. The most common perception in this regard is that the returns on the company’sinvestments are highest when the deep relationship is created. Hansen & Christensen (2007)categorizes the brand equity into three: - What consumers think and feel i.e. consumer based. - What’s the behavioural response that brand is getting. - Market based equity that is gauged in financial investments and returns. But this study is related to the mental brand equity since the buying behaviour is to be gauged against the emotions and feelings associated with different brands.2.1.7 The Brand Equity Pyramid Page 22
  • 23. INSTITUTE OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION, KARACHI BUSINESS MBA THESISThe diagram shows CBBE (Customer Based Brand Equity) that Keller (n.d.) defines as:“The differential effect that brand knowledge has on consumer response to the marketing of thatbrand”From the diagram, it can easily be conceived that the pyramid assess the level of equity thatbrand possesses. It starts with mere identity and familiarity with any aspect of the brand then if isfollowed by the discovery phase where consumer actually explores the brand. The response afterthe exploration determines the fate of relationship that is cultivated between brand and theconsumer.2.1.8 Brand Strategy DevelopmentAn aspect that is actually developed under brand management discipline, according to Phillips(2004), it includes the following factors: Page 23
  • 24. INSTITUTE OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION, KARACHI BUSINESS MBA THESIS - The brand vision is the essence that could be elaborated as having the connection with the company’s very mission and objective. The brand pyramid is also the product of such factors according to which the organization decides up on its brand positioning keeping in perspectives, the relevance and remembrance. - The brand’s positioning and target is to be carried through a fine tailored channel of communication to reach to the particular audience that is targeted for the communication of the brand. The desired level and pattern of imagery and perception in the minds of consumers is the name of the game that has to be in sync with the organizational over all and long term aspirations. The endeavours behind positioning are very much crucial since the next and subsequent messages and branding area are predicated up on this positioning. The uniqueness renders appeal to the brand which attracts the target consumers through the messages spread all over the targeted audience. The positioning area has the direct influence of the research carried out regarding the stakeholders. All the concerns related to the SWOT analysis for brand are duly addressed by the design of the research herein. - The systems related to brand elements and identity draw their substance from the vision and positioning once accentuated by the organization for its brand. The recommendations for these systems include the overall imagery and look of the brand, the signage and different colors used on the packaging, the material pattern that is distributed for consumers’ information and knowledge, the web pages and related web based application and a comprehensive guide for the consumers regarding the style that the brand possesses and all of these elements are required to make the identity and elements worthwhile.2.1.9 Brand communications (Plan)The organization, according to Phillips (2004), has always been subjected to the vagaries ofcommunication with the customers. The events and instances of such communication areabounding and it is the concern for the company to get its message across in the most efficient Page 24
  • 25. INSTITUTE OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION, KARACHI BUSINESS MBA THESISand effective manner that could reach to the target consumers. There is a huge number ofcustomers and stakeholders that the company wants to address but what they should keep inperspective is that every interaction with the customer is an opportunity to make him or herfascinated with the message and communicate it in an agreeable manner. Brand communicationsare decided by the strategic people in the firm since it follows a strategy in order to cut throughthe clutter and reach the target market.A comprehensive strategy for the brands communication is composed of step by step proceduresthat include: - Identification and prioritization of opportunities that the “touch points” provides regarding their ability to enhance brand relationships and brand equity. - Recommendation as to which messages should be communicated at every touch point and the most appropriate and important steps to communicate. - Identification of key touch points can be carried out at the following instances: • Pre-purchase • Post-purchase • During-purchase This is done through IMC (Integrated Marketing Communication) that coordinates all the aspects of brand and enables concrete brand strategy development.2.1.10 Brand ExperienceJohnston (n.d.) writes that brand experience can be evaluated with respect to the queries relatedto the expectations of the customers, their experiences with the brand in actual, the emotionalconnection between customers and brands, the stories that they can tell each other and the waysthrough which more stories and interaction levels can be created through the prevalent culture Page 25
  • 26. INSTITUTE OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION, KARACHI BUSINESS MBA THESISassociated with the brand. This approach has been holistic in a sense that it engulfs all thefeelings, emotions, and perceptions that the customers have for a brand. Clifton & Ahmad (2009)defines the brand experience very clearly as they state that customer should be able to experiencethe brand in each and every move of the organizations’ elements.They are of the view that brand experience should not be regarded something inferior to thefundamental organizational experience of the customers and other stakeholders. Clifton &Ahmad (2009) ideally quote ANA (All Nippon Airways) as saying that we do not any attentionto the details just because it’s written in the training manuals but it is in our DNA.The discussion over brands and branding has enabled us to understand how grand thephenomenon is and what resources are spent in order to build a brand let alone sustaining it inthe long run. The brand celebrity endorsements can be understood more deeply through anequivalent discussion regarding celebrities who play crucial roles in such endorsements ondifferent media.2.2 Celebrity Aspects:2.2.1 Definition of CelebrityLeslie (2011) defines the celebrity with a contemporary touch since the world has now stepped into the 21st century which has revolutionized all the aspects related to brand, celebrity and everyother relevant factor. He writes that celebrity leads a public life and is always involved in somework or activity with the common people present all around. Celebrity appeals to the public sincehe has accomplished what the public regards as sublime or extraordinary. Thoseaccomplishments actually make him famous and his personality is carved out in the public’sminds and hearts. He appears very frequently on the media and sustains a considerable presencebefore the eyes of public. Celebrity has the power to connect with the public or individualsspecifically since he or she caters to their desires and fantasies, so there is an emotionalconnection on conscious as well as subconscious levels. Page 26
  • 27. INSTITUTE OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION, KARACHI BUSINESS MBA THESISTaleja (2010) defines celebrity in broader terms as he says that these are the people who arepopular with the common people. The celebrities have something in common with the peoplethat former have the knack to capitalize upon reaching more to the people with certain level ofemotional touch and attractiveness. The people aspire to become one that they admire in theshow business and keep themselves updated with everything going on in the industry withparticular celebrity of choice so the celebrities enjoy high level of awareness against those whodo not appear on the screen of the TV or cinema.Celebrity is the term that relates to any individual who is famous among the common citizens orpopulace. They could be actors for example Tom Cruise, Ashwariya Rai Bachan, Jet li etc. theyall are recognized by the people worldwide because of their work rather than only the productsthat they endorse. Models and supermodels are there who, most of the times are, the people fromsports industry, for example Sania Mirza, Maria Sherapova and Tiger Woods. Entertainers arethere with the famous names of Oprah Winfrey, Conan OBrien and Omer Sharif. Singers are thecelebrities who enjoy higher recognition among the audience like Madonna, U2 and Green day.The list doesn’t stop here but there are plethora of businessmen and politicians who havegarnered the status of celebrity and they do dictate minds and hearts of their fans to a greatextent, for example Ambani Brothers from India and Obama, the President of U.S.Taleja explains the moments and frequency of celebrity’s appearance and says that the celebritiesinteract with the people in several ways through various platforms available in different media.They appear before the general public, they appear on the screen in different shows and in theirresidential areas with the people residing in the vicinity. The inauguration ceremonies are thedomain for the celebrities as far as gigantic multinational and corporations are concerned whichalso get the celebrities on board for endorsements. Celebrities are there in print media andsometimes they spill the beans about their lifestyle that the common people frequently lookforward to receiving by hook or by crook. So the level of fondness is there with the celebrities,which is above normal proportions most of the time in this whole world.2.2.2 Celebrity as stars Page 27
  • 28. INSTITUTE OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION, KARACHI BUSINESS MBA THESISLeslie (2011) elaborates the fact that there is a subtle difference between what people commonlyrefer to as celebrity. He is of the view that the terms famous, well-known, celebrity and starshould not be confused with each other since the celebrity is someone who has achieved famethrough merit, accident or even through noxious elements. But the stars are people who haveexcelled in the fields of arts and entertainment only. Leslie (2011) has attempted to make peopleaware of how to look at the individuals in order to regard them as celebrity:Eight categories of Celebrity:Politics and government Rulers, politiciansArts Writers, artists , musiciansScience and medicine Scientists and physiciansEntertainment Film and televisionAcademic Teachers, philosophers and scholarsBusiness Entrepreneurs and industrialistsReligion Religious figures and leadersGeneral Public Newsmakers and reality show participants2.2.3 All-seeing, All-knowing, All-powerfulLawrence (2009) refers to the celebrity in a manner that borders on deity since he states that theyinfluence a great power over all the aspects in a common man’s life. The celebrity has literallypermeated into every part of the culture we live in and we breathe and feel celebrity in the thingswe normally do thanks to the powerful media. People look up to the celebrity as their favouritestars who exude an aura of magic and charisma. Celebrities are set apart from us just due to thequality they possess as distinct individuals having unique personalities that common people mostof the times try to emulate through different actions.2.2.4 Aspects related to the celebrityTaleja (2010) identifies few of the factors that should be counted in regarding the appearance ofa celebrity in brand endorsements. Those areas are: Page 28
  • 29. INSTITUTE OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION, KARACHI BUSINESS MBA THESIS2.2.4.1 Celebrity Values (Celebrity-Product match)Using celebrity in the brand advertisements is related to the transformation of the product inaccordance with the values that the celebrity endears with. Because of this value factor, one canthrow a question to the firm regarding the guarantee the firm has about positive impression of thecelebrity to last for long term in the future. The worry is whether the level of popularity of theparticular celebrity would sustain for the long time. The other concern that could appeardetrimental for the brand’s own integrity is the blemish on the integrity of the celebrity whoendorses it. The private life is not before the public eye as much as the professional life is so thescandalous deeds could make the brand run for life. The question can be asked with a tinge ofsarcasm if any company would pay Michael Jackson to endorse its brand after knowing him as apaedophile? Celebrity values are surely transferred to the products, services and causes that theyendorse with zeal. Now Public (2010) states that the pop star Alicia Keys has been active in thecampaign titled “dying digital” for the awareness of AIDS. So the celebrities participate in thecampaigns to lend the product, services or cause their values to induce recall and create tangibleimpacts.2.2.4.2 Costs related to the CelebrityCelebrities charge handsome amount of money to the firms for product endorsements that is whythe phenomenon of celebrity brand endorsements enjoys a crucial place in over all integratedmarketing communications. The great companies like Coca Cola can afford to use famouscelebrities but the small companies run the risks if they use any celebrity whose following ismassive. If the celebrity doesn’t help the buying behaviour of buyers to enhance then the smallcompanies could easily go bankrupt. Jagdish & Wagner (1995) writes in the same vein that thetactics related to the branding with celebrity are costly to the organization since the high statusand reputation of the celebrity calls for high incentives from the organizations. In exact words ofJagdish & Wagner (1995) regarding the brand celebrity endorsement: Page 29
  • 30. INSTITUTE OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION, KARACHI BUSINESS MBA THESIS“A contract may also include a profit sharing plan. Firms often build special and costlyadvertising campaigns around celebrities.”So the investments in this area have to be huge and the yearning is also high as far as the salesrevenue projections are concerned.2.2.4.3 Celebrity Controversy Risk, Popularity, and AvailabilityThe controversy risks linger around the celebrities’ personal and professional lives. Taleja (2011)mentions an appropriate example of Salman Khan who crushed a man to death under his Pajerosince he was drunk and unconscious. This created a controversy around the celebrity and peoplecondemned this act of him in very harsh words and actions. The brands that he endorsed at thattime got the bashing just because they were proudly associated with Salman Khan so thebehaviour of celebrity directly translated into the expectations that people had with the particularbrands. Tiger Woods, in view of Sridhar (2010), had been an ideal guy whom the householdslike as much as the professional from every corner of the world. A good man having an idealhappy family he was an asset for the companies who used him for their brand endorsements andinvested heavily in the related advertising campaigns and compensating Woods decently well.Sridhar (2010) now comments that the issues of infidelity issues change the image upside downof the celebrities since the victimized celebrities are not considered to be unerring now and areregarded as the individual who can make their mistakes being a normal human being.This is the perception’s volatility. The image of the celebrity changes and therefore hurts thepeople but that damage is very less since it is only influenced by the collapse of emotionalconnection. But the companies who use Tiger Woods as their brand endorser got the kick instomach that was harder than what people felt just because companies had their majorinvestments at the back of this celebrity to endorse their brands. The popularity engenders brandrecall as the ratings for the celebrity are higher and they get transferred to the brands as well. Theavailability of the celebrity is also of the concern to the companies since it’s very difficult to geta perfect match between a brand and a celebrity so the idiosyncratic demands of brands call for Page 30
