India- is a country in
South Asia. It is the
seventh-largest country by
area, the second-most
populous country with
1.27 billion people, and
the most populous
democracy in the world.
INDIAN CIVILIZATION DEVELOPS
INDIAN SUBCONTINENT- was the site of
one of the great early river valley civilization
Great cities built In the Indus valley:
HARAPPA AND MOHENJO- DARO- these
cities, and the society they ruled, developed at
about the same time as civilization arose in
THE ARYANS BRING A NEW
LANGUAGE TO INDIA
SANSKRIT- The Indo-European
language that the Aryans
brought to India
- the language of
classical Indian literature
RELIGIOUS LITERATURE GIVES A
PICTURE OF THE VEDIC AGE
VEDAS- a huge collection of battle
hymns, religious rituals, wise sayings, chants
RIG-VEDA- oldest and most important
of the Vedas.
INDRA- the leading God in the RigVeda, ruled the skies, rain and thunder
ARYAN SOCIETY CHANGES
Three- Level class system:
RAJAH- one of the warriors was chosen to
be the chieftain
CLASS DIVISIONS BECOME STRICTER
• BRAHMINS- priests and replaced warriors
as the most influential class.
• KSHATRIYA- warrior- nobles
• VAISYA- common people
• SUDRA- laboring class
DHARMA- certain rights and duties, a certain
place in society
RELIGIOUS THOUGHT SHAPES INDIAN
HINDUISM AND HINDU SOCIETY
Hinduism - is the major religion of the Indian
subcontinent, particularly of Nepal and India.
- includes a wide spectrum of laws and
prescriptions of "daily morality" based on karma,
dharma, and societal norms.
- Hinduism is a categorization of distinct
intellectual or philosophical points of view,
rather than a rigid, common set of beliefs.
- the "oldest living religion”.
UPANISHADS- one famous collection of
BRAHMAN- “ world spirit” or “ supreme
KARMA- the accumulated good and bad
acts of all one’s previous lives.
HINDU EPICS TELL STORIES
RAMAYANA- The leading
characters are Prince Rama
and Princess Sita, represent
the ideal Hindu couple- the
perfect hero and his devoted
together hundreds of
ancient myths and legends
in the story of a great war in
which mortals and gods
fight side by side to control
MANY CASTES DEVELOP WITHIN HINDU
CASTE SYSTEM- a system of rigid social groupings
OUTCASTES- one large group of people was
excluded from being a real part of society.
HINDU WOMEN HAVE FEW FREEDOM
As Hindu society grew more complex,
women’s lives became more restricted
They were supposed to run their
households smoothly, look after their
children, and obey their husbands
They could own property, such their
jewelry, which their daughters can
A FEW WOMEN
TAKE PART IN
queen ruled in her
own right, although
she referred to herself
as “he” in official
- is a religion indigenous to the Indian
subcontinent that encompasses a
variety of traditions, beliefs and
practices largely based on teachings
attributed to Siddhartha
Gautama, who is commonly known as
the Buddha, the “ ENLIGHTENED
FOUR NOBLE TRUTHS
FIRST, Sorrow is part of all life.
SECOND, People suffer because they are
constantly wanting and trying to get things they
THIRD, the way to escape suffering is to
overcome these frustrating desires and reach a
stage of “not wanting”.
FOURTH, the Buddha pointed out he steps on
the path to enlightenment, or nirvana.
BUDDHIST MONASTERIES ARE
• the Buddha established a community of
monks and, at the request of his aunt, a
community of nuns.
• Buddhist monks and nuns followed a
careful discipline when they join the
• Like Christian monasteries in medieval
Europe, Buddhists monasteries became
centers of learning and education.
BUDDHISTS BELIEFS CHANGE AS
HINAYANA- original teachings
MAHAYANA- ritualized religions with
temples, saints, and statues of the Buddha
- One that endured
into modern times
as an independent
founder of the Jains
THE JAINS PRACTICE
Jains did not pray or worship gods.
They took vow not to steal, lie, or desire
anything and they would not kill any
AHIMSA- nonviolence, was their central
They would not eat meat or even do farm
work, because working the soil would kill
plant and animal life.
INDIAN EMPIRES ARE ESTABLISHED
Magadha takes control of northeast
BIMBISARA- Magadha’s ruler, a good
administrator who built roads, coordinated
village governments and made the kingdom
stronger than its neighbors.
THE PERSIAN EMPIRE CLAIMS
CYRUS THE GREAT- an invading army
led by him crossed the mountains into
DARIUS I- Cyrus’s successor, had
conquered the Indus valley and the
- He defeated the
moved into India
in 327 B.C.
ESTABLISHES A NEW EMPIRE
CHANDRAGUPTA MAURYA- A young
adventurer took over the kingdom of
KAUTILYA- a royal adviser who wrote a
guided book on practical, ruthless politics.
ASOKA- Chandragupta’s son
- began his career with the
fierce conquest of the coastal
province of Kalinga in 261 B.C.
- Asoka has been judged one
of the great rulers in world history
- One of his famous edicts
states that he “ desires security,
self-control, justice, and happiness
for all beings.
AN AGE OF INVASIONS FOLLOWS
THE MAURYAN EMPIRE
- After Asoka’s death in 232 B.C., his
successors were unable to hold the
huge empire together.
- States far from the capital broke
away from the empire.
- Foreigners crossed through the
mountain passes and invaded
TRADE ROUTES CROSS INDIA
KANISHKA- the most famous
Kushana king, their territory
extended through Central Asia to
the boarders of the Chinese
* India was rapidly becoming a
center for east- west trade.
