indian civilization

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  • 1. CHAPTER 11 CIVILIZATION OF INDIA
  • 2. India- is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by area, the second-most populous country with 1.27 billion people, and the most populous democracy in the world.
  • 3. INDIAN CIVILIZATION DEVELOPS INDIAN SUBCONTINENT- was the site of one of the great early river valley civilization Great cities built In the Indus valley: HARAPPA AND MOHENJO- DARO- these cities, and the society they ruled, developed at about the same time as civilization arose in Sumer
  • 4. THE ARYANS BRING A NEW LANGUAGE TO INDIA SANSKRIT- The Indo-European language that the Aryans brought to India - the language of classical Indian literature
  • 5. RELIGIOUS LITERATURE GIVES A PICTURE OF THE VEDIC AGE VEDAS- a huge collection of battle hymns, religious rituals, wise sayings, chants and tales RIG-VEDA- oldest and most important of the Vedas. INDRA- the leading God in the RigVeda, ruled the skies, rain and thunder
  • 6. ARYAN SOCIETY CHANGES Three- Level class system: 1. warrior-nobles 2. priests 3. commoners RAJAH- one of the warriors was chosen to be the chieftain
  • 7. CLASS DIVISIONS BECOME STRICTER • BRAHMINS- priests and replaced warriors as the most influential class. • KSHATRIYA- warrior- nobles • VAISYA- common people • SUDRA- laboring class DHARMA- certain rights and duties, a certain place in society
  • 8. RELIGIOUS THOUGHT SHAPES INDIAN SOCIETY HINDUISM AND HINDU SOCIETY Hinduism - is the major religion of the Indian subcontinent, particularly of Nepal and India. - includes a wide spectrum of laws and prescriptions of "daily morality" based on karma, dharma, and societal norms. - Hinduism is a categorization of distinct intellectual or philosophical points of view, rather than a rigid, common set of beliefs. - the "oldest living religion”.
  • 9. UPANISHADS- one famous collection of these writings BRAHMAN- “ world spirit” or “ supreme principle” KARMA- the accumulated good and bad acts of all one’s previous lives.
  • 10. HINDUS RECOGNIZE MANY DEITIES BRAHMA- creator SHIVA- destroyer VISHNU- preserver
  • 11. HINDU EPICS TELL STORIES OF HEROES RAMAYANA- The leading characters are Prince Rama and Princess Sita, represent the ideal Hindu couple- the perfect hero and his devoted wife
  • 12. MAHABHARATA- brings together hundreds of ancient myths and legends in the story of a great war in which mortals and gods fight side by side to control a kingdom
  • 13. MANY CASTES DEVELOP WITHIN HINDU SOCIETY CASTE SYSTEM- a system of rigid social groupings OUTCASTES- one large group of people was excluded from being a real part of society.
  • 14. HINDU WOMEN HAVE FEW FREEDOM As Hindu society grew more complex, women’s lives became more restricted They were supposed to run their households smoothly, look after their children, and obey their husbands without question They could own property, such their jewelry, which their daughters can inherit
  • 15. A FEW WOMEN TAKE PART IN PUBLIC LIFE RUDRAMMA- A thirteenth century queen ruled in her own right, although she referred to herself as “he” in official documents.
  • 16. BUDDHISM - is a religion indigenous to the Indian subcontinent that encompasses a variety of traditions, beliefs and practices largely based on teachings attributed to Siddhartha Gautama, who is commonly known as the Buddha, the “ ENLIGHTENED ONE ”
  • 17. FOUR NOBLE TRUTHS FIRST, Sorrow is part of all life. SECOND, People suffer because they are constantly wanting and trying to get things they cannot have. THIRD, the way to escape suffering is to overcome these frustrating desires and reach a stage of “not wanting”. FOURTH, the Buddha pointed out he steps on the path to enlightenment, or nirvana.
  • 18. BUDDHIST MONASTERIES ARE ESTABLISHED • the Buddha established a community of monks and, at the request of his aunt, a community of nuns. • Buddhist monks and nuns followed a careful discipline when they join the religious orders. • Like Christian monasteries in medieval Europe, Buddhists monasteries became centers of learning and education.