  • 31. INSTITUTE OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION, KARACHI BUSINESS MBA THESIShigher involvement of the relevant people in defining the brand and linking it to the brands’attributes.2.2.4.4 Physical Appeal of the celebrityTaleja (2011) comments that there’s an established brand of Levi’s have the celebrity namedBipasha Basu from Indian film industry so the attractiveness of her makes an appropriateconnection with the brand Levi’s. There are many other brands that Taleja (2011) mentions likeWrangler and Timex Sunglasses which get approved by the celebrities who are famous for theirphysical attractiveness and the link between the brands for physical wearing makes thosecelebrity click.2.2.4.5 Celebrity - a Brand UserKatyal (n.d.) says that the celebrity has to be cautious about what he endorses and what he usesin his daily life especially before the public for whom he was used to carve a brand image. Hewrites that there once emerged an issue with Sainsbury’s and Catherina Zeta Jones who wassigned to endorse the recipe product of the company. Catherina Zeta Jones was unluckily spottedat Tesco shopping for her daily chores. The same thing happened with Britney Spears and coladrink when she once was noticed with another cola in her hand and was photographed.2.3 What endorsements entail?Venture Republic (n.d.) lists out the few very important concerns that relate the celebrity withthe brand through proper means. There are the essential components of endorsements that are asfollows: Page 31
  • 32. INSTITUTE OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION, KARACHI BUSINESS MBA THESIS - Celebrity’s appeal and attractiveness: The impact of the celebrity is positive on the brand endorsed by him if the celebrity’s own image is immaculate in the eyes of consumers. The brand recall can be increased through using the appropriate celebrity for the brand. - Celebrity’s acceptance and credibility: The level of trust that the celebrities have among the consumers is an important factor to consider since the trustworthiness and brand appeal by relevant celebrity are directly proportional. The branding is the essence that stands out in the clutter and the endorsement by a publically amenable celebrity can have positive impact on that essence so as to increase the level of recall. - The transfer of meaning: there is a certain level of compatibility required between both the celebrities and brands so that the meaning could easily be rendered to the brand. The celebrities possess personalities that ultimately have some meanings and these meanings are aspired by the organization to be transferred to what they have to provide to the consumers.2.4 Celebrity Brand Endorsements in both the countries:The celebrity brand endorsements in UK and Pakistan are through same measures and media.Pakistani population and students are more swayed or influenced by the actors and actresses thatbelong to the neighbouring country of India. The influence is so much so that people in Pakistancan recall Shahrukh Khan more frequently than any other actor belonging to Pakistan’s own filmindustry. The level of recall in UK is related to Hollywood actors mostly since the actors and Page 32
  • 33. INSTITUTE OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION, KARACHI BUSINESS MBA THESISactresses are noticed and followed fervently by the people there specially the students who areusually awe struck by whatever the celebrities of their choices do and like to do.CHAPTER 3: METHODOLOGY Page 33
  • 34. INSTITUTE OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION, KARACHI BUSINESS MBA THESISThe secondary data collected and review in the previous section of introduction and literaturereview provides an ample platform for the development of a cogent methodology.3.1 Research Strategy:The methodology for this research study is based on the survey which will be conducted througha questionnaire that includes questions relevant to the literature review. The features of surveymethodology are defined by Enanoria (n.d.) as he says that the survey methodology is themethod for gathering information as scientifically as possible. The respondents in the surveybelong to a sample that is drawn in accordance with the objectives of the particular researchstudy and they all are representative of the bigger population that they reside with as socialmembers. The tools that this research will employ to get the responses required is thequestionnaire which is defined by Key (1997) as the tool for extracting out various factors formthe respondents’ mindsets which ultimately are related to the attitudes and behaviours ofconsumers towards the particular topic. The questionnaire is able to elicit the responses in eitherthe structured manner with specific and close ended questions or in an unstructured way throughopen ended questionnaire in which the sequence of the questions might be variable. The peoplefrom whom responses are extracted are relevant to the topic since the efforts are made toapproach the target people in the sample with the questionnaire.The questionnaire is designed in accordance with the various factors that play their role in thearea of celebrity brand endorsements. The approach to the data collection is bases uponadministering the questionnaire through the internet, i.e. through Survey Monkey and Facebook.The sampling will be based on convenience of the respondents since they are all universitystudents who always have an access to the internet facilities in the campus or their homes andthey will fill the questionnaire in accordance with their convenience. The sampling technique isbased on the stipulated sample of 20 from each of the two universities in UK and Pakistan whowill be approached on line in accordance with their availability at particular time. Page 34
  • 35. INSTITUTE OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION, KARACHI BUSINESS MBA THESISThe questionnaire will be posted on line with the help of Survey Monkey, an online or web basedapplication to help researchers collect and analyze the data collected through questionnaires, andAlto (2011) describes Survey Monkey as the leader in the industry of on line survey solutions.The history behind the web based Survey Monkey is based on many success stories that havebeen born since its inception in 1999. The benefits are multifarious since millions of respondentscan be approached and elicited the responses from. The application is substantially considerablefor the researchers who want to approach the people from any corner of the world. The insightscollected through the web based questionnaires on Survey Monkey enable the researcher to makeinformed decisions. The significance level of Survey Monkey can be gauged with the fact thatFortune 100 companies have availed this facility for their research work spanning over a longtime now based over the decades. The common and ordinary entities and organizations areevenly served by this web based application along with the university students who could reachthe respondents automatically in accordance with the convenience of the respondents.3.1.1 Sampling TechniqueThe sampling is based on the phenomenon of convenience since the students have always beenbusy on and off campus so the time preferences couldn’t be matched for meeting for thequestionnaire administration physically so the online survey is bases on the phenomenon ofconvenience sampling. The sampling technique is based on the stipulated sample of 20respondents from the Karachi University in Pakistan and London School of Business andFinance in United Kingdom each. The sampling is also based on snowball sampling since therespondents are asked to refer the on line survey to all those who are knowledgeable and savvyabout brand celebrity endorsements.3.2 Objectives behind every research question: Page 35
  • 36. INSTITUTE OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION, KARACHI BUSINESS MBA THESISThe survey is conducted through the question sheet that includes both close and open endedquestions so as to elicit insightful responses of sample students in the universities from both thecountries. Same questions will be asked of all the respondents whether from UK or Pakistan inorder to keep the comparison up to the mark. Following is the explanation behind every question:Question 1: What motivate you to buy a particular product?The question is simple in terms of understanding what factors influence buyers or consumers fora decision to purchase a particular brand. The connection of the factors is there with the decisionsince the consumer behavior is believed to respond to a certain stimulus offered by the brand.This question draws out the very innate habit of the respondents regarding their motivation forpurchasing a brand. The options include the factors of “discounts”, “value for money”, “productinnovation”, “attractive advertisement”, celebrity endorsing the product” and “past experienceswith the brand. So the aspect of celebrity endorsement will gather due response rate accordingly.Question 2: Why does a celebrity endorse a brand?This question is in relation to the various factors of celebrity brand endorsements mentioned inthe previous section of literature review. The motives behind the celebrity brand endorsementcampaigns range from the first option to the last mentioned with the question and the perceptionof respondent of consumer will be gauged in accordance with those factors. The respondents aregiven a chance to substantiate why they think the particular way in the following lines. Thisquestion sets the tone for further questions in the interview and the respondent will get an idea ofwhat and how he or she is going to respond. The options include “to create appeal”, “to motivatepurchase”, “celebrity uses the brand”, “to create an image for the brand”, so it can be noticed thatall the connection points between the celebrity and brand are taken care of with the customer’sattitudes in perspectives. The area is also specified for the responses other than the providedoptions so that further connections could be explored.Question 3: Rank the following attributes of a celebrity on the scale of 1 to 6in accordance with their influence over your purchasing Page 36
  • 37. INSTITUTE OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION, KARACHI BUSINESS MBA THESISCelebrity endorses a brand and transfers his attributes to that product or brand but there areseveral factors that work behind the formation of consumer behavior regarding the purchasedecisions. This question will be able to equip the researcher with the information related to theaspects that the respondents think influence their decision on a defined scale. The options withthis question include the factors like “name”, “message”, “lifestyle”, “reputation”, “credibility”and “personality” and these all are ranked by the consumers so that the researcher could inferwhat is the most and the least considered attribute related to the celebrity which makes themattend to the advertisement containing a celebrity for endorsement.Question 4: Does the celebrity’s personality always influence the brandpersonality and create a match?This question may touch upon the intrinsic value of celebrity brand endorsements in the eyes ofobservers, the respondents or consumers herein. Respondents can elaborate upon the choice theymark for this question. This is a question structured with the options of “yes” and “no” and forthose who are unclear might go with the option of “don’t know”.Question 5: Will you pay extra money to buy the product endorsed by yourfavourite celebrity?The question draws out a response which relates to the choice of the celebrity regardless of whatthe brand or product is. This will gauge the motivation levels of the respondents to pay more thanthe original amount for a product just because of the celebrity that he or she likes the most oremulates. This question also is a simple one with three options of “yes”, “no” and “don’t know”.Question 6: Which is your most favorite advertisement with a celebrityendorsing a product in it?An open ended question that will elicit the very exact response related to a brand endorsed by acelebrity. The most favorite advertisement will be able to give an impression to why the Page 37
  • 38. INSTITUTE OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION, KARACHI BUSINESS MBA THESISrespondent remember the campaign whether the celebrity is of choice, the brand is of choice orthe respondents got impressed by the connection between brand’s and celebrity’s personality.Question 7: Mark the common brands that you can recall with the celebritiesmentioned below?The question will have the same impact over the students’ response from both the universities(countries) involved since Leonardo Dicaprio and Amitabh Bachan have certain recognitionlevels worldwide both in the east and west. This question will extract a response related to boththe celebrities’ endorsement contracts that people exactly recall or have observed around in themedia and market place. The options with the name of Leonardo Dicaprio are “Hybrid-limousine”, “Krieger Watches”, “Emporio Armani” and “Tag Heuer” while with the name ofAmitabh Bachan the name of the brands are “Cadbury”, “ICICI Bank”, “Dabur” and “Parkerpens”Question 8: Which celebrity(s) does this brand remind you of?The brand Tag Heuer is intentionally mentioned since both countries’ consumers are well awareof the brand in connection with the celebrities from both the regions (Pakistani students beinginfluenced heavily with the Indian Bollywood celebrities – Shahrukh Khan with respect to TagHeuer). It’s an open ended question and will be attempted promptly by the respondents if therecall of brand with the celebrity is high.3.3 Choosing web based survey methodology:The online methodology for survey through on line questionnaire is in sync with the samplingtechnique that is convenience sampling. The method is chosen in relation to the fact that theuniversity students both in Karachi University and London School of Business and Finance arenot able to be approached with convenience of both the researchers and students. The survey willbe uploaded on internet i.e. Facebook and other social media sites with the help of SurveyMonkey. The internet is a medium that makes the efficient research possible through various Page 38
  • 39. INSTITUTE OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION, KARACHI BUSINESS MBA THESISwebsites offering their corporate services for example Survey Monkey in our case. The onlinesurveys have definite benefits that are, in accordance with UTexas (2008), described below: - The data collection process is efficient and the aspect of quality is taken care of. The strengths are related to the ease and facility of the data collection with small period of time and from anywhere in the world through the internet access. The researcher is absolved of the responsibility to enter and process the data manually after creating the questionnaire. The efforts from the researcher are enough till the time he creates the questionnaire, recruit the respondents and distribute or administer the questionnaire electronically. The facility of web base surveys is that there is almost no time spent in filling the questionnaires and millions of responses could be collected in the matter of days only. After the completion of the data collection period the data could easily be extracted and processed through different computer softwares, i.e. Microsoft Excel in this thesis’ case. The validity is also the factor that web based questionnaires also obviate from the agenda of problems listed by the researcher since the data is validated automatically. The format and pattern of the responses could be spotted it they go awry and the respondent is notified accordingly so that no questionnaire and no question is filled in accordance with the respondent’s whims. The error message is generated by Survey Monkey when the response gets out of the defined or prescribed range and the respondents are asked to resubmit the responses. The only concerns that should make the researcher worrisome are missing responses before the analysis of data could be carried out. - The questionnaire provides the level of required flexibility on internet. The data collection through web based applications can offer a lot to be flexible. The questions can be made keeping in perspectives, the respondents whom the researcher draws in to the sample. The flexibility approach cab be best used when the information is required by the researcher to be collected in stages where the first stage or the screens of the questionnaire could collect the background information over a subject and then the same information is used in making of graphs in the next pages or screens so that the responses could be analyzed in compliance with the concepts and perceptions that the respondent might Page 39
