Spy Nation - The New American Magazine - Special issue - 7-24-06


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Spy Nation - The New American Magazine - Special issue - 7-24-06

  1. 1. SPECIAL INTELLIGENCE ISSUE July 24, 2006 www.thenewamerican.com $2.95
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  3. 3. NEW Book Additions Two-book set The Rise and Fall of Mental Health the Roman Republic Screening & Lessons for Modern America National Mental By popular demand, Dr. Bonta’s arti- Health Program cles that were published in The New American in 2004-2005 are now in Dennis L. Cuddy’s disturbing look book form. The book highlights Roman at the future effects of the Bush actions that stabilized Rome and led administration’s New Freedom Commission on to its prosperity, and those that desta- (Mental Health, 2005, 112pp, pb; Mental Health. ( bilized it and led to corruption and its National Mental Health Program, 2004, 41pp, Program downfall. (2006, 137pp, pb, 1-4/$8.95 pb, two-book set $14.00) BKSMHP each, 5 or more $7.95 each) BKRFRR each To Eliminate Age of the Opiate, Christian Vol.1 Inflation Ethics in Plain Rabbi Antelman’s clas- Continued Language sic work To Eliminate the Opiate is an “in-depth In this update to his best- seller Age of Inflation, Based on biblical prin- study of Communist Hans Sennholz shows the ciples, this book is a rea- and conspiratorial group real consequences of our soned approach to many efforts to destroy Jews and nation’s economic and of the ethical issues we Judaism.” (2002, 160pp, pb, monetary policies. (2006, face today. (2005, 235pp, $13.95 $13.95) BKEO 45pp, pb, $5.95) BKAIC pb, $24.95) BKCEPL ✁ QUANTITY TITLE PRICE TOTAL PRICE Name ______________________________________________________________ Address ____________________________________________________________ City _____________________________ State __________ Zip ________________ Phone ____________________________ E-mail ______________________________ ❑ Check ❑ VISA ❑ Discover 000 0000 000 000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 ❑ Money Order ❑ MasterCard ❑ American Express VISA/MC/Discover Three Digit V-Code American Express Four Digit V-Code SUBTOTAL WI RESIDENTS ADD 5% SALES TAX SHIPPING/HANDLING (SEE CHART BELOW) TOTAL Make checks payable to: AMERICAN OPINION BOOK SERVICES ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ # _________________________________________ Exp. Date ________________ For shipments outside the U.S., please call for rates. Order Subtotal Standard Shipping Rush Shipping Signature ___________________________________________________________ $0-10.99 $3.95 $8.95 Standard: 4-14 $11.00-19.99 $6.75 $11.75 business days. Mail completed form to: $20.00-49.99 $8.95 $13.95 Rush: 3-7 business American Opinion Book Services AOBS • P.O. BOX 8040 days, no P.O. Boxes, APPLETON, WI 54912 $50.00-99.99 $100.00-149.99 $11.75 $13.95 $16.75 $18.95 HI/AK add $10.00 Order Online: w w w . a o b s - s t o r e . c o m $150.00+ call call Credit card orders call toll-free now! 1-800-342-6491 060724
  4. 4. Vol. 22, No. 15 July 24, 2006 COVER STORY INTELLIGENCE AND SECURITY 12 Spy Nation ▲ by William Norman Grigg — Does the centralized intelligence system created by the Bush administration really make us safer? 19 Emerging Police State by Thomas R. Eddlem — Imprisonment without trial and the torture of prisoners are hallmarks of an oppressive police state, yet George Bush and his administration openly promote these practices. Illustartion by Mario Noche 23 Administration Resents “Swift” Kick by Warren Mass — After the press reported that a secret operation following the money trails to terrorists was including financial dealings of innocent citizens, the neo-conservatives lashed back. 25 The NSA and Domestic Spying by Warren Mass — Warrantless surveillance has become a concern for both sides of the political spectrum, but it’s still being defended. DEPARTMENTS 27 Before 9/11 5 From the Editor by Dennis Behreandt — It’s now five years since the 9/11 attacks and serious questions remain unanswered. Among these is whether or not the U.S. government had prior warning of the attacks. 7 Insider Report • Deep-sixing Senate Inquiry Into Iraq Intel Failure 31 What Government Can Do to You • CIA Disbands Unit That Has Tracked by R. Cort Kirkwood — Our government has steadily, and increasingly bin Laden openly, treated Americans as dispensable assets — to be used or • Falling Into al-Qaeda’s Trap discarded at will. • Costs of War — and Bad Intelligence • White House, GOP, Dems Court La Raza Radicals FEATURES 11 QuickQuotes HISTORY — THE ENEMY WITHIN • Whom Are We Arresting? • Bush Defends Spying on Americans 34 Players, Plans, and Betrayals by William F. Jasper — During WWII, intelligence operatives and private interests sought to infiltrate and influence American operations. 41 Exercising the Right • Car Wash Washout TV REVIEW • War at Home 39 TV’s 24: Entertaining — As Fiction ▲ 43 Correction, Please! by John Nelson — Weekly “lifeboat” decisions of • Increasing Unemployment super-agent Jack Bauer protect the lives of fictional With Minimum Effort millions, but without addressing the real moral consequences of situational ethics. AP THE LAST WORD 44 Immigration & Integration COVER Illustration by Mario Noche by Christopher S. Bentley
  5. 5. Virtue is a choice. Make it a habit. Virtue • the moral excellence evident in my life as I consistently do what is right Sponsored by Putting Character First!®
  6. 6. FROM THE EDITOR Publisher John F. McManus E Editor very country needs to possess the was attacked on 9/11, it was the local first Gary Benoit ability to protect itself against en- responders — from the private citizens emies both foreign and domestic, aboard United Flight 93 to the firemen Senior Editors or it will lose its freedom. Necessary pro- and police officers who rushed into the William Norman Grigg tections include not only police and armed burning WTC towers — who provided the William F. Jasper forces but also intelligence services. most heroic defense on that tragic day. And Copy Editor But the power to protect can be used it was the federal government that failed. Kurt Williamsen to impose tyranny as well as to safeguard As Dennis Behreandt notes in his “Before liberty. In fact, human nature being what 9/11” article (page 27), even Arabic school Contributors it is, governmental agencies authorized to kids in New York City knew something big Dennis J. Behreandt use deadly force or to snoop will inevitably was coming down, yet the federal intelli- Christopher S. Bentley Steven J. DuBord become oppressive — unless those powers gence community supposedly didn’t have Thomas R. Eddlem are constrained by a system of law that pro- a clue. Jodie Gilmore tects the governed from the government. Amazingly, the 9/11 tragedy is routine- William P. Hoar “If men were angels, no government ly cited as “justification” for centralizing Warren Mass would be necessary,” James Madison, the power in Washington, with local and state Michael E. Telzrow Joe Wolverton II, J.D. father of the U.S. Constitution, observed. police agencies becoming mere adminis- “If angels were to govern men, neither trative subdivisions of the emerging in- Editorial Assistant external nor internal controls on govern- telligence behemoth in Washington. This Ann Shibler ment would be necessary.” Understand- despite the fact that federal agents in the ing that men are