  • 19. BUDDHISTS BELIEFS CHANGE AS BUDDHISM SPREADS HINAYANA- original teachings MAHAYANA- ritualized religions with temples, saints, and statues of the Buddha
  • 20. JAINISM - One that endured into modern times as an independent group. MAHAVIRA- the founder of the Jains
  • 21. THE JAINS PRACTICE NONVIOLENCE Jains did not pray or worship gods. They took vow not to steal, lie, or desire anything and they would not kill any living being. AHIMSA- nonviolence, was their central belief. They would not eat meat or even do farm work, because working the soil would kill plant and animal life.
  • 22. INDIAN EMPIRES ARE ESTABLISHED Magadha takes control of northeast India BIMBISARA- Magadha’s ruler, a good administrator who built roads, coordinated village governments and made the kingdom stronger than its neighbors.
  • 23. THE PERSIAN EMPIRE CLAIMS NORTHWEST INDIA CYRUS THE GREAT- an invading army led by him crossed the mountains into northwest India. DARIUS I- Cyrus’s successor, had conquered the Indus valley and the Punjab.
  • 24. ALEXANDER CONQUERS PERSIA BUT LOSES INDIA - He defeated the Persians in several great battles, then moved into India in 327 B.C.
  • 25. CHANDRAGUPTA MAURYA ESTABLISHES A NEW EMPIRE CHANDRAGUPTA MAURYA- A young adventurer took over the kingdom of Magadha. KAUTILYA- a royal adviser who wrote a guided book on practical, ruthless politics.
  • 26. ASOKA- Chandragupta’s son - began his career with the fierce conquest of the coastal province of Kalinga in 261 B.C. - Asoka has been judged one of the great rulers in world history - One of his famous edicts states that he “ desires security, self-control, justice, and happiness for all beings.
  • 27. AN AGE OF INVASIONS FOLLOWS THE MAURYAN EMPIRE - After Asoka’s death in 232 B.C., his successors were unable to hold the huge empire together. - States far from the capital broke away from the empire. - Foreigners crossed through the mountain passes and invaded northwest India.
  • 28. TRADE ROUTES CROSS INDIA KANISHKA- the most famous Kushana king, their territory extended through Central Asia to the boarders of the Chinese Empire. * India was rapidly becoming a center for east- west trade.
  • 29. TAMIL CULTURE IS DOMINANT IN THE SOUTH DRAVIDIANS- the people who settled from the Indus valley who had fled southward from the Aryan invaders. TAMIL- the main Dravidian language.
  • 30. TRADE BY SEA FLOURISHES IN SOUTH INDIA The TAMILS- Were seafarers who traded with Southeast Asia and conquered and occupied much of the island of Ceylon. - Tamil kings built harbor facilities and encourage d trade. - they carried cargoes of spices, jewels, perfumes, textiles and exotic animals to trade with the Roman world. - India took mostly gold in trade from the West, bit it bought textiles and porcelain from China. - India’s trade spread its culture and religion throughout much of Southeast Asia.
  • 31. THE GUPTA EMPIRE BRINGS PROSPERITY TO NORTHERN INDIA The first emperor united several kingdoms through marriage, took the name Chandra Gupta ( after the earlier emperor ), and established a new line of rulers. Under the Gupta rulers , northern India become the center of a brilliant and creative culture . Government rule was benevolent, and literature, art, science, and technology all flourished
  • 32. HINDUISM INFLUENCES GUPTA WRITERS -Gupta literature showed the importance of Hinduism in everyday Indian life. KALIDASA- India’s greatest poet and playwright, often compared to Shakespeare SHAKUNTALA- based on an idea from one of the Hindu epics, is still performed in India today
  • 33. ADVANCES ARE MADE IN SCIENCE AND MATHEMATICS The most impressive contributions were made by Gupta mathematicians. They established the decimal system, the idea of zero, and the beginnings of algebra. Although Arab mathematicians later were given credit for so-called Arabic numerals, the Arab themselves called mathematics “ the Indian art “
  • 34. INVASIONS END THE GUPTA EMPIRE - About the middle of the fifth century, invaders from Central Asia began to raid the borders of the Gupta Empire. HARSHA- A young prince united two kingdoms in 606 and began a rule of more
  • 35. INDIA COMES UNDER MUSLIM RULE - Between 712 and 1526 four different groups of Muslims invaded India. Muslim and Hindu beliefs conflict The Muslims believed strongly in one god and in equality among all people.  the Hindus were equally firm in accepting many deities as part of the world spirit and in seeing class divisions as divinely ordered.
