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Present Perfect FORM AUXILIARY VERB + PAST PARTICIPLEI have been to London three times.She has seen the ﬁlm.They have gone to school by bus.
Present Perfect + SUBJECT + VERB + COMPLEMENTI have studied a lot for this exam.She has eaten all the food!We have met before.
Present Perfect - SUBJECT + AUX+ NOT +PAST PARTICIPLE + COMPLEMENTI haven’t (have +not) studied a lot for this exam.She hasn’t (has + not) eaten anything!We haven’t met before.
Present Perfect yes/no ? AUX + SUBJECT + PAST PARTICIPLE (+ COMPLEMENT)?Have you seen my new coat? Yes, I have / No, I haven’tHas she phoned her mother? Yes, she has / No, she hasn’tHave they ﬁnished their homework? Yes, they have / No, theyhaven’t
Present Perfect WH- ? WH + AUX + SUBJECT + PAST PARTICIPLE (+ COMPLEMENT)?Where have you been?What has she bought?How much money have you spent on that car?
Present Perfect What does “present perfect” mean? I have been to London three times.The present perfect tense connects the present and the past.When I say “I have been to London three times” the time referenceis UP TO NOW or SO FAR. This meaning is in the tense itself.
Present PerfectEXAMPLE 1:Have you ever been to London?EVER = AT ANY TIME IN YOUR LIFE UNTILNOW
Present PerfectEXAMPLE 2:He has just found a job.JUST = IN THE NEAR PAST AND THEREFORELINKED TO THE PRESENT.
Present PerfectEXAMPLE 3:I have lost my passport.I HAVE A PROBLEM NOW BECAUSE I DON’THAVE MY PASSPORT.
Present PerfectEXAMPLE 4:She has studied English for threeyears.SHE STARTED STUDYING ENGLISH 3 YEARSAGO AND IS STILL DOING IT.