not angels, the Founding field had provided important pieces of the Art Director Joseph W. Kelly Fathers created a system of government puzzle to their superiors in Washington, that not only limited governmental powers and the people in charge ignored them. Desktop Publishing Specialist but divided those powers among the three This consolidation of power in the name of Steven J. DuBord branches of government and between the fighting terrorism may someday become federal government and the states. Under far more destructive of our liberties than Research Mary Benoit the U.S. Constitution, the powers of the al-Qaeda ever could. (See “Spy Nation” by Brian T. Farmer federal government are few and specified, William Norman Grigg, page 12.) Bonnie M. Gillis and all other powers “are reserved to the Outlandish? Not when you consider the States respectively, or to the people.” evidence, much of which has been assem- Marketing The local, state, and federal govern- bled in this magazine. Consider, for ex- Larry Greenley George R. Kotalik ments all have important roles to play in ample, the “Emerging Police State” article John H. Nelson protecting the public. The federal gov- by Thomas R. Eddlem (page 19), which ernment is authorized to provide for the documents that imprisonment without trial Web Manager national defense, but law enforcement is and even torture have become open prac- Brian Witt supposed to be principally a local respon- tices under the Bush administration. Advertising/Circulation sibility, with the police accountable to the Those who think that domestic spying is Julie DuFrane communities they protect and serve. Such a necessary sacrifice that must be endured an arrangement prevents a central gov- to fight terrorism should ask themselves ernment from using a nationalized police why our own government has begun treat- force to consolidate power — along the ing the American people as the enemy in- lines of what has happened in the past in stead of securing our borders to prevent real Nazi Germany or Soviet Russia. enemies from getting into the United States Printed in the U.S.A. • ISSN 0885-6540 P.O. Box 8040 • Appleton, WI 54912 To assure the protection of U.S. citi- in the first place. In reality, Americans do 920-749-3784 • 920-749-3785 (fax) zens, intelligence powers have been di- not have to sacrifice liberty for security; www.thenewamerican.com vided among the different branches and they can have both, but achieving that will Rates are $39 per year (Hawaii and Canada, levels of government — from local police require a return to the multi-layered, non- add $9; foreign, add $27) or $22 for six months (Hawaii and Canada, add $4.50; foreign, add intelligence units to congressional investi- centralized, constitutionally sound police $13.50). Copyright ©2006 by American Opin- gating committees. and intelligence services we once had. ■ ion Publishing, Inc. Periodicals postage paid at When our nation — GARY BENOIT Appleton, WI and additional mailing offices. Post- master: Send any address changes to THE NEW EXTRA COPIES AVAILABLE AMERICAN, P.O. Box 8040, Appleton, WI 54912. THE NEW AMERICAN is pub- lished biweekly by Ameri- ➧ Additional copies of this issue of THE NEW AMERICAN are can Opinion Publishing Inc., a wholly owned subsidiary of The John available at quantity-discount prices. To order, visit www.thenew Birch Society. american.com/marketplace/ or see the card between pages 38-39. THE NEW AMERICAN • JULY 24, 2006 5
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  8. 8. INSIDER REPORT Deep-sixing Senate Inquiry Into Iraq Intel Failure During 2004 Senate hearings into prewar intelligence on Iraq, section of the report dealing with prewar public statements by the Senator Pat Roberts (R-Kan.), chairman of the Senate Intel- administration “is said to be a matter of such deep division and ligence Committee, deferred until after the election an inquiry contention that it might never be completed,” reported York. This into the most contentious issue: whether Bush administration of- is because committee Democrats want to focus on administration ficials consciously relied on misinformation in crafting prewar statements, while Roberts and his allies want to include state- statements about Saddam’s arsenal. In April, Senator Roberts ments about Saddam’s arsenal made by prominent Democrats promised that “Phase II” of the investigation begun two years as well. ago — the long-deferred examination of the question of “cooked” It was, of course, the administration that presented both Con- intelligence — was completed, and the report would be forthcom- gress and the American people with the case for war — a case ing as soon as committee members had reviewed it. built on falsehood and distortions. But Roberts, who has a de- In mid-June, National Review contributor Byron York indi- served reputation as one of the White House’s most dutiful ser- cated that Sen. Roberts had found another excuse to delay pub- vants in Congress, insists that both sets of statements should be lication of the report, which would be politically damaging to examined — chiefly, one suspects, because the resulting partisan the administration and the GOP in the upcoming elections. The fight will keep the report bottled up indefinitely. CIA Disbands Unit That Has Tracked bin Laden National Public Radio reported on July 3 that the CIA’s special unit that has been searching for al-Qaeda leader Osama bin Laden has been shut down. The New York Times, citing unnamed intelligence officials, reported on July 4 that the CIA’s bin Laden unit, code-named “Alec Station,” had been disbanded last year. According to the Times, the anonymous officials said that the change reflects a view that al-Qaeda’s hierarchy has changed, and terror- ist attacks inspired by the group are now being carried out independently of bin Laden and his second-in-command, Ayman al-Zawahiri. After 9/11, President Bush had said that he wanted bin Laden “dead or alive.” AP Persistence of evil: Osama bin Laden continues to captivate and inspire Muslim radicals — which makes the CIA’s decision to close its “Alec Falling Into al-Qaeda’s Trap Station” unit devoted to tracking the terror chief all the more puzzling. Defenders of the Bush administration’s war in Iraq have often in- dium-scale attacks.” The manual concludes that the 9/11 attack voked the “flypaper strategy” — namely, the idea that by attract- “forced the U.S. to fall into the ‘trap’ of overextending their ing Islamist radicals to Iraq, the United States would be fighting military” and that “it began to become clear to the American them “over there” rather than “over here.” administration that it was being drained.” The problem is this: getting the United States mired in Rather than plotting to attack the U.S. homeland, al-Qaeda Mesopotamia is central to al-Qaeda’s strategy. To borrow a prefers to draw the U.S. into distant fights in the Muslim world, phrase from Steinbeck’s classic novella The Moon Is Down, concludes Will McCants, a West Point fellow. the Islamist movement sees the United States as the flies in this “Naji [author of the al-Qaeda study] believes the way you re- scenario, and are quite happy to have the “flies” conquer the ally hurt empires is to make them commit their military far from “flypaper.” their base of operations,” McCants observes. Naji doesn’t support That strategy is mapped out in The Management of Savage- further 9/11-style attacks on the U.S. “because right now he feels ry, a 268-page document written by al-Qaeda insider Abu Bakr al-Qaeda has the upper hand in the public relations battle” in Naji and recently published in an English translation by the the Muslim world. “The point is to make [the U.S.] come in” as Combating Terrorism Center at West Point. As summarized by invaders, where the Muslims who fight our troops will “be seen ABC News: “Al-Qaeda’s strategic vision involves challenging as fighting the crusaders directly so you’ll win over the public.... the United States and its allies overseas using small- to me- That’s the way they want to get to the U.S.” THE NEW AMERICAN • JULY 24, 2006 7
