COOKIES• A message passed from a web server to a web browser that is sent back to the server each time the browser requests a page from that server• Normally used for authentication purposes• May contain sensitive/private info, thus posing security risk
BOTNETS AND CYBERATTACK SUPPLY CHAIN• “Destructive software robots working together on a collection of zombie computers”!!• Ouch, straight out of a SiFi horror story but the threat is very real.
HIGHLY SPECIALIZED IDENTITY THEFT•A phishing attack on the internet can be a professionalmulti-step task involving: • A programmer (writes attack templates) • A phisher (designs the attack) • A cracker (provides hosting space for attack) • A Bot herder (access to botnet zombie computers)
INTERNET HOAXES• A false message circulated online about new viruses• May cause your inbox to get ﬂooded with junk-mail• Hoaxbusters warn about know hoaxes
CYBERSQUATTING• The practice of registering a domain name and trying to sell it to those who are most likely to want their trademark back • Ex: eminemmobile.com sued by Eminem for use of his name to make money• This crime may lead to $100,000 ﬁne and forfeiture of disputed name for offenders.
CYBER HARRASSMENT, STALKING, AND BULLYING• Victims endure • Distress from obscene, vulgar, or threatening content • Repeated unwanted contact from aggressor • Posting of personal information on chat rooms and web sites• Social networks provide ways to report predators as a defense
SOFTWARE PRIACY• Illegal distribution of bootleg copies to others (for free or to sell)• Software is intellectual property and offenders are subject to patent and copyright laws• Solving piracy problem is still a major issue
GLOBAL PROBLEM• Piracy is an international issue• The unwillingness of governments and individuals to recognize software copyrights is a huge roadblock to solving the issue• Billions of dollars lost each year
CYBERWAR• This is one country’s military attempt to destroy the information and communication systems of another• Most advanced nations are most vulnerable• Attacks shut down country’s economic system, transportation and medical capabilities, etc.
FUNCTIONS OF CYBERWAR• Disabling enemy’s smart weapons and controls systems• Distributing cyberpropaganda• Stealing or modifying information (espionage)
A NEW COLD WAR• Nations secretly testing networks to gain advantage or inﬂict damage on potential enemy nations ushers in a new type of cold war
CYBERTERRORISM• Individuals or organized groups using technology to intimidate or harm governments and/or civilians• Causes virtual physical damage• Nuclear power plants, dams, power grids, etc., are all affected
DISADVANTAGES FOR THE CYBER ATTACKER• May not achieve as much destruction as physical weapons• Requires continuous updating of systems as older methods quickly become outdated• Less drama and emotional appeal as traditional attacks
GLOBALIZATION OF TERRORISM• Cyberwar and Cyberterrorism will only increase as dependence on technology increases• Controlling these attacks is a great challenge for the future
INFORMATION SYSTEMS SECURITY• All systems connected to networks are vulnerable to security violations• Taking precaution is necessary and a variety of technologies have been created for this purpose
SAFEGUARDING IS RESOURCES• Systems security auditing identiﬁes most vulnerable systems in an organization• Followed by designing and implementing security measures
RISK ANALYSIS• Determines if a company should take one of three courses of action: 1. Risk Reduction (actively invest in protect systems) 2. Risk Acceptance (do nothing, just absorb any damages) 3. Risk Transference (buy insurance or outsource risky functions)