  • 40. INSTITUTE OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION, KARACHI BUSINESS MBA THESIS hold prematurely. The variety in responsive nature of online survey adds on to the appeal for its usage in the research areas and the efficiency and quality of the responses are enhanced. - The date can be gathered on deviant or rare phenomena. The population can be reached even if the sections are targeted keeping in mind the special interest and specific subjects. The sample size can be aggrandized and the responses could be elicited from all over the world in few days only. This facility is not afforded to the researcher through traditional survey methods since the respondents are required to be approached physically or by phone both of which are comparatively restrictive in nature. The deviant phenomenon can be assessed by web based questionnaires and these subjects may include those which require privacy for the respondents to answer. The people addicted or abused can be provided this privacy through web based survey and they could answer comfortably to the questions asked about the happenings they have encountered or whatever the topic entails.3.4 Reasons behind not choosing other methodologies:The alternate techniques for data collection are: 1) Approaching the University students directly at campuses with the questionnaires 2) Surveying students on the telephoneThe techniques are described by Direct Opinions (2011) as it is stated that the telephonic surveysreach to the customer effectively and proactively. The control over the sample is considerablyhigh owing to the proactive nature of survey. The factor of randomness is present with suretywhile the data gathering stage is in process and randomness in telephonic survey’s case isimportant since the results may be projected according to the needs of researcher to a larger Page 40
  • 41. INSTITUTE OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION, KARACHI BUSINESS MBA THESISpopulation. The data is ensured to be accurate in order to evaluate them in a manner which is fairas well as consistent.3.4.1 Disadvantages of the telephonic surveysAmerican Business (n.d.) opines that the limitations are obvious with regard to the collection ofdata for the survey through telephone. The respondents are reluctant most of the times to answerquestions on the phone since they consider this to be the violation of their privacy or leisure time.Various telephone numbers are usually found to be unlisted and most of the times the caller IDand message machines are used by the potential respondents to keep the telephonic surveys atbay. The telephonic survey usually happens to collect information and data from the elderlypopulation so that the representativeness of the sample could be threatened in case of telephonicsurveys.As far as the One-on-one interviews or surveys are concerned, they require great deal of hardwork and commitment since the respondents are to be approached physically through rigoroustraveling and following the respondents wherever they ask to come. The one to one surveys canbe a hurdle in the research where the sample of respondents is much larger and the respondentsare to be approached at a particular place. This methodology can be very effective with otherways of data collection and the larger groups could be handled with this methodology in additionto other methods. The approaches were not chosen against online survey technique since both themethods have their own part of demerits. The validity over the telephonic survey couldn’t bepossible to consider since the respondent’s identity would be difficult to assess and one to oneinterview could make the process cumbersome both for the researcher and respondents.3.4.2 Disadvantages of the one-to-one or oral surveysWriting at CSU (2011) mentions various demerits of one to one survey methodology. The factorsthat are not in favour of using this methodology are cost, bias, attitudes, and types of questionswhich are possible to be covered. The costs are high for one to one surveys since travelling andpursuing respondents incur both the financial as well as opportunity costs. Bias is there in themethodology since the interaction between the interviewer and the respondents could originate a Page 41
  • 42. INSTITUTE OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION, KARACHI BUSINESS MBA THESISkind of relationship that results in bias of favouritism. The types of questions are also determinedwith respect to the questionnaire that is administered physically by the researcher. Theinstructions could not easily be understood or the pattern might not be perceived properly whilethe online or web based surveys obviate the need of researcher to explain the pattern of thequestions to the respondents. The attitudes are also not in sync with the researcher’s aspirationssince the respondents might be busy or having multiple thoughts in mind at the particular time ofmeeting and the responses could be filled in compulsion.3.5 Validity, reliability and generalisability:The data collection method of online survey will be made in accordance with the validityrequired for the response and for this vary reason the first few questions will be related topersonal bio data which will ensure that the students of certain age and educational backgroundare allowed to go to further questions in the survey and the name of university will be importantto assess whether the student is from Karachi University or London School of Business andFinance. The first questions related to the personal details will be made compulsory to answer bythe respondents so that they could be given permission to go to further questions. The data couldbe made reliable through the endeavours regarding the assurance of validity of data collection.The data found will be able to be generalized among the student bodies of both the countriessince the sampling is made representative of the population.3.6 Statistical MethodologyThe data collected through the web based survey questionnaire are then analyzed and assessedthrough different techniques of statistics in which charts, percentages and proportion tests areused and association test is defined by Changing Minds (2011) as: “Test statistics can also becalculated as a proportion of a whole, which gives a result that lies between 0 and 1 (or -1 and+1). Correlation coefficients typically use proportion. The Pearson r-value, for example iscalculated: r = SQRT( explained variation / total variation ). Proportions are often easier tointerpret than signal-to-noise numbers, which can be very high or low.”The research is based on the assumptions that are listed as follows: Page 42
  • 43. INSTITUTE OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION, KARACHI BUSINESS MBA THESISAssumption 1:HoConsumer perception about the influence of Celebritys Personality to a Brand Personality inboth the countries is the same i.e. P1 - P2 = 0HaConsumer perception about the influence of Celebritys Personality to a Brand Personality inboth the countries is not the same i.e. P1 - P2 ≠ 0Assumption 2:HoSame proportion of Consumer will pay extra money for the brand endorsed by their favouritecelebrity in both countriesHaSame proportion of Consumer will not pay extra money for the brand endorsed by theirfavourite celebrity in both countriesAll of the above mentioned assumptions are analyzed through different statistical tools that areexpanded further in the coming sections of findings and analysis. Page 43
  • 44. INSTITUTE OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION, KARACHI BUSINESS MBA THESISCHAPTER 4: FINDINGSThe data collection stage provided much to be analysed and several findings are establishedthrough statistical methods. The findings are listed in this section as far as the primary data areconcerned and each and every question’s response are found and listed as follows:4.1 Buying MotivationFor UK students: 1. What motivate you to buy a particular product? Response Response Percent Count Discounts 25.00% 4 Value for money 41.70% 6 Product Innovation 33.30% 5 Attractive advertisement 25.00% 4 Celebrity endorsing the product 16.70% 10 Past experiences with the brand 66.70% 3 32The buying motivation of the students can be found in the chart above as far as universitystudents from UK are concerned. The findings are based on the percentages that are assessedthrough the count of responses along with each option given in the question. The discounts arethe source of motivation for 25% students or respondents. As far as the value for money isconcerned this factor is marked by many of the respondents and the response rate for this optionis 41%. The product innovation was ranked important by 33% of the respondents while attractiveadvertisement got the response positively by 25% people. Celebrity endorsements do not rankhigh enough against other factors in fact this motivational factor is the least thought of as animportant element in their decision making. The most important and the most preferredmotivational factor behind the buying behavior is the past experience with particular brands. Thefindings for UK students herein show that they are not very much influenced by the celebrityendorsing the products in advertising campaigns. The students are shrewd enough to give second Page 44
  • 45. INSTITUTE OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION, KARACHI BUSINESS MBA THESISthought to their purchasing decision when they have had a kind of experience with particularbrand. As far as the results from Pakistani university are concerned, they are as follows:For Pakistani students: 1. What motivate you to buy a particular product? Response Response Percent Count Discounts 6.52% 3 Value for money 15.22% 7 Product Innovation 19.57% 9 Attractive advertisement 2.17% 1 Celebrity endorsing the product 21.74% 10 Past experiences with the brand 34.78% 16 46The results show that the discounts are considered very less for buying decisions and only 6.5%of people have responded to this option while attractive advertisement is something thatPakistani students consider the least for this area and only 2.1% of respondents went with thisoption which is a revelation in itself since advertisements are not regarded important to influencetheir buying behaviour. Pakistani students are also very much influenced by the experiences withthe brand only that consists of everything they experienced for previous years with the brand.35% of respondents went for this option which is the most against other factors mentioned in thechoices. Value for money is also considered important but only by 15% people responded to itfrom Pakistan. Product innovation ranks considerably high with 19% but not higher than thefactor of celebrity endorsements which is composed of 21% of the responses from the sample.The graphical presentation of the results from both the countries is as follows: Page 45
  • 46. INSTITUTE OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION, KARACHI BUSINESS MBA THESISThere’s a difference between the levels by which the consumers are influenced by the celebritybrand endorsements. The graphs above suffice the fact that past experiences are worth more thananything else as far as the buying motivation of respondents from both the countries isconcerned. Page 46
  • 47. INSTITUTE OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION, KARACHI BUSINESS MBA THESIS4.2 Reasons for Celebrities Endorsing BrandsFor UK students: 2. Why does a celebrity endorse a brand? Response Response Percent Count To creates appeal 25.00% 5 To motivate purchase 40.00% 8 Celebrity uses that brand 10.00% 2 To create an image for brand 25.00% 5 20The perceptions of students in UK are reflected in the chart above since it shows what they reallythink about the phenomenon of brand celebrity endorsements. 5 of the respondents think thatcelebrities create appeal for the brand to be purchased by the consumers and the count is equal to25% of the respondents. The creation of image for the brand is the purpose that is served bycelebrity endorsement is something that is considered reasonable by 5 out of 20 respondents thatmake 25% of the total and the people who think that the celebrity personally uses what heendorses for money are there in the respondents and there count is 2 out of 20 which makeup10% of the total which is the least scoring factor herein. As far as the motivation behindpurchasing decision is concerned, 40% that is 8 out of 20 respondents think that celebrities areused to serve this purpose and celebrities motivate the consumer to purchase the products theyendorse. As far as Pakistani results are concerned, they are as follows:For Pakistani students: 2. Why does a celebrity endorse a brand? Response Response Percent Count To creates appeal 25.00% 5 To motivate purchase 35.00% 7 Celebrity uses that brand 10.00% 2 To create an image for brand 30.00% 6 Page 20 47
  • 48. INSTITUTE OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION, KARACHI BUSINESS MBA THESISThe results from Pakistan show that people think that celebrities create appeal for the brandswhen they endorse particular products. The count is 5 out of 20 which makes 25% of therespondents saying yes to this option. The motivating factor of celebrities to buy a particularbrand is marked by 35% of the respondents which is the total count of 7 out of 20 and this is alsothe highest ranked factor from Pakistan related to this question. 6 out of 20 respondents believethat there is an image formation in their minds regarding brands when some celebrity endorses it,so 30% of the respondents think this way. The graphical representation shows the following: Page 48
  • 49. INSTITUTE OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION, KARACHI BUSINESS MBA THESISThe graphs above show that the most thought of reason behind the celebrity endorsements is theneed of the organization to motivate consumers to buy their branded products. It can be noticedto one’s surprise that two options in the choices were marked with same weight in both thecountries by the students. These factors are appeal creation by the celebrity and using of brandby celebrity himself or herself. The graphs related to this question do not reveal any differencebetween the perceptions that could be regarded as yawning gap between the respondents fromtwo different countries.4.3 Preference of Celebrity AttributesFor UK students: 3. Rank the following attributes of a celebrity on the scale of 1 to 6 in accordance with their influence over your purchasing: (where 1 being the most important factor and 6 being least important) Rank Order 1 2 3 4 5 6 Response Count Name 6 3 2 4 2 3 20 Message 3 4 2 1 2 8 20 Lifestyle 2 1 6 3 5 3 20 Page 49
  • 50. INSTITUTE OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION, KARACHI BUSINESS MBA THESIS Reputation 3 2 8 4 1 2 20 Personality 3 6 1 5 3 2 20 Credibility 2 1 6 2 5 4 20The results are stated above from the respondents or students in UK. 1 is the most influentialrating which is marked by 6 respondents with the option of name. As far as the name of celebrityis concerned, 3 respondents marked the rating rank of 2, 2 respondents marked the rank of 3, 4respondents agreed with the ranking of 4, 2 went for the ranking of 5 and only 3 out of 20respondents thought that name is the factor that they consider the least when it comes to thecelebrity endorsements for the brands. Advertising message is marked by 3 respondents to be themost important aspect of celebrity, 4 think that it is less important, 2 respondents marked theranking of 3 for this and 2 people went for this option at the ranking of 5. The respondents fromUK are of the view that the advertising message is noticed in the last or not all and this is thoughtthe same way by majority of the respondents in the sample, which is 8 out of 20 in the totalcount.Lifestyle is marked by the respondents to be most important attribute by 2 people, 1 respondentgave the ranking of 2 to this option, 6 respondents considered this option at the rank of 3, 3respondents thought that the ranking of 4 suits this option. 5 people opined that this option rank5th and the people who thought of lifestyle as the least important attribute are 3 out of 20respondents. Reputation of the celebrity is ranked 1st by 3 respondents out of 20, 2 peoplethought that it should rank 2nd, in view of 8 respondents, the ranking of 3 was ok for reputation, 4people marked 4 as the ranking, 1 opined that it should rank 5th and reputation was consideredthe least important attribute by 2 respondents out of 20. Personality of the celebrity is somethingthat 3 out of 20 respondents thought to be most important to consider and only 2 out of 20thought that it’s least important. The credibility is also the factor that is considered with thebrand endorsements by the celebrity and the respondents who think this factor to be mostimportant are 2 out of 20. There are total 9 out of 20 respondents who believe that it’s the lowestranking attribute of the celebrity since the ranking of 4 an d5 are associated to this factor. Nowthe results from Pakistani students are as follows: Page 50