  9. 9. INSIDER REPORT Costs of War — and Bad Intelligence Vice President Cheney’s office to circumvent established intel- ligence channels in the CIA, Defense Department, and State De- partment. Most of the intelligence community rejected the OSP’s conclusions about Saddam’s arsenal, connections to al-Qaeda, and the likely consequences of invading Iraq. However, the ad- ministration chose to act on the OSP’s intelligence, which proved to be nothing but ideologically motivated disinformation. And the costs of that decision will mount into the foreseeable future. A Congressional Research Service report published in April “concluded that Lindsey’s estimate was, indeed, way off — but in the other direction,” notes Matthew Yglesias in the July 5 issue of American Prospect. “About $261 billion had already been spent” on the war. But that figure doesn’t take into account the radiating social and economic consequences of the war, which will last for decades and inflict tremendous costs on our nation. “Wartime appropriations do not, for example, include the cost of disability payments to veterans wounded in the war, payments AP that will continue throughout their life spans,” continues Ygle- The costs of the bad intelligence behind the Iraq War are measured not only in dollars, but in irreplaceable lives lost, families disrupted sias. “Nor do they cover the costs of medical treatments for those through separation, and lasting enmities that have been sown. seriously injured in the war, or even such basic war-related costs as the replacement of equipment and munitions expended in the In September 2002, then-White House economic adviser Law- conflict or the need to transport soldiers back to their home bases rence Lindsey predicted that war with Iraq would cost as much as when they rotate out of the country. The war has also substantially $200 billion. His candor about the costs of the war got him fired. increased the military’s overall recruiting costs, reflected in big- After all, Lindsey’s estimate was denounced as “very, very high” ger bonuses and additional recruiters.” according to Budget Director Mitch Daniels, who stated that the These factors, explain the estimate published in a study by war would cost no more than $60 billion — substantially less than left-leaning, Nobel Prize-winning economist Joseph Stiglitz and the first Gulf War, which cost $80 billion. Deputy Defense Sec- Harvard budget expert Linda Blimes, indicate that the final costs retary Paul Wolfowitz underbid even that figure, predicting that of the Iraq war will be $1.27 trillion. Iraq’s oil revenues would be used to pay for the war — meaning “The number is so high as to defy human comprehension,” that the conflict would effectively pay for itself. comments Yglesias. “A trillion is what you get if you spend a The initial Bush administration cost projections assumed that million dollars a day … for a million days. That’s 2,737 years” the conquest of Iraq would be brief, complete, and almost entirely — a million dollars a day, every day, “until the Year of Our Lord unopposed. This was the conclusion promoted by the Pentagon’s 4743. Or, working backward, from the time when Homer wrote Office of Special Plans (OSP), an ad-hoc group created through the Iliad up to now.” NSA and CIA Domestic Spying Programs Presaged in Proposed TIA The ongoing partisan wrangling over exposure of two major do- Telecommunication) to monitor bank transactions (see page mestic spying operations by the Bush administration was to be 23). expected: Clinton-Gore-Reno Democrats (who ignored Clinton- These and other assaults on the rights of Americans were pre- Gore-Reno spying abuses) are shrieking that the Bush-led Re- saged in the Total Information Awareness (TIA) program, which publicans are driving us headlong into a police state. Bush’s GOP was being incubated early in the Bush administration under faithful, on the other hand, are automatically and unquestioningly the direction of Vice Admiral John Poindexter. As planned by buying the president’s assurances that anything he does in the Poindexter, the TIA would have been invested with Orwellian name of fighting terrorism is good and necessary, regardless of “data mining” and surveillance powers. Exposure of the fright- whether or not it is constitutional. ening scope of this secret program (see “Watching Your Every Last year it was revealed that the administration has had the Move,” http://www.thenewamerican.com/tna/2003/01-27- National Security Agency (NSA) conducting surveillance of the 2003/vo19no02_watching.htm) caused Congress to shut the overseas telephone calls of Americans (see page 25). In June of TIA proposal down. Or so it seemed. However, undeterred, the this year, the New York Times and other media organs disclosed administration appears to have marched ahead, implementing another major spying operation, a CIA-directed program that TIA’s most disturbing features piecemeal under other names uses “Swift” (the Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial and agencies. 8 THE NEW AMERICAN • JULY 24, 2006
  10. 10. White House, GOP, Dems Court La Raza Radicals The National Council of La Raza announced on June 21 the stel- which has a very long and sordid history of subversive and anti- lar political lineup of speakers for its annual national conference American activities, associations, and stances. Consider, for in- in July. Leading the listed notables are former President Bill stance, Angela Sanbrano, a current member of the NCLR board Clinton and Karl Rove, President Bush’s political strategist and of directors, who is also listed as a speaker at the La Raza Los deputy chief of staff. The La Raza press release begins with the Angeles conference. Ms. Sanbrano is a longtime U.S. spokesper- following paragraph: son for the Farabundo Marti (FMLN) terrorists of El Salvador and former The National Council of La Raza executive director of its U.S. affiliate, (NCLR), the largest national Latino Committee In Solidarity with the Peo- civil rights and advocacy organiza- ple of El Salvador (CISPES). Sanbrano tion in the U.S., announced today is also the U.S. representative of the that former President Bill Clinton, Sao Paulo Forum (SPF), the terror net- White House Deputy Chief of Staff work which holds annual conferences Karl Rove, and Los Angeles Mayor in Latin America. Antonio Villaraigosa are among At the 1996 SPF terrorist gathering the confirmed speakers for the up- in El Salvador, Angela Sanbrano led coming NCLR Annual Conference a discussion on immigration entitled which will be held July 8-11 at the “Solidarity Without Borders.” Sound- Los Angeles Convention Center in ing like an early proponent of the Bush Los Angeles, CA. administration’s Security and