TAMIL CULTURE IS DOMINANT IN
DRAVIDIANS- the people who
settled from the Indus valley who
had fled southward from the Aryan
TAMIL- the main Dravidian
TRADE BY SEA FLOURISHES IN SOUTH INDIA
The TAMILS- Were seafarers who traded with
Southeast Asia and conquered and occupied
much of the island of Ceylon.
- Tamil kings built harbor facilities and
encourage d trade.
- they carried cargoes of spices, jewels,
perfumes, textiles and exotic animals to trade with
the Roman world.
- India took mostly gold in trade from the
West, bit it bought textiles and porcelain from
- India’s trade spread its culture and religion
throughout much of Southeast Asia.
THE GUPTA EMPIRE BRINGS
PROSPERITY TO NORTHERN INDIA
The first emperor united several
kingdoms through marriage, took the
name Chandra Gupta ( after the earlier
emperor ), and established a new line of
Under the Gupta rulers , northern India
become the center of a brilliant and
creative culture .
Government rule was benevolent, and
literature, art, science, and technology all
-Gupta literature showed
the importance of Hinduism
in everyday Indian life.
KALIDASA- India’s greatest
poet and playwright, often
compared to Shakespeare
SHAKUNTALA- based on an
idea from one of the Hindu
epics, is still performed in
ADVANCES ARE MADE IN SCIENCE
The most impressive contributions
were made by Gupta mathematicians.
They established the decimal
system, the idea of zero, and the
beginnings of algebra.
Although Arab mathematicians later
were given credit for so-called Arabic
numerals, the Arab themselves called
mathematics “ the Indian art “
INVASIONS END THE
- About the middle of
from Central Asia
began to raid the
borders of the Gupta
HARSHA- A young
prince united two
kingdoms in 606 and
began a rule of more
INDIA COMES UNDER MUSLIM RULE
- Between 712 and 1526 four different
groups of Muslims invaded India.
Muslim and Hindu beliefs conflict
The Muslims believed strongly in one god
and in equality among all people.
the Hindus were equally firm in accepting
many deities as part of the world spirit
and in seeing class divisions as divinely
THE RAJPUTS HOLD BACK AN
Their advance was stopped by
the barren Thar Desert and by
the Rajputs , the warrior clans of
Claimed to be the direct heirs of
the Kshatriya class of Aryans.
MAHMUD OF GHAZNI TERRORIZES INDIA
The next invasion of India was launched by Turkish
Muslims from one of the mountain kingdoms, Ghazni
( in present-day Afghanistan).
MAHMUD- He did not want Indian land but did want
the gold and treasure of the cities, temples, and
- led seventeenth quick, merciless raids on Indiaabout one a year- killing Buddhist and Hindu monks
and priests and carrying off slaves and plunder
- He eventually took the Punjab region into his
empire, along with the Muslim frontier kingdom.
THE RAJPUTS FAIL TO STOP ANOTHER
MUHAMMAD GHORI- The empire of
Ghazni was taken over by a group of Turks
led by him.
- Muhammad Ghori’s victorious
armies occupied India as far South as the
AYBEK- One general. A freed slave
declared the Indian territories a separate
Muslim kingdom or sultanate, with its
capital at Delhi
MONGOL INVASIONS SET THE STAGE FOR
GENGHIS KHAN- led his fierce Mongol warriors
across Asia, conquering and destroying as he
established a huge empire.
TAMERLANE- He was a zealous Muslim devastated
the great Muslim cities in Asia.
BABER- a descendants of Genghis Khan and
AKBAR INTODUCES AN ERA OF TOLERATION
AKBAR- Baber’s grandson was only thirteen
years old when he inherited the throne in 1556.
- He soon gained absolute power and became a
wise and skillful ruler.
- He understood how important compromise
was in uniting the many different peoples and
religions within the empire.
- Shrewdly made the Rajput his allies, gave
them important positions in the court and the
army and married Rajput women.
THE MOGUL EMPIRE EXPANDS
UNDER AKBAR’S SUCCESSORS
JAHANGIR AND SHAH JAHAN- The
two rulers who succeeded Akbar, they
continued his policies of
fairness, tolerance, thrift and
compromise between Muslim and
NUR JAHAN- a clever and beautiful
Persian woman married to Jahangir.
SHAH JAHAN- Jahangir’s son, led
a rebellion against his father and
had his brothers murdered to
secure the mogul throne in 1628.
MUMTAZ MAHAL- Shah Jahan’s
wife and Nur Jahan’s niece.
The TAJ MAHAL is a white marble mausoleum located in
Agra, Uttar Pradesh, India. It was built by Mughal
emperor Shah Jahan in memory of his third wife,
It took 20,000 workers and 1,000 elephants nearly 20
years to complete this monument.
Built of white marble, the Taj sits on a sandstone
platform. A 137-foot high dome tops the mausoleum.
The interior is lavishly decorated in lapis lazuli,
turquoise, agate, jasper, and colored marble. The
exterior is paved with semiprecious stones that sparkle
in the sun. The surrounding garden contains four
water channels representing the four rivers of Islamic
AURANGZEB ATTEMPTS TO CONQUER ALL
AURANGZEB- Shah Jahan’s son, who
imprisoned his father and seized the throne in
1658, reversed the policies of compromise and
tolerance that had made this possible.
- He reintroduced the special tax on nonMuslims and took away the rights of many
- Nicknamed the “ WORLD SHAKER “- withdrew
his support for the arts and poured all the
empire’s treasure into an attempt to conquer the
Deccan and the south.
NEW FORCES REBEL AGAINST THE
SIKHS- another people who held firm
against Mogul power, followers of a new
religion established about the time of the
first Muslim conquest.
MARATHAS- A Hindu people living along
the western coast, established a small
independent empire within the Mogul