  • 51. INSTITUTE OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION, KARACHI BUSINESS MBA THESISFor Pakistani students: 3. Rank the following attributes of a celebrity on the scale of 1 to 6 in accordance with their influence over your purchasing: (where 1 being the most important factor and 6 being least important) Rank Order 1 2 3 4 5 6 Response Count Name 4 2 3 2 3 6 20 Message 2 3 4 3 2 6 20 Lifestyle 2 4 4 3 4 3 20 Reputation 4 5 1 5 1 4 20 Personality 7 4 4 2 1 2 20 Credibility 2 5 6 1 2 4 20The results are stated above from the respondents or students in Pakistan. 1 is the mostinfluential rating which is marked by 4 respondents with the option of name. As far as the nameof celebrity is concerned, 2 respondents marked the rating rank of 2, 3 respondents marked therank of 3, 2 respondents agreed with the ranking of 4, 3 went for the ranking of 5 and 6 out of 20respondents thought that name is the factor that they consider the least when it comes to thecelebrity endorsements for the brands. Advertising message is marked by 2 respondents to be themost important aspect of celebrity, 3 think that it is less important, 4 respondents marked theranking of 3 for this and 2 people went for this option at the ranking of 5. The respondents fromPakistan also are of the view that the advertising message is noticed in the last or not all and thisis thought the same way by majority of the respondents in the sample, which is 6 out of 20 in thetotal count.Lifestyle is marked by the respondents to be most important attribute by 4 people, 2 respondentgave the ranking of 2 to this option, 3 respondents considered this option at the rank of 3, 2respondents thought that the ranking of 4 suits this option. 3 people opined that this option rank5th and the people who thought of lifestyle as the least important attribute are 6 out of 20respondents. Reputation of the celebrity is ranked 1st by 4 respondents out of 20, 5 peoplethought that it should rank 2nd, in view of 1 respondent the ranking of 3 was ok for reputation, 5people marked 4 as the ranking, 1 opined that it should rank 5th and reputation was considered Page 51
  • 52. INSTITUTE OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION, KARACHI BUSINESS MBA THESISthe least important attribute by 4 respondents out of 20. Personality of the celebrity is somethingthat 7 out of 20 respondents thought to be most important to consider and only 2 out of 20thought that it’s least important. The credibility is also the factor that is considered with thebrand endorsements by the celebrity and the respondents who think this factor to be mostimportant are 2 out of 20. There are total 4 out of 20 respondents who believe that it’s the lowestranking attribute of the celebrity since the ranking of 4 an d5 are associated to this factor. Nowthe results in graphical manner are as follows:The results can be seen in the graphs above in accordance with the average ratings that each andevery option got from the respondents. Page 52
  • 53. INSTITUTE OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION, KARACHI BUSINESS MBA THESIS 4.4 Celebrity Personality Influencing Brand Image For UK students:4. Does the celebrity’s personality always influence the brand personality and create a match? Response Response Percent Count Yes 30.00% 6 No 55.00% 11 Don’t know 15.00% 3 20 The results from UK show that students are aware of the subtleties and realities that belong to the media industry and the celebrities who usually endorse the brands for the sake of money that is huge in proportions and plethora of investment is channelized to this aspect of branding. The students from UK think that there is no connection between the personality of brands and celebrities at least as far as the majority are concerned and that is 55% of the respondents which amounts to the total count of 11 out of 20. People who agree with the level of match between the celebrity and brand make 30% of the sample of respondents and that is 6 out of 20 respondents. People who don’t pay heed to this relation or who don’t exactly perceive any level of connection say that they don’t know and those responses are received by 15% of the respondents which make up the total of 3 respondents out of 20. As far as the Pakistani students are concerned, their results are as follows: For Pakistani students: 4. Does the celebrity’s personality always influence the brand personality and create a match? Response Response Percent Count Yes 40.00% 8 No 45.00% 9 Don’t know 15.00% 3 20 Page 53
  • 54. INSTITUTE OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION, KARACHI BUSINESS MBA THESISThe results from Pakistan show that students are less aware of the subtleties and realities than thestudents in UK. Pakistani students also are aware of the fact that celebrities usually endorse thebrands for the sake of money that is huge in proportions and much of the investment ischannelized to this aspect of branding. The students from Pakistan also think that there is noconnection between the personality of brands and celebrities at least as far as the majority areconcerned and that is 45% of the respondents which amounts to the total count of 9 out of 20.People who agree with the level of match between the celebrity and brand make 40% of thesample of respondents and that is 8 out of 20 respondents. The level of agreement is high withthis option of connection in this question in Pakistan as compared to UK. People who don’t payheed to this relation or who don’t exactly perceive any level of connection say that they don’tknow and those responses are received by 15% of the respondents which make up the total of 3respondents out of 20 and the results are same in this option of the question. The graphicalpresentation of the responses can be seen below: Page 54
  • 55. INSTITUTE OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION, KARACHI BUSINESS MBA THESISIt can clearly be seen that the respondents are majorly with the option of denial and the level ofresponses with the indifference factor is same in both the places.4.5 Price Premium for Celebrity EndorsementFor UK students: 5. Will you pay extra money to buy the product endorsed by your favourite celebrity? Response Response Percent Count Yes 30.00% 6 No 50.00% 10 Don’t Know 20.00% 4 20From UK the students have responded to the question of whether they would pay extra price forthe product endorsed by his or her favorite celebrity by the figures mentioned above in the chart.This question taps on to the inherent perceptions of respondents and enable the researcher toinfer as to what extent the celebrities influence the buying behavior of population. Therespondents who said yes to this question were 30% or the count was 6 out of 20 which is notsomething worthwhile or satisfactory in this regard. The people who said that they wouldn’t pay Page 55
  • 56. INSTITUTE OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION, KARACHI BUSINESS MBA THESISextra money for the products indorsed by their favorite celebrity are 50% of the total sample thatis really composed of huge number of respondents i.e. 10 out of 20. The people who were notaware of their behavior that what exactly they will do in such a situation steered clear of thequestion by responding with indifference. Now the results from Pakistan tell the story mentionedbelow:For Pakistani students: 5. Will you pay extra money to buy the product endorsed by your favourite celebrity? Response Response Percent Count Yes 25.00% 5 No 70.00% 14 Don’t Know 5.00% 1 20The students from Pakistan seem to be more averse to the concept or intention of paying morefor the product just because it is endorsed by his or her favorite celebrity. As the results areshown above we can easily conclude that only 25% of the respondents said they would go to paymore and these are only 5 out of 20 respondents. The rate of denial was 14 out of 20 that is reallya huge number which makes up the total of 70% of the respondents. Pakistani students seem tobe more cautious in spending their money especially when the question arises of whether tospend only for the sake of favorite celebrity’s endorsement. The students are not confuses orunaware of their behavior since 1 out of 20 respondents has marked the option of “don’t know”.The overall behavior is that the majority do not think of spending more just because the celebrityof their choice is endorsing the brand. As far as the graphical representation of the results isconcerned, following are the results that also depict comparative analysis. Page 56
  • 57. INSTITUTE OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION, KARACHI BUSINESS MBA THESISThere’s a remarkable difference in the attitudes, when it comes to paying more just because ofthe celebrity endorsing the product, between the students from Pakistan and those from UK.Same level of difference can be seen between the responses that belong to “No” and also in theresponses for indifference to the phenomenon. There are differences of 5% in both the countries’students’ opinions as far as “No” and “Don’t know” are concerned. Page 57
  • 58. INSTITUTE OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION, KARACHI BUSINESS MBA THESIS 4.6 Brand Recall with Leonardo Dicaprio For UK students:7. Mark the common brands that you can recall with the celebrities mentioned below? (Tick as manybrands as you recall with the celebrity) "Leonardo Dicaprio" Response Response Percent Count Hybrid-limousine 5.00% 1 Krieger Watches 10.00% 2 Emporio Armani 25.00% 5 Tag Heuer 60.00% 12 20 The results in the chart above are helpful in making the researcher realize how active and involved the respondents have been with the celebrity brand endorsement phenomenon. The brands that are mentioned in the question with the celebrity named Leonardo Dicaprio are there in the present world in reality and also being endorsed by the celebrity mentioned but the multiple endorsements by a single celebrity is believed to make consumers confused about what brand to recall by which celebrity. Leonardo Dicaprio has been associated with the brands like Krieger Watches, Emporio Armani, Hybrid-limousine and Tag Heuer but the question is tailored in accordance with the objective of knowing what brands get the most of responses and what gets the least by the respondents related to the celebrity. As far as the results are concerned, only 1 of the respondents out of 20 thinks that Hybrid- limousine is endorsed by this celebrity, making it the least recallable brand with the celebrity. As far as Tag Heuer brand is concerned, most of the respondents recall the celebrity’s connection with it and the count of responses for this option is 12 out of 20 that also makes up the majority of respondents with 60%. Emporio Armani was recognized with the celebrity by 5 respondents out of 20 that make up 25% of the respondents which is considerably noticeable as far as brand recognition with the celebrity is concerned. Lastly the brand Krieger Watches is marked by 2 respondents only out of 20 which make up 10% of the total and this brand is also not worthwhile as far as the recognition with Leonardo Dicaprio is concerned. Now the results from Pakistani side are following: Page 58
  • 59. INSTITUTE OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION, KARACHI BUSINESS MBA THESIS For Pakistani students:7. Mark the common brands that you can recall with the celebrities mentioned below? (Tick as many brands as yourecall with the celebrity) "Amitabh Bachan" Response Response Percent Count ICICI Bank 33.30% 6 Parker Pens 27.80% 5 Cadbury’s 66.70% 12 Dabur 44.40% 8 31 The results from Pakistan show the above mentioned figures. In Pakistan, the consumers or the population has been influenced with the Indian media as mentioned in the literature review, so the celebrities that belong to Bollywood (Indian cinema) are more popular with Pakistani audience than their own TV or film celebrities. Indian celebrities are looked up by Pakistani people especially students in Pakistan and their appearance in advertisement maintain a particular level o recall as can be seen in the chart above. As far as the celebrity mentioned is concerned, 6 out of 20 respondents think that Amitabh Bachan endorses ICICI Bank and this amount is up to 33% or the total sample responding. The brand of Parker pens is recognized by 28% of the respondents from Pakistan and the total count is of 5 out of 20 that are least among the responses for the brands mentioned too. Cadbury is the brand that most of the respondents think of interacting with respect to the celebrity in the ads and 12 out of 20 respondents believe so. The total count for Cadbury is 67% which is the largest among all the choices given. Dabur is also recognized by people in Pakistan since 8 out of 20 respondents marked that option and the Page 59
  • 60. INSTITUTE OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION, KARACHI BUSINESS MBA THESIStotal make it of 44% of the total sample. The graphical representation of the results is as follows: Page 60
  • 61. INSTITUTE OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION, KARACHI BUSINESS MBA THESISThe celebrities endorse the products related to particular brands in a specific way or in severalgeneral ways as required by the companies through contracts. Television ads are the mostcommon and effective way for reaching to the consumers and with the proliferation of Indianfilm industry in many parts of the world even in UK is the factors that has elicited the Indiancelebrity’s name in the other open ended questions even from the students in UK, they might byPakistani or Indian by nationality but the level of recognition of brands with Indian celebrities ishigh enough. As far as Indian celebrities are concerned the question posed for the Pakistanistudents is tailored specially with the reality in kind that they endorse several multiple productsin a single span of time that naturally tends to make consumer think what the celebrity actuallyendorses when they are given options so this question and its responses both from the student ofPakistan and UK has depicted what brands they actually recall with the given celebrity and towhat extent they recognize the more popular brand against the one which is recognized by fewestnumber of respondents.4.7 Respondents’ Profile Page 61
  • 62. INSTITUTE OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION, KARACHI BUSINESS MBA THESISThe respondents are the students from London School of Business and Finance and fromKarachi, the students of Karachi University responded to the questionnaire. The age and genderof the respondents are as follows:Gender of respondents:UK students: Gender Male 13 Female 7Pakistani students: Gender female 9 Male 11CHAPTER 5: ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSIONAs far as the data from the data collection phase is concerned, the literature review andmethodology have been kept in perspective and the findings are listed with respect to all thedeterminants that were drawn out from the secondary data and assessed through the survey byadministering the questionnaire electronically to the students in both the countries who make upthe sample of respondents for this research work. The analysis part consists of the statisticaltreatment of the core assumptions that are listed in the statistical methodology part above in themethodology section.As far as the consumer buying behaviour of the students from both the universities is concerned,first of all the assumption was: Page 62
  • 63. INSTITUTE OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION, KARACHI BUSINESS MBA THESIS5.1 Hypothesis 1HoConsumer perception about the influence of Celebritys Personality to a Brand Personality inboth the countries is the same i.e. P1 - P2 = 0HaConsumer perception about the influence of Celebritys Personality to a Brand Personality inboth the countries is not the same i.e. P1 - P2 ≠ 0The personal observation of the researcher was based on the assumption mentioned above whichneeded to be tested through the results collected in the data collection on primary basis. Inaccordance with the responses to question 4 the relevant connection was assessed and thefindings herein are as follows: England Yes 0.30 p1 Pakistan Yes 0.40 p2 Formulas: p = (p1 * n1 + p2 * n2) / (n1 + n2) SE = sqrt{ p * ( 1 - p ) * [ (1/n1) + (1/n2) ] } z = (p1 - p2) / SE P 0.35 SE 0.150831 z -0.66 Page 63
  • 64. INSTITUTE OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION, KARACHI BUSINESS MBA THESIS -1.96 -0.66 1.96The test results are not statistically significant at 5% significances level. Hence, we conclude thatthere is no difference in consumer buying motivation upon celebrity between the students fromboth the countries hence: Ho is approved.The respondents were asked to comment on whether there’s any extent of influence of celebrityendorsement on the brands that they endorse. Respondents were only asked to mark the optionsfrom the given choices of that were ascension, dissention, and indifference. The calculationsabove reveal that there is no difference between the levels of thinking that students or consumershave regarding the phenomenon of celebrity-brand match from both the countries. The graphicalrepresentation can be found for this in the findings as well where the students were found tobelieve that there is no connection or match between both the factors in celebrity brandendorsements and this level of understanding is same as far as the opinions from both thecountries are involved. The students from UK and Pakistan are not very much conscious aboutthe match between the celebrity and brands and their perceptions disclose that they might look atthe brand or the celebrity in isolation with each other so that they could remember or recall onlyone factor thereof. The companies and organizations have been trying to create a match betweenthe celebrity and the brand so as they could transfer the meaning to the brand that could beimbibed by the consumer and he could be motivated to buy that particular brand. Page 64