Prosper- ity Partnership, she told her comrades: Other notable speakers include: Sena- tor Sam Brownback (R-Kan.); Con- We Latinos in the United States gresswoman Hilda Solis (D-Calif.); need the solidarity of our sisters and and Walt Disney Company President brothers in Latin America, because and CEO Bob Iger. Bank of America we are confronted with racist and is the title sponsor of the NCLR An- anti-immigrant attacks, the fiercest nual Conference. of the last seventy years.... For this AP Constituents may want to ask their La Raza’s annual conference regularly draws reason, today it is necessary to push elected officials and party leaders marquee political names, such as Hillary Clinton, who forward a solidarity without borders, to explain the courtship of La Raza, addressed the 2005 gathering in Philadelphia. a mutual solidarity among people. Hamdan Case: A Victory for Individual Rights The U.S. Supreme Court handed devotees of individual liberty the Supreme Court,” “define and punish piracies and felonies a victory with the June 29 Hamdan v. Rumsfeld decision, where committed on the high seas, and offenses against the laws of na- by a 5-3 margin justices struck down a military tribunal called tions” (such as terrorism), and “make rules for the government by the president for trying alleged terrorists at Guantanamo Bay. and regulation of the land and naval forces” (including court Quoting the 1866 case of Ex Parte Milligan, the majority ruled “commissions” under military auspices). that “the president [cannot] institute tribunals for the trial and The Bush administration’s working strategy regarding people punishment of offenses, either of soldiers or civilians, unless it has detained seems to be to assume they have no rights — un- in cases of a controlling necessity, which justifies what it com- less forced to do otherwise. This is the same Bush administration pels, or at least insures acts of indemnity from the justice of the that has previously asserted in cases fought all the way to the Su- legislature.” preme Court that detainees who are U.S. citizens are not entitled And, the majority ruled, there was no emergency that neces- to a trial by jury (Rumsfeld v. Padilla, 2005) or even allowed to sitated the president constituting a tribunal without first obtaining consult with a lawyer (Hamdi v. Rumsfeld, 2004). the explicit authorization of Congress. In both cases, the Bush administration folded as it faced a los- Hamdan v. Rumsfeld recognized that although the president ing proposition at the high court. Faced with a mandate to provide has extraordinary powers during a declared war to allow for swift some sort of trial, the administration opted to create a Star Cham- prosecution of that war, he has no power to constitute a court ber, where secret evidence could be presented without either the — even a military court — on a whim. The U.S. Constitution defendant or his attorney being present. How, one wonders, are reserves to Congress alone the exclusive power to “declare war” defendants supposed to defend against evidence that they aren’t (which Congress has not done), “constitute tribunals inferior to even allowed to see? ■ THE NEW AMERICAN • JULY 24, 2006 9
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  12. 12. QUICKQUOTES Whom Are We Arresting? “Osama bin Laden is happy. In my country today, instead of arresting terrorists, we’re arresting those who are hunting terrorists.” European Parliament member Jas Gawronski of Italy is not happy that the Italian government is seeking the arrest of purported CIA agents for kidnapping. The Italians claim that Osama Moustafa Hassan Nasr, the Egyptian cleric and terrorist suspect who was kidnapped off the streets of Milan in 2003, was a victim of “extraordinary rendition” by the CIA agents and underwent torture upon his arrival in Egypt. AP Bin Laden Is Still Hunted “The efforts to find Osama bin Laden are as strong as ever.” CIA spokeswoman Jennifer Millerwise Dyck put a positive spin on the disbanding of the CIA unit known as “Alec Station,” which was tasked with finding bin Laden. War Crimes Panel Member Comments on CIA Use of Nazi Informants After WWII “Using bad people can have very bad consequences.” Elizabeth Holtzman, a former congresswoman from New York and a member of the Nazi War Crimes and Japanese Imperial Government Records Interagency Working Group, says the CIA used former Nazis as informants after World War II. She also says that documents substantiate that the CIA knew the pseud- onym and location of the famously malignant Holocaust manager Adolph Eichmann as early as 1958, but did not provide the information to Israel, which had been seeking him since shortly after the war. Top UN Official Discusses Attitude of World Toward United States “There is currently a perception among many otherwise quite moderate countries that anything the U.S. supports must have a secret agenda … and therefore, put crudely, should be opposed without any real discussion of whether [it makes] sense or not.” UN Deputy Secretary-General Mark Malloch Brown responded to assertions by a U.S. official at the UN that fighting malnutrition and disease is more important than fighting global warming. AP Scholar Predicts More Strife if West Continues Present Course “Notwithstanding its military superiority, unless the West accepts the East’s right to determine its own future, the bloodshed that currently marks the contest will continue.” In addition to issuing the above statement in his recent book, Storm from the East: The Struggle Between the Arab World and the Christian West, Milton Viorst also traces the centuries-old conflict between Islam and Christianity. Iraqi Teen Welcomed at West Point “I’m going to help rebuild the Iraqi army because most of the officers now in the Iraqi army, they are not very well qualified. I’ll try to transfer what I learn here.” Incoming cadet Jameel declined to give his last name to the press for fear of reprisals against his family in Baghdad as he entered West Point under a long-running program allowing foreign students to at- tend U.S. service academies. Bush Defends Spying on Americans ▲ “The disclosure of this program is disgraceful.” When President George W. Bush offered this assessment of the me- dia’s disclosure of the secret CIA “Swift” program for monitoring bank data, he added that “the American people expect this govern- ment to protect our constitutional liberties.” ■ — COMPILED BY JOHN F. MCMANUS AP THE NEW AMERICAN • JULY 24, 2006 11
