What is testing?It’s an activity whose purpose is to determinewhat learners can do or know about something.What is a test?It’s a formal instrument to measure what learnerscan do or know about something.
rs d teache rners an aknesses orm lea and we What are tests for? To inf rengths t o f the s ess. c of t he pro• To motiva te learners to ofreview or conso s ense lidate specific ate a .material. • T o cre s uccess lis hment/ a ccomp the • To determine To guide if (and to • of what e velopment extent) the planning/d ng objectives have ing teachi been the ongo achieved. process. • To encourage improvement.
Depending on Depending on purpose characteristicsScreening/Selection/ Direct Tests/ Admission Indirect Tests Placement Discrete point/ Integrative tests Proficiency Criteria-referenced/ Norm-referenced Aptitude Objective tests/ Subjective tests Diagnostic Speed test/ Power test Achievement Knowledge tests/ Skill tests Progress
Depending on purpose: ( 7 types) purpose1. Screening/Selection/Admission: To know if a person Screening/Selection/Admissionhas the required behavior to be successful in a specificprogram (not based on objectives), e.g. IPC’s admissiontest.2. Placement: To determine thelevel in which a person shouldbe located inside a program(designed by the institution), e.g. CVA’s placement test.
3. Proficiency: To know if a person shows an overall Proficiencyproficiency in a language, compared to native speakersin real life contexts, e.g. The TOEFL test.4. Aptitude: To know the talents of a person to do Aptitudesomething specific. Suitability of a candidate for a specificprogram of instruction.5. Diagnostic: It refers to entrance behavior or previous Diagnosticknowledge. To determine strengths and weaknessesand to guarantee that potential problems will becorrected (performed by the teacher).
6. Achievement: To know if a determined objective has Achievementbeen covered successfully.7. Progress: To check improvement achieved according to Progressa referential point in a program.
Depending on characteristics. 12 types: characteristics Direct Tests Indirect Tests they give information about they test what aspects that are not the focus they are intended but are implicitly addressed 1. Direct Tests to assess in a 2. Indirect Tests (a reading comprehension cloze may give an indirect straightforward measure of vocabulary manner. knowledge). Discrete -Point Tests Integrative Teststhe focus is on answers demand the combination of many areas ofrestricted areas of the 3. Discrete Point language knowledge totarget Tests language (a generate the product Tests 4. Integrativecloze test on verb demanded. (oral interviews, readings, essay writing, etc.).tenses).
Depending on characteristics. 12 types: characteristics Criterion-referenced Tests Norm-referenced Tests describe what a person test results are compared can do in relation to the so as to measure one course objectives or5. Criterion-referenced predefined criteria. No 6. Norm-referenced: Norm-referenced person’s performance in comparison between relation to a given students. population. Objective Tests Subjective Tests No judgment is Judgment & opinions on the involved. Answers are part of the rater are 7. Objective tests either right or wrong. involved. No right/wrong 8. Subjective tests answer, but a continuum. (e.g. multiple choice (e.g. opinion/discussion items) items)
Depending on characteristics. 12 types: characteristicsSpeed Tests PowerTestsEasy items that must be The difficulty of the itemsanswered in a very short demands enough time totime. They assess speed 9. Speed testsof performance and 10. Power tests respond. They assessstrategy, e.g. scanning actual control over theexercises. aspects under scrutiny.Knowledge Tests Skill Tests They focus on listening,They assess the speaking, reading 11. Knowledge testslanguage components, and/or Skill tests e.g. 12. writing.e.g. grammar quizzes. listening quizzes.