  • 65. INSTITUTE OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION, KARACHI BUSINESS MBA THESISThere are many personalities who have shared their precious views about how to create a matchbetween the two but the match between the celebrity brand endorsement and the consumer’smindsets seem to have gone awry as the majority across the horizons, as the findings of thisstudy go, think that there is no match. Roberts (2010) comments in the same vein that `there isproliferation in the media regarding the deals and contracts that are undertaken between thecelebrities and organization as frequently as there is no need to give a second thought to it. Thecare which should be taken for bringing up the right match seems to be conspicuous by itsabsence. The reason why brands are not matched properly with the values of celebrities is thatorganizations go for what is hot in the present scenario and try their best to get the hold of themost happening celebrity in the industry and to get him signed in contract for endorsing theirbrand, but what is usually not noticed is whether the match exists or not. The analysis withrespect to this aspect of brand celebrity endorsement makes it clear that concerns of Roberts(2010) stand validated in reality.Amster Brand (2010) has made the case of match of celebrity brand endorsements as he statesthat there is always logic of having a considerable level of match between the brand and thecelebrity. Amster Brand (2010) states that multiple endorsements can affect the celebrity brandendorsement campaigns with negative vibes since the meaning that the celebrity is hired toconvert to the brand gets lost somewhere among the various brands that he or she endorses at atime. The question of a celebrity with three to four choices of brands was given in thequestionnaire in order to know that how many people recall the brands with celebrity and notsurprisingly, there were responses for all the choices with varying degrees. This is the fact thatcan be substantiated further with the views of 2 mentioned above since the findings and analysisshow that majority of the respondents don’t think that there’s a match in between since all therespondents know that if Shahrukh Khan is endorsing Tag Huer in an advertisement, in the otherhe is also endorsing a fairness cream for men and a talcum powder in another so the respondentsthink that there’s not a perfect match between the brand and the celebrity.Amster Brand (2010) also comments that the consumers are not too naïve to notice thatendorsements bring a hefty amount of incentives for the celebrities and this knowledge is alsomade public enthusiastically by the media disclosing exact amount of money that the celebrity Page 65
  • 66. INSTITUTE OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION, KARACHI BUSINESS MBA THESISgets for endorsements. The example of Amir Khan, from Indian film industry i.e. Bollywood, isthere as 3 mentions that Amir Khan has been the highest paid actor for endorsing the brands andrecently has signed the contract with telecom firm Etisalat worth Rs. 300 million. Suchinformation making rounds in the media make consumers aware that they should not be swayedby the endorsements and think there exists no match but this is done for just money. Consumersor the respondents in this research have also the perception ingrained in their minds that match isnot obvious or clear as far as majority’s opinion is concerned and the knowledge that brandendorsement makes the celebrities rich also turn the consumers sour toward brand endorsementand their concept of endorsement being anything but sincerity, gets averred.As far as paying extra money for the product endorsed by favourite celebrity is concerned, therewas an assumption by the researcher which is tested statistically and the treatment of theassumption is as follows:5.2 Hypothesis 2HoSame proportion of Consumer will pay extra money for the brand endorsed by their favouritecelebrity in both countriesHaEngland Same proportion of Consumer will not pay extra money for the brand endorsed by their favouriteYes 0.30 p1 celebrity in both countriesPakistanYes 0.25 p2 In accordance with the responses to question 5 theFormulas: relevant connection was assessed and the findings herein are as follows:p = (p1 * n1 + p2 * n2) / (n1 + n2)SE = sqrt{ p * ( 1 - p ) * [ (1/n1) + (1/n2) ] }z = (p1 - p2) / SE P 0.28 Page SE 0.1412 66 z 0.35
  • 67. INSTITUTE OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION, KARACHI BUSINESS MBA THESIS -1.96 0.35 1.96The test results are not statistically significant at 5% significances level. Hence, we conclude thatsame proportion of Consumer will pay extra money for the brand endorsed by their favouritecelebrity in both countries, hence: Ho is approved.The respondents on both the sides have the commonality in response related to this questionsince people don’t feel like paying extra money just because of the fact that the celebrity of theirchoice is endorsing the brand. The buying behaviour cannot be thought of being solelyinfluenced by the celebrity endorsement when the consumer knowledge is up to the mark and theendorsement’s realities and implications are open to consumers. Total of 20 respondents filled inthe questionnaire from Pakistan and UK each and the figures have been mentioned in the sectionof findings which were the results of survey. The people who said that they will pay extra moneyfor the brand endorsed by their favourite celebrity, from Pakistan were 25% against 30% in UK.The rate of response for ascensions to this option clearly shows that motivation is not very highin the majority of people from both the countries despite the difference present in both thecountries’ per capita income.Majority of people thought that they will not pay extra money for the brand endorsed by theirfavourite celebrity and this portion of respondents from both the countries is high enough againstother given options. Half of the respondents from UK believed that they will not pay extra while Page 67
  • 68. INSTITUTE OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION, KARACHI BUSINESS MBA THESISthis attitude was exhibited by 70% of people in Pakistan. The motivation levels can be inferredthrough these findings since the endorsements mean fortunes for the celebrities and huge costsfor the organizations to rein in the hottest celebrity. The purpose is not served as far as theaspirations of organizations are concerned which tend to jump on the bandwagon to make acelebrity part of their brand to make the brand talk of the town but what is overlooked in themeanwhile is that the bottom line is not affected positively since the very relevant connection ofcosts incurred for the endorsements and the profits does not emerge before the corporate giants.The results might have been there for the brands that were positively endorsed by the celebritymaking the organization’s revenues soar as in case of Tiger Woods who, according to AmsterBrand (2010), affected the profits for Nike in a very positive manner, so much so that theinfidelity scandal in previous years caused the loss of approximately $1.3 million in profit with aloss of 105,000 customers of Nike. The findings are eye opening since the celebrities are lookedupon and respected all around the world and the level of fame is there which affords them withthe charisma that people and consumers all over the world are enamoured with. The analysis saysthat the respondents won’t pay extra money for the brands endorsed by the celebrity of theirliking but apart from this majority, the number of those who believe that they will pay extrashould not be discounted. There still can be seen the people in the sample of respondents who arenot aware of their motivations so they say they don’t know whether they would pay or not. Theprospects have been bright for the organizations to pursue brand celebrity endorsement strategiessince people who want to pay or think will pay make a considerable part of the population.The respondents who don’t know exactly whether the extra amount should be paid or not for thebrand endorsed by a particular celebrity have an intrinsic urge to go to a direction and thisdirection is something that companies strive to dictate through the campaigns which includecelebrities to endorse their brands. Companies’ revenues and profits are at stake and the untold orimplicit command to the celebrity is to make the brands saleable to a required extent or thetargets set by the people at the upper echelons in the organization. The discussion regarding themotivation of respondents to pay extra money is based on the findings and analysis herein whichreveals that there seems to be a gap between what organizations aspire to acquire though thecelebrity endorsement and what the consumers ultimately feel about the brand and the celebrity. Page 68
  • 69. INSTITUTE OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION, KARACHI BUSINESS MBA THESISThis gap might have been an extension of the concept of consumers that brands are primarilyendorsed by celebrities for the money tag attached to them.5.3 Analysis of Open ended responses:As far as the open ended questions in the questionnaire are concerned, question 6 was intendedto draw out what particular celebrity and brand does the respondent recall at the earliest that sheor he likes or have notices eagerly. The motif was to know what celebrity endorsements theyliked and the comments were also asked from the respondents so as to assess the reasons behindthe liking. The results from UK are listed below:From UK students: 6. Which is your most favorite advertisement with a celebrity endorsing a product in it? (Kindly also state the reason, briefly) Pamela in PETA Adidas Bekham Im not attracted to celebrity endorsement.. However, I like Surya in Nescafe add. . . Its because there is a chemistry between the product and the celebrity. Kardashian Kim in Shape ups rolex by frederer Nike endorsed by Roger federer. Nike is the best brand all over Roger federer is the finest player and he is endorsing such a great brand that means something really special. PEPSI commercial motivate pakistan cricket tream usually in world cups head & shoulders endorsed by shahid afridi. Afridi got a personality which really attracts me especially his hairs. titan watches endorse by amir khan (because of his personality) Hero Honda Karizma..........because it features my favourite actor........Hrithik Roshan........Both have style in commonThe results listed in the grid above mentions all the celebrities with their brands that theyendorse. The most frequently seen brand in this chart is nothing but all the brands are differentwith the celebrities also different. As far as Pamela Andersons is concerned, one respondent fromUK has recalled her by the brand PETA (People for Ethical Treatment of Animals), now therecall might be motivated by the attribute related to the brand as it is an international NGO thathas, according to Majordrew (2010), made headlines around the world for being the richest entity Page 69
  • 70. INSTITUTE OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION, KARACHI BUSINESS MBA THESISin non profit sector which pays the celebrities handsomely for its specially contrived brandendorsements in order to turn people vegetarian so that the animals could be treated ethically orthe attributes related to the celebrity might be the source of motivation behind recalling thiscelebrity brand endorsement campaign since Pamela Andersons, as Make Me Heal (2009) states,is the famous personality in show business because of her breast implants which took the worldby storm when she got contracts from various TV programs to appear and perform.Adidas and David Bekham are recalled with each other by one of the respondents and this is theconnection that might have come from a football enthusiast. The recall levels can be gauged bythe popularity that David Bekham enjoys for his football game or the brand Adidas that is themost popular among sports enthusiasts. One of the respondents brought up the name of brandNescafe with Surya and in the comments she has mentioned that she or he likes the level ofchemistry that the ad has depicted between the brand and the celebrity. Business Standard (2011)comments that Nestlé has always paid heed to the behaviour of consumers who are swayed bythe behaviour their favourite celebrities also. The Nescafe Sunrise is the branded product thatSurya endorses with his co star Jyotika in the ad in which they both enjoy the aroma with thetantrums that are part of the couple’s normal life and the consumers are depicted a wholesomeexperience that they can also have with the taste and other aspects that Nescafe Sunrise offers.Kim Kardashian has also been mentioned with Shape ups that is, according to Gorgan (2010), aperfect match according to the company since the shoes are targeted towards the section offemale population that is concerned about losing weight and getting physically toned up. Thecelebrity has been famous with the population around the world because of her devotion tofitness and her rigorous work out, fitness level and lifestyle. The brand Rolex is mentioned in thespace provided in the question and this brand is recalled with the celebrity who rules the world oftennis game, i.e. Frederer. Frederer is once again mentioned by a respondents but this time thebrand is different i.e. Nike, this endorsement is regarded by the respondents as the best matchever in such ad campaigns since he or she comments in the provided space that the brand is thebest in its area of business and so is Roger Frederer. The respondents who mentioned the brandsand celebrities apart from those present in UK might have been the students from other countriesin UK so those responses can also be seen in the grid above. Page 70
  • 71. INSTITUTE OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION, KARACHI BUSINESS MBA THESISAs far as the results from Pakistan are concerned, the results are shown below:From Pakistani students: lux and katrina juggan kazim.. garnier ad.. she seems happy and friendly in it. katrina kaif for lux because i love the product as well as the personality of the celebrity which actually suits her style!! karina kapoor in head n shoulders, she looks amazing in that ad John Abraham in Yamaha motor bike no favorite advertisement Kareena Kapoors airtel advertisement garnier add of john abraham ....jst bcx hes perfect overall to endorse garnier product Ufone. Because I use it and can relate to the services they provide Pepsi Shahid Afradi Close to reality Celebrity: Aisam ul Haq Product: "Close Up" Reason: Creates a sense of urge to buy the product and is quite naturalistic add with an attraction. Clear Shampoo... Isaam is credible for me since he represented the nation positively... Nike - Maria Sharapova, Pakistan team endorsing Pepsi .. Reason is I love my team !! Maaza - Katrina Duuuhhh you know it ... Clear - Aisam-ul-haq Reason: they showed Aisam playing away tennis balls and relate it with fighting dandruff which was a clever advertisement strategyThe results mentioned above in the grid are self evident that the students from Pakistanresponded more to this open ended question. The frequency of the celebrity here is large forKatrina and Kareena Kapoor who are Indian film actresses with huge fan base both in India andPakistan as it is mentioned in the literature review about the extent to which Pakistanis areinfluenced by Bollywood. Katrina is recalled by the brand Lux and the comments in thecomment box reveal the reason behind the liking and that is match of both with each other asbeauty is attributed to Katrina in the industry and to Lux soap in the brands. Kareena Kapoor isrecalled at two places with the brands Airtel and Head and Shoulders.Juggun is a Pakistani TV celebrity who also appear in Garnier ad in Pakistan so one respondentmentioned this connection. Indian male celebrity from the film industry, John Abraham is Page 71
  • 72. INSTITUTE OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION, KARACHI BUSINESS MBA THESISrecalled with the brands of Yamaha motorbike and Garnier deodorant. Since his fondness withmotorbikes has also been famous among the movie lovers, the recall is not extraordinary andGarnier deodorants ads are fervently aired on Indian TV channels presently for which therespondents have also mentioned this campaign. From the field of sports, Shahid Afridi ismentioned with the brand Pepsi while Pakistani tennis star Aisam ul Haq is also mentioned withthe brand Clear shampoo.For question 8 also the responses were open ended and the results collected from UK arementioned below:From UK students: 8. Please leave your comments here leonardio de caprio leonardo de captio Sharuk Khan, Tiger Woods, Leonardo Dicaprio and Brad Pitt. Tiger WOOD Sherapova Leonardo Dicaprio Leonardo Dicaprio leonardo di caprio. Shahrukh khan reminds of TagheuerThe brand that was shown in the picture in this question was of brand Tag Huer which is thebrand of wrist watches. The celebrities that endorse this brand are many and are from differentcountries and different walks of life for example people from show business and sports. FromUK, most of the respondents mentioned the name of Leonardio de Caprio which is rightcelebrity as far as the responses are concerened this shows that the celebrity and brand in thiscase are recalled by most of the people so they think positively about this connection as theyremember this link. Other clabrities like Shahrukh Khan from Bollywood, Tiger Woods who hasbeen a famous golf player around the world and Maria Sherapova who is an elegant tennis star.Now the results from Pakistan can be seen in the following grid: 8. Please leave your comments here Page 72