  13. 13. INTELLIGENCE AND SECURITY Illustartion by Mario Noche Does the vast, immensely expensive, and largely unaccountable centralized intelligence system created by the Bush administration really make us safer? by William Norman Grigg make a phone call describing his experi- operatives — were about as stealthy as ence to his wife. a homecoming parade. According to the H assan Mustafa Osama Nasr, a Nasr, who is also known as Abu Omar, Washington Post, the snatch squad con- radical Islamic cleric residing is a veteran of mujahideen training camps ducted most of its communications via in Milan, was on his way to the in Bosnia. At the time of his abduction nonsecure cellphones, permitting the Ital- mosque for noon prayers when he was from Milan in February 2003, Nasr was ians to re-trace all of their movements. seized by several men and stuffed into a under surveillance by Italian authorities, They also left behind a thick paper trail van. From there he was taken to the U.S. who were trying to learn of contacts be- of “hotel registries, car rental receipts, Air Force Base in Aviano, and flown to tween the radical imam — an Egyptian electronic highway toll passes and other Egypt, where he was imprisoned for more who had been given refugee status in Italy documents” that were used to identify the than a year and tortured at the hands of in- — and terrorist cells in Europe. Nasr’s Americans, at least one of whom was posi- terrogators who have distinguished them- disappearance wrecked the Italian terror- tively identified as a CIA officer. The op- selves — even in the Middle East — for ist investigation. eratives spent extravagant sums at some of their pitiless brutality. Eventually released There was little mystery about the Milan’s most luxurious hotels, such as the to house arrest after the questioning yield- identity of those who had seized Nasr. Principe di Savoia, “where a single room ed nothing of value, the imam was able to The abductors — a team of up to 22 CIA costs $588 a night, a club sandwich goes 12 THE NEW AMERICAN • JULY 24, 2006
  14. 14. for $28.75 and a Diet Coke adds another Seeing in the Dark $9.35,” noted the Chicago Tribune. “The Until the creation of the CIA CIA’s bill at the Principe for seven opera- through the 1947 National In- The CIA is increasingly involved tives came to $39,995, not counting meals, telligence Act, the U.S. didn’t in illegal undertakings such as parking and other hotel services. Another have a permanent intelligence “extraordinary rendition” — the group of seven operatives spent $40,098 agency. The task of collecting on room charges at the Westin Palace, intelligence on foreign threats seizure of suspects for delivery into the a five-star hotel across the Piazza della was carried out by portions of hands of regimes that practice torture. Repupplica from the Principe.” the State Department and War One of the advertised functions of the Department (which in that year CIA is to provide timely, reliable intelli- was reorganized as the Department of De- nary rendition” — the seizure of suspects gence not only to the president and key fense). With the emergence of the Soviet for delivery into the hands of regimes that congressional policymakers, but also Union as a long-term geo-strategic threat, practice torture. So the problem is much — when necessary and appropriate — to the Truman administration insisted that it worse than simple ineptitude. close allies, like the Italians. Yet a few was necessary to create a centralized de- Furthermore, during the brief tenure of weeks after Nasr’s abduction, the CIA partment to gather, analyze, and collate former CIA director Porter Goss — who told Italy’s counterterrorism police “that intelligence; thus the CIA was born. had been an agency analyst and a chairman it had reliable information that the cleric At the time of its founding, the CIA of the House Intelligence Committee prior … had fled to an unknown location in the was advertised as apolitical, devoted to to his appointment as Director of Central Balkans,” related the December 6, 2005 collecting the facts and providing them to Intelligence — something akin to a purge Washington Post. This clumsy and im- policymakers; it was to be the very essence took place. plausible disinformation gambit was in- of patriotic professionalism. As the Milan Goss, who was a devoted ally of the tended to throw the Italian authorities off caper illustrates, performance standards White House, and an unabashed defend- the trail of the CIA’s snatch squad, but it for field operatives have declined dramati- er of the Iraq war, “brought with him to didn’t work. cally, which has to have a negative impact Langley a Praetorian Guard from the In July of last year, prosecutors and on the agency’s ability to gather reliable House Permanent Select Committee on judges in Milan issued arrest warrants intelligence. And that incident also illus- Intelligence,” reported the January 4, 2005 — enforceable throughout the entire 25- trates how the CIA is increasingly involved Washington Post. Acting “at the behest of nation European Union — for 22 CIA in illegal undertakings such as “extraordi- the White House,” Goss and his underlings operatives, including the head of the CIA’s substation in Milan, all of whom were charged with kidnapping and other crimes. The scandal arising from the abduction helped undermine former Italian Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi, head of one of the few foreign governments that strongly supported the Bush administration. It severely compromised the CIA’s abil- ity to operate in and around Italy. And it wrecked outright an Italian counterterrorism effort into what may be an ac- tive Islamic terrorist network in Europe. The CIA is designed to conduct covert operations and collect intelligence. But the conduct of the CIA’s snatch squad was hardly covert, and the agency displayed little in- AP telligence in its incompetent Italian prosecutor Armando Spataro describes his intention to indict and prosecute the 22 CIA operatives efforts to cover up the mess it responsible for the February 2003 abduction of radical Egyptian cleric Hassan Mustafa Osama Nasr from the had made in Milan. streets of Milan. THE NEW AMERICAN • JULY 24, 2006 13
  15. 15. INTELLIGENCE AND SECURITY worked to remove officials consid- ered politically unreliable from “the clandestine service, that component of the CIA that recruits and handles spies.... Since Goss’s arrival in Langley, much of the senior man- agement of the clandestine service has been fired or has quit, reportedly to be replaced with more compliant officials.” “Appointed to lead the agency in the midst of a heated presidential campaign, Goss’s primary mission … was to yank Langley onto Presi- dent Bush’s political team,” reported the November 10, 2005 American Prospect (citing dozens of sources from the CIA, State Department, and other agencies). Within a year he had presided over the resignation of as many as 90 senior officials, driven agency morale to unprec- edented lows, and “decimated” the agency’s Near East Division, which plays a critical role in collecting and analyzing intelligence from the Muslim world. “[Goss’s] immediate goal in 2004 AP A czar is born: After decades of faithful service to the power elite, John Negroponte was appointed by was to block what had been, until President Bush to serve as Director of National Intelligence, a position in which he commands more then, a stream of damaging leaks of than 100,000 personnel scattered across 16 federal agencies, as well as an annual budget of $40 billion. information about CIA intelligence Intelligence Czar by William Norman Grigg inspector general concluded that during that time “the Honduran military committed hundreds of human rights abuses … many of A Yale classmate of former CIA Director Porter Goss and a which were politically motivated and politically sanctioned” and member of the Council on Foreign Relations, John Negro- “linked to death squads.” ponte has spent the last four decades serving as a “utility In 1989, Negroponte was appointed by the first President Bush infielder” for the power elite — dutifully performing whatever role as ambassador to Mexico, where he was instrumental in conclud- is assigned to him. In 1968, as a protege of Henry Kissinger, Negro- ing negotiations for the North American Free Trade Agreement. ponte was tapped to serve as liaison officer between the U.S. and the He was tapped by the second President Bush to serve as UN North Vietnamese delegations at the Paris peace talks, although he ambassador. He was heavily involved in efforts to build a coali- resigned in 1973 to protest the lack of security guarantees to South tion for war in Iraq, although he relied less on persuasion than Vietnam. intimidation: he demanded that Chile and Mexico recall their During the 1980s, Negroponte served as ambassador to Hon- UN representatives when they opposed the invasion of Iraq, and duras, whose territory was used as a training ground and staging — according to numerous press accounts — arranged to conduct area for U.S.