  • 36. THE RAJPUTS HOLD BACK AN ARAB INVASION Their advance was stopped by the barren Thar Desert and by the Rajputs , the warrior clans of the northwest. Claimed to be the direct heirs of the Kshatriya class of Aryans.
  • 37. MAHMUD OF GHAZNI TERRORIZES INDIA  The next invasion of India was launched by Turkish Muslims from one of the mountain kingdoms, Ghazni ( in present-day Afghanistan).  MAHMUD- He did not want Indian land but did want the gold and treasure of the cities, temples, and monasteries. - led seventeenth quick, merciless raids on Indiaabout one a year- killing Buddhist and Hindu monks and priests and carrying off slaves and plunder - He eventually took the Punjab region into his empire, along with the Muslim frontier kingdom.
  • 38. THE RAJPUTS FAIL TO STOP ANOTHER MUSLIM MUHAMMAD GHORI- The empire of Ghazni was taken over by a group of Turks led by him. - Muhammad Ghori’s victorious armies occupied India as far South as the Deccan. AYBEK- One general. A freed slave declared the Indian territories a separate Muslim kingdom or sultanate, with its capital at Delhi
  • 39. MONGOL INVASIONS SET THE STAGE FOR CONQUESTS GENGHIS KHAN- led his fierce Mongol warriors across Asia, conquering and destroying as he established a huge empire. TAMERLANE- He was a zealous Muslim devastated the great Muslim cities in Asia. BABER- a descendants of Genghis Khan and Tamerlane.
  • 40. AKBAR INTODUCES AN ERA OF TOLERATION AKBAR- Baber’s grandson was only thirteen years old when he inherited the throne in 1556. - He soon gained absolute power and became a wise and skillful ruler. - He understood how important compromise was in uniting the many different peoples and religions within the empire. - Shrewdly made the Rajput his allies, gave them important positions in the court and the army and married Rajput women.
  • 41. THE MOGUL EMPIRE EXPANDS UNDER AKBAR’S SUCCESSORS JAHANGIR AND SHAH JAHAN- The two rulers who succeeded Akbar, they continued his policies of fairness, tolerance, thrift and compromise between Muslim and Hindu attitudes. NUR JAHAN- a clever and beautiful Persian woman married to Jahangir.
  • 42. SHAH JAHAN- Jahangir’s son, led a rebellion against his father and had his brothers murdered to secure the mogul throne in 1628. MUMTAZ MAHAL- Shah Jahan’s wife and Nur Jahan’s niece.
  • 43. The TAJ MAHAL is a white marble mausoleum located in Agra, Uttar Pradesh, India. It was built by Mughal emperor Shah Jahan in memory of his third wife, Mumtaz Mahal.  It took 20,000 workers and 1,000 elephants nearly 20 years to complete this monument.  Built of white marble, the Taj sits on a sandstone platform. A 137-foot high dome tops the mausoleum. The interior is lavishly decorated in lapis lazuli, turquoise, agate, jasper, and colored marble. The exterior is paved with semiprecious stones that sparkle in the sun. The surrounding garden contains four water channels representing the four rivers of Islamic paradise.
  • 44. AURANGZEB ATTEMPTS TO CONQUER ALL INDIA AURANGZEB- Shah Jahan’s son, who imprisoned his father and seized the throne in 1658, reversed the policies of compromise and tolerance that had made this possible. - He reintroduced the special tax on nonMuslims and took away the rights of many Hindu nobles. - Nicknamed the “ WORLD SHAKER “- withdrew his support for the arts and poured all the empire’s treasure into an attempt to conquer the Deccan and the south.
  • 45. NEW FORCES REBEL AGAINST THE MOGULS SIKHS- another people who held firm against Mogul power, followers of a new religion established about the time of the first Muslim conquest. MARATHAS- A Hindu people living along the western coast, established a small independent empire within the Mogul Empire.