  • 73. INSTITUTE OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION, KARACHI BUSINESS MBA THESIS leonardo di caprio hrithik roshan dont know dont know no idea Shahid Kapoor shahrukh khan Shahrukh Khan No comments It seems to be a great short & sweet questionnaire with an element of generating curiosity. Good Luck with what ever it is :) Regards. -none- Maria Sharapova Shahrukh Khan !! Cant recall.. Kheriiiyaa Brand..i think so ShahrukhThe results above are not very different from what the students marked in UK. The names ofShahrukh Khan and Maria Sherapova are recalled by most of the respondents and few are of theview that they didn’t ever encounter the brand also. The level of respondents’ recall is obviouswith the above mentioned results and it can be inferred that the difference between the recalllevels is not yawning since most of the respondents know who endorses Tag Huer from both thecountries.CHAPTER 6: CONCLUSION & RECOMMENDATIONSThe findings and analysis have provided a substantial background of the reality associated tobrand celebrity endorsements. The respondents have responded to the questions actively and thepattern of information that is extracted out of the collected data is sufficient to establish that thedifferences between the buying behaviours of Pakistani and Britain student are not very differentas far as the relation of those behaviours are related to celebrity brand endorsements. Thehypothesis which were based on the researcher’s personal observation were listed andstatistically tested for analysis and it was found out that the assumption were maintained andwere proven right since the analysis and findings show that there’s no substantial differencesbetween the buying behaviours. Page 73
  • 74. INSTITUTE OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION, KARACHI BUSINESS MBA THESISThe data is indicative of the fact that the celebrity brand endorsements are not very effective onthe students so as they could be made to pay more just because they see their favourite celebritiesin the ads of particular brand. The medium or the way selected for students should be made moreinteractive. The students in the researcher’s opinion are the busiest individuals in a society andthe university education in both the countries does not allow the students to watch televisionfrequently of to read fashion magazines that include many celebrity endorsement ads. Theinteractive way has to be the one which could make the campaign reach to the universitycampuses with the celebrity with his or her own charm to make the students consider the optionof buying the brand even if they have to pay more. In most of the cases, the celebrities aresuccessful in maintaining their charisma in the consumer’s psyche, but the medium of reach doesnot make the perspectives bright for the celebrity brand endorsement campaigns.The students who thought that the celebrities used the brands, that they endorse in thecampaigns, themselves in their personal lives are only composed of 10% part of the totalrespondents that is only 2 out of 20 from both the countries. This is the area which theorganizational brands should focus more up on since the campaigns should be devised in such away that the consumers believe that the celebrity is genuine user of the brand. The bands arenormally used by the consumers and many of them are also loyal to those brands but thecelebrities endorsements do not appear to be effective in increasing the loyalty of consumers tothose brands or couldn’t bring more consumers to be equally loyal since the consumer epicallythe students know how much they are getting paid by the companies and being knowledgeableand internet savvy the students get to know what the modern deals entail for the celebrities.The reason is related to the fact that money speaks behind a celebrity’s endorsing a brand whichin itself does not appear ethical, loyal, truthful, or anything to the consumers because of whichthey could become loyal and sincere to the brands. Same levels of motivation exist by whichconsumers think that they go to buy a brand which is endorsed the celebrity of liking. InPakistan, as it is mentioned in the literature review, the consumers see more of Indian celebritieson TV and films, and the potential is higher enough to target educational sector of universitystudents in order to reach most of the students who aspire to be like on of the celebrities. The Page 74
  • 75. INSTITUTE OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION, KARACHI BUSINESS MBA THESISstudents’ minds are revolutionary throughout the world as they tend to question phenomena andbring novelty and life to them, the curiosity in minds make them impressionable to theendorsements also but the medium of communication that interacts the brand and celebrity withthe students directly will make things much better for the organizations which focus onincreasing profits in the wake of celebrity brand endorsements.The on campus drives and campaigns in universities can help attracting more attention from thestudents regarding the brand celebrity endorsements in which the celebrity himself shouldapproach not as an actor or artisan but the genuine user of the brand having demonstrationsbefore the students so that they could believe what they see with their eyes and could beconvinced to do the same using the same brands. The example of John Abraham fromBollywood (Indian film industry) is relevant in this case since he’s been a heartthrob andsensational celebrity popular to a great extent both with Pakistani and Indian audience. Thebrands that he endorses are multiple and include the brands of motorbikes, deodorants, cellularservices, electronic appliances, fairness creams, and even Jeanswear so he has the potential to beused as a genuine user of all these brands who could also assist the companies’ own teams whovisit the campuses for brand promotions. The experience with the brand and the celebrity canmake the phenomenon of celebrity brand endorsement related much to the reality.According to the results shown in the findings and analysis sections, the consumers or students inPakistan are more interested to who is endorsing the brand or just the name of the celebritysuffices the endorsement. The majority in Pakistan have marked the name as most importantattribute of the celebrity who endorses the brand while in UK the respondents have opined thatthe personality is the most important that they consider and other attributes were considered lessimportant so the students can be perceived to give more emphasis on who the celebrity is andwhat the personality is like. The companies should get the hottest celebrities on board forendorsements that are talk of the town but should also assure the match between the personalitiesof brand and celebrity since the match enhances the profits ultimately as students are aware ofthe personality factor of both the brand and celebrity. The discussion regarding the match hasbeen mentioned before also and the findings herein also give more weight to the fact that the Page 75
  • 76. INSTITUTE OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION, KARACHI BUSINESS MBA THESISpersonality match should not be overrun by the greed of merely taking celebrity to endorse thebrand.The recall level is higher in both the countries as far as the open ended questions’ responses areconcerned. The students most of the time mentions correct celebrities with the brand Tag Huerand also mention the pairs (of celebrity and brands) in the questions asking respondents tocomment on what they immediately recall with the brand and its celebrity endorser. The level ofrecall is better and considerably normal and this recall should be capitalized upon by differenttactics which first of all include avoiding signing a celebrity that already is endorsing multitudesof brands. The students make up the section of the society that is always considered crucial bythe brands to follow in order to get their attention that could ultimately be converted into loyaltyby giving continuous exposure and satisfaction to the consumers. The students are also hyperactive as compared to most of the people in the society so there are multifarious dimensions totargeting the students through brand endorsements. The modern days call for advanced means ofcommunication to reach to the consumers so that they could be made aware of the realitiesbehind the celebrity endorsements. The social media usage is heavy as far as the students areconcerned.The news of celebrity brand endorsement deals make rounds all the way before the celebritycould be seen endorsing the relevant brand and this all has become possible through the viralinternet media that keeps the audience updated frequently. The news should be kept undersecrecy as far as consumer knowledge is concerned. the deals should be first seen on the mediamaking impact on the audience and the deals and incentives behind should be kept away by theorganizations from the media since this is something that affects the very essence of the celebritybrand endorsements which deprive the campaigns of the originality and keep it surreal for theconsumers who pay heed only to the celebrity in the campaigns or just consider brands thatusually do not seem to match with the celebrity.The campaigns should be tailored in accordance with the findings of the research in mind sincethe behaviours of the students are not positive towards such campaigns but the name of brandsand celebrities are usually recalled with each other. The social media campaigns should be made Page 76
  • 77. INSTITUTE OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION, KARACHI BUSINESS MBA THESISinteractive with the brands used by particular celebrities and those celebrities should be made touse the brands and add frequent testimonials to their web pages or other social media networkswhere they have the presence. The consumers are to be made aware that the endorsements alsohave personal liking of the celebrities behind them apart from the money which is being offeredto them being a part of show business. That genuine interest of the celebrity in the brands shouldbe obvious through the actions and words of the celebrities so that the impression could be gotridden of that endorsements are anything but sincerity which is the lethal concept that kills thevery essence of the phenomenon of brands celebrity endorsements.CHAPTER 7: REFERENCES 1. Airey, D. (2010) Logo Design Love: A Guide to Creating Iconic Brand Identities [Internet] New Riders, U.S. Available from: Google books <http://books.google.com.pk> [Accessed 12th Mar 2011]. 2. Alto, P (2011) SurveyMonkey Acquires Interest in Clicktools [Internet], Available from: http://www.spectrumequity.com/news/pressReleases/2011/release_20110111.html [Accessed 21st Mar 2011] 3. American Business (n.d.) Telephone surveys [Internet], Available from: http://american-business.org/798-telephone-surveys.html [Accessed 19th Mar 2011] 4. Amster Brand (2010) Potential problems with Celebrity Endorsements. [Internet], Available from: http://amsterbrand-emilio1982.blogspot.com/2010/12/potential- problems-with-celebrity.html [Accessed 12th April 2011] Page 77
  • 78. INSTITUTE OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION, KARACHI BUSINESS MBA THESIS5. Andrew (2010) Economic Value of Celebrity Endorsement: Tiger Woods’ Impact on Sales of Nike Golf Balls. [Internet], Available from: http://www.andrew.cmu.edu/user/ derdenge/TWExecutiveSummary.pdf [Accessed 12th April 2011]6. Bhandari, B (2009) Endorsements: Are celebrities worth the price? [Internet], Available from: http://business.rediff.com/slide-show/2009/sep/11/slide-show-1-are-the- celebrities-worth-their-price.htm [Accessed 17th Feb 2011].7. Bhushan, R (2011) Coca-Cola not to renew its brand endorsement contract with Aamir Khan. [Internet], Available from: http://articles.economictimes.indiatimes.com/2011-02-28/news/28642307_1_coca- cola-matlab-brand-messages [Accessed 12th April 2011]8. Branding Strategy Insider (2010) Celebrity Endorsement Guide [Internet], Available from: http://www.brandingstrategyinsider.com/2010/10/celebrity-endorsement- guide.html [Accessed 18th Feb 2011].9. Business Standard (2011) Celebrity actor couple Suriya and Jyotika endorse NESCAFE SUNRISE. [Internet], Available from: http://www.business-standard.com/ india/news/celebrity-actor-couple-suriyajyotika-endorse-nescafe-sunrise/428031/ [Accessed 1st May 2011]10.Changing Minds (2011) The Test Statistic. [Internet], Available from: http://changingminds.org/explanations/research/analysis/test_statistic.htm [Accessed 30th April]11.Chapman, S & Leask, J (2010) Pain celebrity endorsement in health promotion: a case study from Australia [Internet], Oxford, Oxford University Press. Available from: http://heapro.oxfordjournals.org/content/16/4/333.full.pdf+html [Accessed 16th Feb 2011].12.CIA World Factbook (2011) GDP - per capita (PPP) 2011 Country Ranks, By Rank [Internet], Available from: http://www.photius.com/rankings/economy/gdp_per_capita_2011_0.html [Accessed 18th Feb 2011].13.Clifton, R. & Ahmad, S. (2009) Brands and Branding [internet] Bloomberg Press, U.K. Available from: Google books <http://books.google.com.pk> [Accessed 9th Mar 2011].14.Direct Opinions (2011) What Type Of Survey Method Is Best? [Internet], Available from: http://www.directopinions.com/best-survey- method.html [Accessed 18th Mar 2011]15.Entreprenuer (2011) Branding [Internet] Available from: http://www.entrepreneur.com/encyclopedia/term/82248.html [Accessed 11th Mar 2011]16.Enanoria, W (n.d.) Introduction to Survey Methodology [Internet], Available from: http://www.idready.org/courses/2005/spring/survey_IntroSurveyMethods.pdf [Accessed 21st Mar 2011] Page 78
  • 79. INSTITUTE OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION, KARACHI BUSINESS MBA THESIS17.Gorgan, E (2010) Kim Kardashian Becomes the Face of New Skechers Shape-Ups. [Internet], Available from: http://news.softpedia.com/news/Kim-Kardashian- Becomes-the-Face-of-New-Skechers-Shape-Ups-167937.shtml [Accessed 1st May 2011]18. Grundy, S & Jamieson, L (2002) Demography: 18-24 years old in the population UK Socio Demographic Profile of 18-24 years old [Internet], Available from: http://www.sociology.ed.ac.uk/youth/docs/UK_sociodem.pdf [Accessed 17th Feb 2011].19.Hahn, D. (2007) Building a Strong Brand: The ID Branding Framework [Internet] Available from: http://www.allaboutbranding.com/index.lasso?article=439 [Accessed 10th Mar 2011]20.Hansen, F. & Christensen, S. (2007) Emotions, advertising and consumer choice [Internet] Copenhagen Business School Press, Norway. Available from: Google books <http://books.google.com.pk> [Accessed 11th Mar 2011].21. Haywood, R (2005) Corporate reputation, the brand & the bottom line: powerful proven communication strategies for maximizing value [Internet], UK, Kogan Page. Available from: Google books <http://books.google.com.pk> [Accessed 18th Feb 2011].22.Herman, D (2003) The Making or Faking of Brands Emotionally Significant [Internet], Available from: http://www.allaboutbranding.com/downloads/a308/emotional_brands.pdf [Accessed 20th Feb 2011].23.Jagdish, A. & Wagner , K. (1995) The economic worth of celebrity endorsers: an event study analysis [Internet] Available from: http://business.highbeam.com/138375/article-1G1-17154303/economic-worth- celebrity-endorsers-event-study-analysis [Accessed 11th Mar 2011].24.Johnston, B. (n.d.) Evaluating the Brand Experience [Internet] Available from: http://ezinearticles.com/?Evaluating-the-Brand-Experience&id=5365265 [Accessed 11th Mar 2011].25.Katyal, S. (n.d.) Impact of Celebrity Endorsement on a Brand [Internet] Available from: (http://www.chillibreeze.com/articles/Celebrity-endorsement.asp [Accessed 10th Mar 2011].26.Keller (n.d.) Customer-Based Brand Equity [Internet] Available from: http://busieco.samnet.sdu.dk/undervis/90366.E03/(2)%20Customer-Based %20Brand%20Equity.pdf [Accessed 07th Mar 2011].27.Key, J. (1997) QUESTIONNAIRE AND INTERVIEW AS DATA-GATHERING TOOLS [Internet], Available from: http://www.okstate.edu/ag/agedcm4h/academic/aged5980a/5980/newpage16.htm [Accessed 20th Mar 2011]28.Lawrence, C. (2009) he Cult of Celebrity: What Our Fascination with the Stars Reveals About Us [Internet] skirt, U.S. Available from: Google books <http://books.google.com.pk> [Accessed 09th Mar 2011].29.LePla, F. et al (2003) Brand driven: the route to integrated branding through great leadership [Internet] Kogan Page, U.K. Available from: Google books <http://books.google.com.pk> [Accessed 11th Mar 2011]. Page 79