-backed rebels fighting Nicaragua’s Marxist San- wiretaps and other surveillance of various UN delegations during dinista junta. Worthy as the Nicaraguan regime was of extinc- the run-up to the war. tion, many of the elements involved in the effort, as well as the Following the invasion, Negroponte was chosen to serve as counterinsurgency program in Honduras, were implicated in vari- U.S. ambassador to Iraq, where he displayed a less-than-acute ous abuses and atrocities, including narcotics smuggling and the grasp of intelligence by dramatically understating the size, po- murder of innocent noncombatants. A 1997 report by the CIA’s tency, and resilience of the anti-U.S. insurgency. ■ 14 THE NEW AMERICAN • JULY 24, 2006
  16. 16. reports that ran contrary to the White — namely, that critical in- House’s rosy optimism about Iraq and U.S. formation about the impend- anti-terrorism efforts,” reported American ing attacks had fallen victim One particularly troubling provision of Prospect. “More broadly, the Goss team to “turf wars” and arbitrary the Intelligence Reform Act is that it clamped down on dissenting views and “walls” within the intelli- authorizes the use of any federal agency radically politicized the CIA’s leadership. gence community. Even worse, say former agency officials, As is pointed out else- for intelligence-gathering or other Goss has acquiesced in the dismantling of where in this issue (see page covert operations. With a federal budget the CIA itself, which has bowed too eas- 27), that contention, which ily to the supremacy of the new director is the basic premise of the of nearly $3 trillion to play with, this of national intelligence, John Negroponte, 2004 reform measure, is en- provision offers wide latitude for mischief. the former U.S. ambassador to Iraq, who tirely incorrect. Federal law spent his days in Baghdad contradicting enforcement and intelligence the CIA’s clear-eyed battle reports.” agencies — including the CIA — provid- attack, while rewarding the policymaking Specifically, while in Baghdad Negro- ed copious detailed advance information elite that permitted it to occur. ponte consistently downplayed the po- about the attacks. And this is exactly what has happened. tential threat to U.S. forces posed by the The critical delinquency prior to 9/11 Under Negroponte, our nation now has, Iraqi insurgency, while the CIA consis- was not a lack of vital information, or even for the first time, a monolithic, central- tently warned that the insurrection would a failure to provide it to key decision mak- ized intelligence system. As outlined in grow stronger and more violent. A suit- ers. Rather, the problem — at least where the 2004 National Intelligence Reform able illustration of the Bush administra- the protection of the American people is Act, Negroponte commands a huge and tion’s priorities is found in the fact that it concerned — was the lethal inaction of expanding domain that includes the CIA demoted the CIA for providing reliable, top-level leadership in Washington. Thus (which is chiefly involved in “human in- albeit politically unpalatable, intelligence it could be seen as something akin to lu- telligence,” academic research, and covert about Iraq, while elevating the unreliable nacy to centralize the process even further, operations), the NSA (which is primarily Negroponte to be our nation’s first “Intel- thereby tightening the grip of the politi- tasked with “signals intelligence” — cryp- ligence Czar.” cal class on the intelligence community. tology, electronic surveillance, and the This would be tantamount to punishing like), and the Defense Intelligence Agen- The Czar’s Domain the field agents, operatives, and analysts cy. It also encompasses other, less-known In October 2004, at the same time he ap- who had tried desperately to prevent the intelligence bodies, such as the National pointed Porter Goss to head the CIA, President Bush signed into law the “Nation- al Intelligence Reform Act.” That measure consolidated the so-called “intelligence community” — which em- ploys more than 100,000 people scattered over 16 federal agencies with an an- nual budget of at least $40 billion, plus additional un- specified amounts provided off-the-books for classified projects. He later appointed Negroponte as the first Di- rector of National Intelli- gence (DNI). Negroponte describes his task as that of “remaking a loose confederation [of in- telligence agencies] into a unified enterprise.” This is in keeping with one of the major criticisms leveled at AP the intelligence community “Spider’s web”: Swiss official Dick Marty informs the Council of Europe at Strasbourg, France, of his by the 9/11 Commission investigation into what he called the “spider’s web” of secret CIA detention facilities on the continent. THE NEW AMERICAN • JULY 24, 2006 15
  17. 17. INTELLIGENCE AND SECURITY grams.” This category would Institutionalized Back-channels include ad hoc programs One particularly troubling provision of the The Bush-era intelligence leviathan such as the Office of Special Intelligence Reform Act is that it authoriz- offers substantial reason for concern Plans (OSP), a self-described es not only the president, but also the DNI, “cabal” established within the to use any federal agency for intelligence- that it may prove to be a greater menace Pentagon by civilian officials gathering or other covert operations. With to our liberties than the terrorist enemy at the Pentagon who fed unre- a federal budget of nearly $3 trillion to it was supposedly created to destroy. liable intelligence to President play with, and myriad “elements” of fed- Bush about Saddam Hussein’s eral agencies to hide in, this provision of- arsenal and supposed connec- fers wide latitude for mischief. Geospatial-intelligence Agency and Na- tions to al-Qaeda. The CIA, significantly, That provision also creates a potential tional Reconnaissance Office. disputed the OSP’s sensational prewar re- constitutional problem by permitting a The act also authorizes the use of “other ports on Iraq — another reason why the presidential appointee — the DNI — act- offices within the Department of Defense Bush administration has eviscerated the ing with the consent of another appointee for the collection of specialized national agency and integrated it into the monolith — the head of another executive branch intelligence through reconnaissance pro- now headed by Negroponte. agency — to redirect funds appropriated Senator Sgt. Schultz? by William Norman Grigg T hrough no fault of his own, new CIA Director Michael Hayden bears an uncanny physical resemblance to Colonel Klink, Commandant of Stalag 13 in the 1960s sitcom Ho- gan’s Heroes. During Hayden’s May 18 