  • 80. INSTITUTE OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION, KARACHI BUSINESS MBA THESIS30.Leslie, L. (2011) Celebrity in the 21st Century: A Reference Handbook [Internet] ABC- CLIO, LLC, U.S. Available from: Google books <http://books.google.com.pk> [Accessed 08th Mar 2011].31.Make Me Heal (2009) Anderson, Pamela. [Internet], Available from: http://education.makemeheal.com/index.php/Anderson,_Pamela [Accessed 11th April 2011]32.Majordrew (2010) Pamela Andersons PETA Endorsement. [Internet], Available from: http://majordrew.blogspot.com/2010/03/pamela-andersons-peta-endorsement.html [Accessed 12th April 2011]33. Majumdar, R (2010) Consumer Behaviour: Insights From Indian Market [Internet], India, PHI Learning Private Limited. Available from: Google books <http://books.google.com.pk> [Accessed 19th Feb 2011].34.Middleton, s. (2010) Build a Brand in 30 Days [internet] Capstone Publishing, U.K. Available from: Google books <http://books.google.com.pk> [Accessed 9th Mar 2011].35.Montoya, P. & Vandehey, T. (2009) The Brand Called You: Make Your Business Stand Out in a Crowded Marketplace [Internet] McGraw-Hill, U.S. Available from: Google books <http://books.google.com.pk> [Accessed 11th Mar 2011].36.Nissim, B. (2005) The Brand Advocate: A Strategy-Driven Workbook [internet] iUniverse, U.S. Available from: Google books <http://books.google.com.pk> [Accessed 11th Mar 2011].37.NowPublic (2010) `World AIDS Day 2010: Alicia Keys Celebrity Digital Death [Internet] Available from: http://www.nowpublic.com/health/world-aids-day-2010- alicia-keys-celebrity-digital-death-campaign-2733700.html [Accessed 09th Mar 2011].38. OGuinn, T, Allen, C & Semenik, R (2009) Advertising and Integrated Brand Promotion, 5th Ed. [Internet], U.S. Cengage Learning. Available from: Google books <http://books.google.com.pk> [Accessed 20th Feb 2011].39.Persuasive Brands (2011) Brand Definition [Internet] Available from: http://www.persuasivebrands.com/Topics_Brand_Definition.aspx [Accessed 11th Mar 2011]40.Phillips, C. (2004) Branding From the Inside Out: How to Approach Brand Strategy, Brand Measurement and the Management of Brands as Assets [Internet] Available from: http://www.brandamplitude.com/images/Branding%20from%20the%20Inside %20Out.pdf [Accessed 10th Mar 2011].41.Roberts, J (2010) Finding the perfect celebrity match. [Internet], Available from: http:// www.marketingweek.co.uk/opinion/finding-the-perfect-celebrity- match/3011851.article [Accessed 22nd April 2011]42.Sridhar, K. (2010) Do controversies hurt brands? [Internet] Available from: http://www.business-standard.com/india/news/do-controversies-hurt- brands/391802/ [Accessed 10th Mar 2011].43.Taleja, N (2010) Impact of Celebrity Endorsements on Overall Brand [Internet], Available from: http://www.coolavenues.com/mba-journal/marketing/impact- celebrity-endorsements-overall-brand-0?page=0,2 [Accessed 15th Feb 2011]. Page 80
  • 81. INSTITUTE OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION, KARACHI BUSINESS MBA THESIS 44.Temporal, P. (2002) Paul Temporals Branding Tips [Internet] Available from: http:// www.brandingasia.com/columns/temporal10.htm [Accessed 8th Mar 2011]. 45.Tolani (n.d.) The Origin and Evolution of Advertising [Internet], Available from: http://pdf.employmentcrossing.com/advertising/170123.pdf [Accessed 17th Feb 2011]. 46.UTexas (2008) Advantages of Online Surveys [Internet], Available from: http://www.utexas.edu/learn/surveys/advantages.html [Accessed 19th Mar 2011] 47.Venture Republic (n.d.) Branding and Celebrity Endorsements [Internet] Available from: http://www.venturerepublic.com/resources/Branding_celebrities_brand_endorseme nts_brand_leadership.asp [Accessed 10th Mar 2011]. 48.WPF (2011) International Year of Youth (IYY) 2010-2011 [Internet], Available from: http://www.wpfpak.org/html/iyy2010.html [Accessed 17th Feb 2011]. 49.Writing at CSU (2011) Strengths and Weaknesses of Oral Surveys [Internet], Available from: http://writing.colostate.edu/guides/research/survey/com3b1.cfm [Accessed 19th Mar 2011]CHAPTER 8: APPENDICES Page 81
  • 82. INSTITUTE OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION, KARACHI BUSINESS MBA THESISFew of the on line responses from the sample respondents are attached herein: “Responses from England”1. What motivate you to buy a particular product?Value for moneyProduct InnovationAttractive advertisement2. Why does a celebrity endorse a brand?To motivate purchaseCelebrity uses that brand3. Rank the following attributes of a celebrity on the scale of 1 to 6 in accordance with theirinfluence over your purchasing: (where 1 being the most important factor and 6 being leastimportant) Rank OrderName 4Message 1Lifestyle 5Reputation 3Personality 5Credibility 54. Does the celebrity’s personality always influence the brand personality and create amatch?Yes5. Will you pay extra money to buy the product endorsed by your favorite celebrity?Yes6. Which is your most favorite advertisement with a celebrity endorsing a product in it?(Kindly also state the reason, briefly)Pamela in PETA7. Mark the common brands that you can recall with the celebrities mentioned below? (Tickas many brands as you recall with the celebrity) "Leonardo Dicaprio"Tag Heuer8. Please leave your comments hereleonardio de caprio9. Personal detailsAge - 24Gender - mCountry - United KingdomUniversity - LSBFQualification - Bachelor Page 82
  • 83. INSTITUTE OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION, KARACHI BUSINESS MBA THESIS1. What motivate you to buy a particular product?DiscountsValue for moneyProduct InnovationAttractive advertisementpast experiences with the brand2. Why does a celebrity endorse a brand?To motivate purchase3. Rank the following attributes of a celebrity on the scale of 1 to 6 in accordance with theirinfluence over your purchasing: (where 1 being the most important factor and 6 being leastimportant) Rank OrderName 1Message 6Lifestyle 5Reputation 4Personality 2Credibility 34. Does the celebrity’s personality always influence the brand personality and create amatch?Don’t know5. Will you pay extra money to buy the product endorsed by your favorite celebrity?No6. Which is your most favorite advertisement with a celebrity endorsing a product in it?(Kindly also state the reason, briefly)Adidas Bekham7. Mark the common brands that you can recall with the celebrities mentioned below? (Tickas many brands as you recall with the celebrity) "Leonardo Dicaprio"Krieger Watches8. Please leave your comments hereleonardo de captio9. Personal detailsAge - 22Gender - mCountry - uKUniversity - LsBFQualification - Bachelors Page 83
  • 84. INSTITUTE OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION, KARACHI BUSINESS MBA THESIS1. What motivate you to buy a particular product?Value for moneypast experiences with the brand2. Why does a celebrity endorse a brand?To creates appealTo motivate purchase3. Rank the following attributes of a celebrity on the scale of 1 to 6 in accordance with theirinfluence over your purchasing: (where 1 being the most important factor and 6 being leastimportant) Rank OrderName 5Message 2Lifestyle 1Reputation 3Personality 4Credibility 64. Does the celebrity’s personality always influence the brand personality and create amatch?No5. Will you pay extra money to buy the product endorsed by your favorite celebrity?No6. Which is your most favorite advertisement with a celebrity endorsing a product in it?(Kindly also state the reason, briefly)Im not attracted to celebrity endorsement.. However, I like Surya in Nescafe add. . . Its because there is a chemistrybetween the product and the celebrity.7. Mark the common brands that you can recall with the celebrities mentioned below? (Tickas many brands as you recall with the celebrity) "Leonardo Dicaprio"Tag Heuer8. Please leave your comments hereSharuk Khan, Tiger Woods, Leonardo Dicaprio and Brad Pitt.9. Personal detailsAge - 25Gender - MaleCountry - India and UKUniversity - University of WalesQualification - MBA1. What motivate you to buy a particular product?Value for money Page 84
  • 85. INSTITUTE OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION, KARACHI BUSINESS MBA THESISProduct InnovationAttractive advertisementCelebrity endorsing the productpast experiences with the brand2. Why does a celebrity endorse a brand?To creates appealTo motivate purchaseCelebrity uses that brandTo create an image for brand3. Rank the following attributes of a celebrity on the scale of 1 to 6 in accordance with theirinfluence over your purchasing: (where 1 being the most important factor and 6 being leastimportant) Rank OrderName 1Message 6Lifestyle 2Reputation 3Personality 4Credibility 54. Does the celebrity’s personality always influence the brand personality and create amatch?Yes5. Will you pay extra money to buy the product endorsed by your favorite celebrity?Yes6. Which is your most favorite advertisement with a celebrity endorsing a product in it?(Kindly also state the reason, briefly)Kardashian Kim in Shape ups7. Mark the common brands that you can recall with the celebrities mentioned below? (Tickas many brands as you recall with the celebrity) "Leonardo Dicaprio"Krieger WatchesTag Heuer8. Please leave your comments hereTiger WOOD9. Personal detailsAge - 25Gender - FCountry - UK Page 85
  • 86. INSTITUTE OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION, KARACHI BUSINESS MBA THESISUniversity - London School of Business and FinanceQualification - MBA1. What motivate you to buy a particular product?Value for moneyCelebrity endorsing the productpast experiences with the brand2. Why does a celebrity endorse a brand?To creates appealTo motivate purchaseTo create an image for brand3. Rank the following attributes of a celebrity on the scale of 1 to 6 in accordance with theirinfluence over your purchasing: (where 1 being the most important factor and 6 being leastimportant) Rank OrderName 1Message 6Lifestyle 5Reputation 4Personality 2Credibility 34. Does the celebrity’s personality always influence the brand personality and create amatch?No5. Will you pay extra money to buy the product endorsed by your favorite celebrity?Yes6. Which is your most favorite advertisement with a celebrity endorsing a product in it?(Kindly also state the reason, briefly)rolex by frederer7. Mark the common brands that you can recall with the celebrities mentioned below? (Tickas many brands as you recall with the celebrity) "Leonardo Dicaprio"Krieger WatchesTag Heuer8. Please leave your comments hereSherapova9. Personal detailsAge - 26Gender - F Page 86
  • 87. INSTITUTE OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION, KARACHI BUSINESS MBA THESISCountry - BritainUniversity - LsbfQualification - undergraduate1. What motivate you to buy a particular product?past experiences with the brand2. Why does a celebrity endorse a brand?To creates appeal3. Rank the following attributes of a celebrity on the scale of 1 to 6 in accordance with theirinfluence over your purchasing: (where 1 being the most important factor and 6 being leastimportant) Rank OrderName 1Message 2Lifestyle 3Reputation 4Personality 5Credibility 64. Does the celebrity’s personality always influence the brand personality and create amatch?Don’t know5. Will you pay extra money to buy the product endorsed by your favorite celebrity?No6. Which is your most favorite advertisement with a celebrity endorsing a product in it?(Kindly also state the reason, briefly)PEPSI commercial motivate pakistan cricket tream usually in world cups7. Mark the common brands that you can recall with the celebrities mentioned below? (Tickas many brands as you recall with the celebrity) "Leonardo Dicaprio"Tag Heuer8. Please leave your comments hereLeonardo Dicaprio9. Personal detailsAge - 25Gender - maleCountry - UKUniversity - London School of Business and FinanceQualification - Doing ACCA1. What motivate you to buy a particular product? Page 87
  • 88. INSTITUTE OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION, KARACHI BUSINESS MBA THESISpast experiences with the brand2. Why does a celebrity endorse a brand?To motivate purchase3. Rank the following attributes of a celebrity on the scale of 1 to 6 in accordance with theirinfluence over your purchasing: (where 1 being the most important factor and 6 being leastimportant) Rank OrderName 3Message 5Lifestyle 6Reputation 1Personality 2Credibility 44. Does the celebrity’s personality always influence the brand personality and create amatch?Yes5. Will you pay extra money to buy the product endorsed by your favorite celebrity?No6. Which is your most favorite advertisement with a celebrity endorsing a product in it?(Kindly also state the reason, briefly)head & shoulders endorsed by shahid afridi. Afridi got a personality which really attracts me especially his hairs.7. Mark the common brands that you can recall with the celebrities mentioned below? (Tickas many brands as you recall with the celebrity) "Leonardo Dicaprio"Tag Heuer8. Please leave your comments hereleonardo di caprio.9. Personal detailsAge - 25Gender - maleCountry - united kingdomUniversity - London school of business & financeQualification - Doing MBA1. What motivate you to buy a particular product?Discounts2. Why does a celebrity endorse a brand?To create an image for brand3. Rank the following attributes of a celebrity on the scale of 1 to 6 in accordance with theirinfluence over your purchasing: (where 1 being the most important factor and 6 being leastimportant) Page 88
  • 89. INSTITUTE OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION, KARACHI BUSINESS MBA THESIS Rank OrderName 4Message 6Lifestyle 3Reputation 2Personality 1Credibility 54. Does the celebrity’s personality always influence the brand personality and create amatch?No5. Will you pay extra money to buy the product endorsed by your favorite celebrity?No6. Which is your most favorite advertisement with a celebrity endorsing a product in it?(Kindly also state the reason, briefly)titan watches endorse by amir khan (because of his personality)7. Mark the common brands that you can recall with the celebrities mentioned below? (Tickas many brands as you recall with the celebrity) "Leonardo Dicaprio"Emporio Armani8. Please leave your comments herenice and precise survey9. Personal detailsAge - 25Gender - MCountry - UKUniversity - London School Of business and financeQualification - MBA1. What motivate you to buy a particular product?Product Innovation2. Why does a celebrity endorse a brand?To create an image for brand3. Rank the following attributes of a celebrity on the scale of 1 to 6 in accordance with theirinfluence over your purchasing: (where 1 being the most important factor and 6 being leastimportant) Rank OrderName 2Message 6Lifestyle 5 Page 89
  • 90. INSTITUTE OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION, KARACHI BUSINESS MBA THESISReputation 3Personality 4Credibility 14. Does the celebrity’s personality always influence the brand personality and create amatch?No5. Will you pay extra money to buy the product endorsed by your favorite celebrity?Don’t Know6. Which is your most favorite advertisement with a celebrity endorsing a product in it?(Kindly also state the reason, briefly)Hero Honda Karizma..........because it features my favourite actor........Hrithik Roshan........Both have style in common7. Mark the common brands that you can recall with the celebrities mentioned below? (Tickas many brands as you recall with the celebrity) "Leonardo Dicaprio"Hybrid-limousine8. Please leave your comments hereShahrukh khan reminds of Tagheuer9. Personal detailsAge - 25 yearsGender - maleCountry - IndiaUniversity - University of WalesQualification - MBA1. What motivate you to buy a particular product?Discounts2. Why does a celebrity endorse a brand?To motivate purchase3. Rank the following attributes of a celebrity on the scale of 1 to 6 in accordance with theirinfluence over your purchasing: (where 1 being the most important factor and 6 being leastimportant) Rank OrderName 6Message 5Lifestyle 4Reputation 1Personality 2Credibility 34. Does the celebrity’s personality always influence the brand personality and create amatch? Page 90
  • 91. INSTITUTE OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION, KARACHI BUSINESS MBA THESISNo5. Will you pay extra money to buy the product endorsed by your favorite celebrity?Don’t Know6. Which is your most favorite advertisement with a celebrity endorsing a product in it?(Kindly also state the reason, briefly)Nike endorsed by Roger federer. Nike is the best brand all over Roger federer is the finest player and he is endorsingsuch a great brand that means something really special.7. Mark the common brands that you can recall with the celebrities mentioned below? (Tickas many brands as you recall with the celebrity) "Leonardo Dicaprio"Tag Heuer8. Please leave your comments hereLeonardo Dicaprio9. Personal detailsAge - 27Gender - MaleCountry - United KingdomUniversity - London School of Business & FinanceQualification - In ACCA “Responses from Pakistan”1. What motivate you to buy a particular product?Product InnovationAttractive advertisementCelebrity endorsing the product2. Why does a celebrity endorse a brand?To motivate purchase3. Rank the following attributes of a celebrity on the scale of 1 to 6 in accordance with theirinfluence over your purchasing: (where 1 being the most important factor and 6 being leastimportant) Rank OrderName 5Message 1Lifestyle 2Reputation 4Personality 3Credibility 64. Does the celebrity’s personality always influence the brand personality and create amatch? Page 91
  • 92. INSTITUTE OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION, KARACHI BUSINESS MBA THESISYes5. Will you pay extra money to buy the product endorsed by your favorite celebrity?No6. Which is your most favorite advertisement with a celebrity endorsing a product in it?(Kindly also state the reason, briefly)lux and katrina7. Mark the common brands that you can recall with the celebrities mentioned below? (Tickas many brands as you recall with the celebrity) "Amitabh Bachan"Cadbury’s8. Please leave your comments here---9. Personal detailsAge - 23Gender - fCountry - pakUniversity - KUQualification - BPA1. What motivate you to buy a particular product?Value for money2. Why does a celebrity endorse a brand?To creates appeal3. Rank the following attributes of a celebrity on the scale of 1 to 6 in accordance with theirinfluence over your purchasing: (where 1 being the most important factor and 6 being leastimportant) Rank OrderName 5Message 3Lifestyle 5Reputation 5Personality 2Credibility 64. Does the celebrity’s personality always influence the brand personality and create amatch?Don’t know5. Will you pay extra money to buy the product endorsed by your favorite celebrity?No6. Which is your most favorite advertisement with a celebrity endorsing a product in it?(Kindly also state the reason, briefly) Page 92
  • 93. INSTITUTE OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION, KARACHI BUSINESS MBA THESISjuggan kazim.. garnier ad.. she seems happy and friendly in it.7. Mark the common brands that you can recall with the celebrities mentioned below? (Tickas many brands as you recall with the celebrity) "Amitabh Bachan"Parker Pens8. Please leave your comments hereleonardo di caprio9. Personal detailsAge - 18Gender - femaleCountry - PakistanUniversity - KUQualification – A levels1. What motivate you to buy a particular product?past experiences with the brand2. Why does a celebrity endorse a brand?To motivate purchase3. Rank the following attributes of a celebrity on the scale of 1 to 6 in accordance with theirinfluence over your purchasing: (where 1 being the most important factor and 6 being leastimportant) Rank OrderName 6Message 4Lifestyle 3Reputation 2Personality 1Credibility 54. Does the celebrity’s personality always influence the brand personality and create amatch?Yes5. Will you pay extra money to buy the product endorsed by your favorite celebrity?No6. Which is your most favorite advertisement with a celebrity endorsing a product in it?(Kindly also state the reason, briefly)katrina kaif for lux because i love the product as well as the personality of the celebrity which actually suits her style!!7. Mark the common brands that you can recall with the celebrities mentioned below? (Tickas many brands as you recall with the celebrity) "Amitabh Bachan"Dabur8. Please leave your comments here Page 93
  • 94. INSTITUTE OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION, KARACHI BUSINESS MBA THESIShrithik roshan9. Personal detailsAge - 16Gender - femaleCountry - pakistanUniversity - KUQualification - student1. What motivate you to buy a particular product?Value for money2. Why does a celebrity endorse a brand?To creates appeal3. Rank the following attributes of a celebrity on the scale of 1 to 6 in accordance with theirinfluence over your purchasing: (where 1 being the most important factor and 6 being leastimportant) Rank OrderName 1Message 4Lifestyle 3Reputation 4Personality 3Credibility 24. Does the celebrity’s personality always influence the brand personality and create amatch?No5. Will you pay extra money to buy the product endorsed by your favorite celebrity?No6. Which is your most favorite advertisement with a celebrity endorsing a product in it?(Kindly also state the reason, briefly)karina kapoor in head n shoulders, she looks amazing in that ad7. Mark the common brands that you can recall with the celebrities mentioned below? (Tickas many brands as you recall with the celebrity) "Amitabh Bachan"ICICI BankCadbury’s8. Please leave your comments heredont know9. Personal detailsAge - 26 Page 94
  • 95. INSTITUTE OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION, KARACHI BUSINESS MBA THESISGender - MCountry - PakistanUniversity - University of KarachiQualification - MBA1. What motivate you to buy a particular product?DiscountsValue for moneypast experiences with the brand2. Why does a celebrity endorse a brand?To creates appealTo motivate purchase3. Rank the following attributes of a celebrity on the scale of 1 to 6 in accordance with theirinfluence over your purchasing: (where 1 being the most important factor and 6 being leastimportant) Rank OrderName 3Message 5Lifestyle 4Reputation 6Personality 1Credibility 24. Does the celebrity’s personality always influence the brand personality and create amatch?No5. Will you pay extra money to buy the product endorsed by your favorite celebrity?No6. Which is your most favorite advertisement with a celebrity endorsing a product in it?(Kindly also state the reason, briefly)John Abraham in Yamaha motor bike7. Mark the common brands that you can recall with the celebrities mentioned below? (Tickas many brands as you recall with the celebrity) "Amitabh Bachan"ICICI BankCadbury’sDabur8. Please leave your comments heredont know9. Personal details Page 95
  • 96. INSTITUTE OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION, KARACHI BUSINESS MBA THESISAge - 26Gender - MCountry - PakUniversity - KUQualification - MPA1. What motivate you to buy a particular product?Product Innovation2. Why does a celebrity endorse a brand?To create an image for brand3. Rank the following attributes of a celebrity on the scale of 1 to 6 in accordance with theirinfluence over your purchasing: (where 1 being the most important factor and 6 being leastimportant) Rank OrderName 3Message 5Lifestyle 4Reputation 1Personality 1Credibility 34. Does the celebrity’s personality always influence the brand personality and create amatch?Yes5. Will you pay extra money to buy the product endorsed by your favorite celebrity?No6. Which is your most favorite advertisement with a celebrity endorsing a product in it?(Kindly also state the reason, briefly)no favorite advertisement7. Mark the common brands that you can recall with the celebrities mentioned below? (Tickas many brands as you recall with the celebrity) "Amitabh Bachan"Dabur8. Please leave your comments hereno idea9. Personal detailsAge - 18Gender - femaleCountry - pakistanUniversity - karachi university Page 96
  • 97. INSTITUTE OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION, KARACHI BUSINESS MBA THESISQualification - intermediate1. What motivate you to buy a particular product?past experiences with the brand2. Why does a celebrity endorse a brand?To creates appeal3. Rank the following attributes of a celebrity on the scale of 1 to 6 in accordance with theirinfluence over your purchasing: (where 1 being the most important factor and 6 being leastimportant) Rank OrderName 6Message 3Lifestyle 2Reputation 4Personality 1Credibility 54. Does the celebrity’s personality always influence the brand personality and create amatch?Yes5. Will you pay extra money to buy the product endorsed by your favorite celebrity?Yes6. Which is your most favorite advertisement with a celebrity endorsing a product in it?(Kindly also state the reason, briefly)Kareena Kapoors airtel advertisement7. Mark the common brands that you can recall with the celebrities mentioned below? (Tickas many brands as you recall with the celebrity) "Amitabh Bachan"Cadbury’s8. Please leave your comments hereShahid Kapoor9. Personal detailsAge - 18Gender - FemaleCountry - PakistanUniversity - KUQualification - Intermediate pass1. What motivate you to buy a particular product?Product Innovation2. Why does a celebrity endorse a brand? Page 97
  • 98. INSTITUTE OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION, KARACHI BUSINESS MBA THESISTo creates appeal3. Rank the following attributes of a celebrity on the scale of 1 to 6 in accordance with theirinfluence over your purchasing: (where 1 being the most important factor and 6 being leastimportant) Rank OrderName 2Message 6Lifestyle 5Reputation 4Personality 1Credibility 34. Does the celebrity’s personality always influence the brand personality and create amatch?No5. Will you pay extra money to buy the product endorsed by your favorite celebrity?No6. Which is your most favorite advertisement with a celebrity endorsing a product in it?(Kindly also state the reason, briefly)garnier add of john abraham ....jst bcx hes perfect overall to endorse garnier product7. Mark the common brands that you can recall with the celebrities mentioned below? (Tickas many brands as you recall with the celebrity) "Amitabh Bachan"Dabur8. Please leave your comments hereshahrukh khan9. Personal detailsAge - 18Gender - femaleCountry - pakistanUniversity - karachi universityQualification - under graduate1. What motivate you to buy a particular product?Value for money2. Why does a celebrity endorse a brand?To motivate purchase3. Rank the following attributes of a celebrity on the scale of 1 to 6 in accordance with theirinfluence over your purchasing: (where 1 being the most important factor and 6 being leastimportant) Rank Order Page 98
  • 99. INSTITUTE OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION, KARACHI BUSINESS MBA THESISName 1Message 1Lifestyle 1Reputation 6Personality 1Credibility 64. Does the celebrity’s personality always influence the brand personality and create amatch?No5. Will you pay extra money to buy the product endorsed by your favorite celebrity?No6. Which is your most favorite advertisement with a celebrity endorsing a product in it?(Kindly also state the reason, briefly)lhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaahhhhhhhhhhhhhh7. Mark the common brands that you can recall with the celebrities mentioned below? (Tickas many brands as you recall with the celebrity) "Amitabh Bachan"ICICI BankParker PensCadbury’sDabur8. Please leave your comments hereponka9. Personal detailsAge - 15Gender - maleeeeeeCountry - chechniaUniversity - Fahad UoMQualification - Bm1. What motivate you to buy a particular product?Value for moneypast experiences with the brand2. Why does a celebrity endorse a brand?To create an image for brand3. Rank the following attributes of a celebrity on the scale of 1 to 6 in accordance with theirinfluence over your purchasing: (where 1 being the most important factor and 6 being leastimportant) Rank Order Page 99
  • 100. INSTITUTE OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION, KARACHI BUSINESS MBA THESISName 6Message 6Lifestyle 2Reputation 2Personality 2Credibility 14. Does the celebrity’s personality always influence the brand personality and create amatch?Don’t know5. Will you pay extra money to buy the product endorsed by your favorite celebrity?No6. Which is your most favorite advertisement with a celebrity endorsing a product in it?(Kindly also state the reason, briefly)Ufone. Because I use it and can relate to the services they provide7. Mark the common brands that you can recall with the celebrities mentioned below? (Tickas many brands as you recall with the celebrity) "Amitabh Bachan"ICICI BankParker PensCadbury’s8. Please leave your comments hereShahrukh Khan9. Personal detailsAge - 24Gender - FemaleCountry - PakistanUniversity - KUQualification - MA Mass Communications1. What motivate you to buy a particular product?past experiences with the brand2. Why does a celebrity endorse a brand?To create an image for brand3. Rank the following attributes of a celebrity on the scale of 1 to 6 in accordance with theirinfluence over your purchasing: (where 1 being the most important factor and 6 being leastimportant) Rank OrderName 3Message 2 Page 100
  • 101. INSTITUTE OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION, KARACHI BUSINESS MBA THESISLifestyle 5Reputation 1Personality 4Credibility 34. Does the celebrity’s personality always influence the brand personality and create amatch?No5. Will you pay extra money to buy the product endorsed by your favorite celebrity?No6. Which is your most favorite advertisement with a celebrity endorsing a product in it?(Kindly also state the reason, briefly)Pepsi Shahid Afradi Close to reality7. Mark the common brands that you can recall with the celebrities mentioned below? (Tickas many brands as you recall with the celebrity) "Amitabh Bachan"Cadbury’s8. Please leave your comments hereNo comments9. Personal detailsAge - 23Gender - MakeCountry - PakistanUniversity - KUQualification - MPA1. What motivate you to buy a particular product?Product Innovation2. Why does a celebrity endorse a brand?To create an image for brand3. Rank the following attributes of a celebrity on the scale of 1 to 6 in accordance with theirinfluence over your purchasing: (where 1 being the most important factor and 6 being leastimportant) Rank OrderName 4Message 2Lifestyle 3Reputation 1Personality 1Credibility 1 Page 101
  • 102. INSTITUTE OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION, KARACHI BUSINESS MBA THESIS4. Does the celebrity’s personality always influence the brand personality and create amatch?No5. Will you pay extra money to buy the product endorsed by your favorite celebrity?No6. Which is your most favorite advertisement with a celebrity endorsing a product in it?(Kindly also state the reason, briefly)Clear Shampoo... Isaam is credible for me since he represented the nation positively...7. Mark the common brands that you can recall with the celebrities mentioned below? (Tickas many brands as you recall with the celebrity) "Amitabh Bachan"Cadbury’s8. Please leave your comments here-none-9. Personal detailsAge - 25Gender - MaleCountry - PakistanUniversity - University of KarachiQualification - Masters1. What motivate you to buy a particular product?Product Innovationpast experiences with the brand2. Why does a celebrity endorse a brand?To creates appealTo create an image for brand3. Rank the following attributes of a celebrity on the scale of 1 to 6 in accordance with theirinfluence over your purchasing: (where 1 being the most important factor and 6 being leastimportant) Rank OrderName 4Message 6Lifestyle 5Reputation 1Personality 2Credibility 34. Does the celebrity’s personality always influence the brand personality and create amatch?No Page 102
  • 103. INSTITUTE OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION, KARACHI BUSINESS MBA THESIS5. Will you pay extra money to buy the product endorsed by your favorite celebrity?No6. Which is your most favorite advertisement with a celebrity endorsing a product in it?(Kindly also state the reason, briefly)Nike - Maria Sharapova,7. Mark the common brands that you can recall with the celebrities mentioned below? (Tickas many brands as you recall with the celebrity) "Amitabh Bachan"Cadbury’s8. Please leave your comments hereMaria Sharapova9. Personal detailsAge - 26Gender - MaleCountry - PakistanUniversity - University of KarachiQualification - Masters in Public Adminstration1. What motivate you to buy a particular product?Product Innovation2. Why does a celebrity endorse a brand?To creates appeal3. Rank the following attributes of a celebrity on the scale of 1 to 6 in accordance with theirinfluence over your purchasing: (where 1 being the most important factor and 6 being leastimportant) Rank OrderName 1Message 3Lifestyle 2Reputation 2Personality 2Credibility 44. Does the celebrity’s personality always influence the brand personality and create amatch?Yes5. Will you pay extra money to buy the product endorsed by your favorite celebrity?Yes6. Which is your most favorite advertisement with a celebrity endorsing a product in it?(Kindly also state the reason, briefly) Page 103
  • 104. INSTITUTE OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION, KARACHI BUSINESS MBA THESISCelebrity: Aisam ul Haq Product: "Close Up" Reason: Creates a sense of urge to buy the product and is quite naturalisticadd with an attraction.7. Mark the common brands that you can recall with the celebrities mentioned below? (Tickas many brands as you recall with the celebrity) "Amitabh Bachan"Dabur8. Please leave your comments hereIt seems to be a great short & sweet questionnaire with an element of generating curiosity. Good Luck with what ever itis :) Regards.9. Personal detailsAge - 22Gender - FemaleCountry - PakistanUniversity - University of KarachiQualification - BS Page 104