Senate confirmation hear- ing, Senator Pat Roberts (R-Kan.), chairman of the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence, performed a decent impression of Sgt. Schultz, Stalag 13’s endearingly inept prison guard, whose reaction when exposed to the antics of the allied resistance cell at the stalag was to exclaim: “I see nothing! Nothing!” The committee headed by Sen. Roberts is entrusted with the task of scrutinizing intelligence activities in order to ensure that they are not only effective in dealing with foreign threats, but that they are CIA Director Michael Hayden also legal and constitutional. The chairman’s job is to act in the in- AP terests of the public. However, Sen. Roberts clearly believes that his role is to defend the intelligence community from both public The NSA’s domestic surveillance program, depicted initially as scrutiny and criticism. a modest and contained effort dealing only with international com- Prior to his nomination to head the CIA, Gen. Hayden had served munications, was actually an all-encompassing federal dragnet in- as deputy director of the National Security Agency (NSA), in which discriminately gathering phone calls, e-mails, and other communica- capacity he headed the administration’s illegal warrantless surveil- tions from millions of Americans into one huge pool of data. Sen. lance program. Roberts saw nothing — nothing! — amiss in the Roberts, who claims that he has “been to the NSA and seen how the NSA’s program, which he characterized as “tightly run and closely terrorist surveillance works,” saw nothing — nothing! — improper scrutinized.” He waxed indignant, however, over the program’s crit- in that arrangement, despite the fact that it unambiguously violated ics and the whistle-blowers who had disclosed the illegal wiretaps, both the law and the Fourth Amendment. insisting that “largely uninformed critics” were implicated in a The Bush administration maintains that the Justice Department, “grave breach of national security.” not Congress or the courts, is the only entity permitted to review the “I am a strong supporter of the First Amendment, the Fourth NSA’s surveillance program. Yet on May 10, eight days before the Amendment, and civil liberties,” stated Roberts. “But you have no Hayden hearing, the administration fatally undermined an inquiry civil liberties if you are dead.” All that stands between Americans and into the NSA program by the Justice Department’s Office of Profes- those who want to kill them are officials like Gen. Hayden, Roberts sional Responsibility by refusing to grant security clearances to the insisted, which is why we must simply grant them whatever powers attorneys who would investigate the agency’s actions. This is the sort the president sees fit to confer on them and then trust their judgment. of thing that would attract the attention of a legitimate congressional “America can be proud of them,” Roberts declared. “They deserve watchdog. But luckily for the administration, the relevant Senate post our support and thanks, not our suspicion.” was manned by Senator Roberts — or was that Sgt. Schultz? ■ 16 THE NEW AMERICAN • JULY 24, 2006
  18. 18. by Congress for specific purposes. cent Doctrine, among the companies that in a sound grasp of reality. For example: if the DNI wanted to use eagerly turned over immense quantities of The new intelligence monolith endan- “elements” within the Department of Ag- personal data to the feds after 9/11 were gers the public, rather than serving its in- riculture to run a surveillance program or the telecom giants WorldCom and Global terests. Apart from its increasing reliance a covert operation, and he obtained the Crossing, both of which were mired in ac- on totalitarian methods of surveillance consent of the secretary of agriculture, he counting scandals. and interrogation that pose grave threats could operate the program without secur- Former SEC enforcement chief William to the public (which are described in detail ing funds from Congress, and without con- McLucas told Business Week that the abil- elsewhere in this issue), the new system all gressional oversight. This isn’t an entirely ity to conceal financial information in the but ensures that critical decisions of war hypothetical scenario. During the 1980s name of national security will likely lead and peace will be made on the basis of un- the Reagan administration used subsidies some companies “to play fast and loose sound intelligence, and justified through offered through the Agricultural Depart- with the numbers.... It could be that you the use of disinformation. ment’s Commodity Credit Corporation to have a bunch of books and records out The national security system created dur- help underwrite arms purchases by Sad- there that no one knows about.” Negropon- ing the Cold War was flawed in significant dam Hussein’s regime at a time when Iraq te is now in a position to court those cor- ways. Now that we are engaged in what was at war with Iran — exactly the kind rupt corporations, offering SEC waivers in we’re told will be a decades-long “war on of covert undertaking this provision of the exchange for cooperation — even against terror,” Washington has created a larger, 2004 Reform Act would permit. the privacy interests of their customers. more powerful, and more centralized in- President Bush granted DNI Negro- telligence organ authorized to expand its ponte another extravagant grant of power The Intelligence Leviathan mission and budget authority essentially through a May 5 executive order assigning There was a time when the function of at will. Coupled with the administration’s to him “the function of the President under intelligence agencies was to tell the presi- doctrine of “unitary executive” power section 13 (b)(3)(A) of the Securities Ex- dent and other decision-makers what was — under which the president claims the change Act of 1934, as amended.” That going on in the world, so that they could power to redefine laws and constitutional seemingly innocuous decree, pointed out make wise choices about foreign policy. principles as he sees fit in the name of na- the May 23 issue of Business Week, per- Under DNI Negroponte, however, we have tional security — the Bush-era intelligence mits Negroponte “to excuse publicly trad- a monolithic, thoroughly politicized intel- leviathan offers substantial reason for con- ed companies from their usual accounting ligence system intended to validate the cern that it may prove to be a greater men- and securities-disclosure obligations.” decisions made by the “war president,” ace to our liberties than the terrorist enemy Why is this so important? As the publica- whether or not those decisions are rooted it was supposedly created to destroy. ■ tion observed: “On the same day the President signed the [executive order], Porter Goss resigned as director of the Central Intelligence Agency.... Only six days later, on May 11, USA Today reported that the National Se- curity Agency had obtained millions of calling records of ordinary citizens provided by three major U.S. phone com- panies. Negroponte oversees both the CIA and NSA in his role as the administration’s top intelligence official.” The ability to grant waiv- ers of Security and Exchange Commission (SEC) disclo- sures gives Negroponte a very useful tool in seeking to induce telecommunications firms and other corporate interests to cooperate with domestic surveillance initia- tives. As Ron Suskind points out in his book The One Per- THE NEW AMERICAN • JULY 24, 2006 17
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  20. 20. INTELLIGENCE AND SECURITY Emerging Police State Imprisonment without trial and the torture of prisoners are hallmarks of an oppressive police state, yet George Bush and his administration openly promote these practices. by Thomas R. Eddlem C IA prisoner Benyam Mohammed al Habashi, an Ethiopian refugee who obtained residence in Britain in 1994, hung by his hands from electrical cords in a secret Moroccan jail in August 2002. After the Muslim convert had been picked up by Pakistani immigration offi- cials and given to the American CIA, Paki- stani jailers had beaten him regularly with a leather strap as he hung by his hands. But the Moroccan interrogators acting on behalf of the CIA found a new way to torture al Habashi. According to al Ha- bashi, interrogators brandished a surgical scalpel, cut his chest, and urged him to confess to being a terrorist. The interroga- tors did not stop at cutting his chest: “One Torture as recruiting tool for terrorists: Iraqis staged a street of [the guards] took my penis in his hand demonstration about the abuse of U.S. detainees in Baghdad last and began to make cuts. He did it once and year, a signal that torture by American forces is a key spur for they stood still for maybe a minute, watch- insurgent violence against American forces in Iraq. ing my reaction. I was in agony, crying.... AP They must have done this 20 to 30 times. There was blood all over.” torture to the most barbaric governments being used to keep at least one American The helpless prisoner described his two- on Earth. citizen in jail today. Americans need to ask hour ordeal: “They cut all over my private Al Habashi also spent nine months in themselves: “Do I really want my freedom parts. One of them said it would be bet- two U.S. prisons inside Afghanistan where to hinge upon whether or not some suspect ter just to cut it off, as I would only breed — he alleges — he was forced to sign con- whimpers out my name as a surgical scal- terrorists.” The interrogators next poured fessions and swear false testimony against pel is applied to his genitals?” pain-inducing chemicals over the open other prisoners before being transferred to A detainee under such a situation would wounds. Guantanamo Bay. understandably be willing to “confess” Habashi has testified that throughout whatever the interrogator wanted. This ex- his 18-month incarceration in Morocco Inhumane and Unreliable plains in part why evidence obtained under his interrogators cut his chest and geni- Why should law-abiding American citi- torture is so notoriously unreliable. In fact, tals with a scalpel monthly, and subjected zens care about the troubles of this Guan- the Bush administration’s case for the war him to psychological torture in-between. tanamo Bay prisoner? Because much of against Iraq was based largely upon the This was al Habashi’s introduction to the his “confession” against his supposed false testimony of Ibn al-Shaykh al-Libi, Bush administration policy of “extraordi- “terrorist” confederates was made after his an al-Qaeda training camp official cap- nary rendition,” where the CIA farms out torture in Morocco, and this “evidence” is tured in Afghanistan who concocted tales THE NEW AMERICAN • JULY 24, 2006 19
  21. 21. INTELLIGENCE AND SECURITY rested — unarmed — at stan promised: “Get wealth and power the Karachi, Pakistan air- beyond your dreams.... You can receive The Bush administration promulgated a port by Pakistani immigra- millions of dollars helping the anti-Taliban new torture policy shortly after 9/11 which tion officials before being forces catch al-Qaida and Taliban murder- transferred to CIA custody. ers. There is enough money to take care of permitted any kind of torture by American Yet the CIA considers him your family, your village, your tribe for the interrogators short of organ failure or death. an “enemy combatant.” rest of your life.” More forceful torture techniques received Al Habashi is not the only Boston-based Attorney P. Sabin Willett case that proves Rumsfeld represents one such innocent client, Adel only tacit approval and were therefore wrong. A study of Guanta- al Hakim, one of five innocent ethnic “outsourced” to foreign governments. namo detainees on behalf Uighurs (Chinese Muslims), detained at of the counsel for some re- Guantanamo. Willett explains: leased defendants suing the of “ties” between al-Qaeda and Saddam U.S. government found that only seven Adel is innocent. I don’t mean he Hussein’s Iraqi regime in order to stop his percent of the detainees whose method of claims to be. I mean the military says torture sessions. Hussein’s ties to al-Qaeda apprehension had been revealed had been so. It held a secret tribunal and ruled turned out to be false. captured on the battlefield. that he is not al Qaeda, not Taliban, Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld The rest had been “captured” by gov- not a terrorist. The whole thing was told a radio interviewer on June 27, 2005 ernments cooperating with the Bush ad- a mistake. The Pentagon paid $5,000 of the Guantanamo Bay prisoners: “These ministration or by bounty hunters seek- to a bounty hunter, and it got taken. are people all of whom were captured ing cash rewards for turning in suspected The military people reached this con- on a battlefield. They’re terrorists, train- terrorists. clusion, and they wrote it down on ers, bomb makers, recruiters, financiers, It should hardly be surprising that many a memo, and then they classified the [Osama bin Laden’s] body guards, would- of those captured turned out to be inno- memo and Adel went from the hear- be suicide bombers, probably the 20th hi- cent. Coalition forces distributed leaflets ing room back to his prison cell. jacker, 9/11 hijacker.” promising huge bounties for Afghans and However, they weren’t all captured on Pakistanis who informed on their neigh- Adel and his four Uighur compatriots the battlefield. Al Habashi had been ar- bors. One leaflet distributed in Afghani- never received a trial during their more than four years of incarceration at Guantanamo. Only after a legal battle during a habeas corpus peti- tion was Willett even informed that the military had already determined his client was innocent. But the de- termination did not affect his incar- ceration. Officials have stated that they cannot repatriate Adel to China because he may face torture from the Chinese government for being a Muslim, and don’t know where to send him and his fellow Uighurs. So back to Guantanamo they went. In December 2005, Congress passed a law banning torture by a veto-proof majority. After signing the bill, President Bush issued a so- called signing statement: an official document in which a president lays out his interpretation of a new law. In it Bush said: The executive branch shall con- strue Title X in Division A of the Act, relating to detainees, AP Guilty until proven innocent: Three British boyhood friends — known as the “Tipton Three” — were in a manner consistent with the released by U.S. authorities after more than two years of incarceration at Guantanamo when authorities constitutional authority of the realized the three had simply been present in Afghanistan to provide humanitarian assistance. President to supervise the uni- 20 THE NEW AMERICAN • JULY 24, 2006