Group 5: Miriam Ang, Silka Derouin, Margo Dilger, Katherine Sharpe
Preparing Program Budgets
Involves translating intended program activities into dollars
The example below illustrates some of the fundamental concepts of program budgeting
Expenses – Key Concepts
Expenses – Key Concepts
Fixed Costs – Remain stable regardless of the number of participants (e.g. marketing costs)
Variable Costs – Vary with the number of participants (e.g. food costs)
When estimating the program expenses, you need:
to consider the 3 kinds of expenses: development costs, delivery costs, evaluation costs
to know whether you need to account for both direct and indirect costs
To know which costs apply in which case
It is best to estimate expenses on the high side in order to build in some flexibility, especially if the principal source of income is participant fees
When estimating the program income, you need:
to know how much to ask sponsors to donate and what to charge as a participant fee
to be aware of the various funding sources and any regulations that might restrict the use of the funds
It is best to estimate income on the low side in order to be conservative
A few tips for when…
1) Actual costs exceed the budgeted costs
Consider simplifying or eliminating instructional material
Reduce the number of staff involved in the program
Consider a different facility, one less expensive or in-house
Shorten the program
2) Actual income is lower than budgeted
The program has already been developed so look at ways the delivery costs could be reduced (e.g. instructors, materials, travel, food)
3) Program is cancelled
Re-use previous instructional materials
Cancel any contracts where there is little or no penalty
A guide to increasing participants in your program (Caffarella, 2002, p. 316-328)
Is it even necessary for me to market my program?
Potential participants are not guaranteed.
You need the program registrations for your
Marketing communicates to others what the
program is about.
You can persuade others about the
importance of your program .
Develop a marketing plan
Being customer/participant oriented means:
Tracking all topics requested
Monitoring the websites that the participant frequents
Conducting focus groups exploring what marketing techniques the participant favors.
Making a task force to aid you in marketing .
Do a Target Audience Analysis Age, educational levels, race, gender, ethnicity, social class Language abilities Special requirements? What knowledge, skills, and experiences do they bring? What is their learning style? Why do they want to enroll? Are they motivated to learn? Are there costs for them to attend (childcare, travel)? Know your audience: who are they? (Caffarella, p.320)
Do a Context Analysis Look at the surrounding environment of the potential audience. What other factors in the participants’ context might influence their choice of the program? (eg. their friends are taking the course so they will too.) Does your program transfer of skills plan fit into the participants’ context? Participant’s family and supervisor might need to be sold on the benefits of the program.
4 P’s of Marketing
Promotion: Advertising Use: Brochures, flyers, e-mail, website, form letters and memos, newspapers, postcards, catalogues, posters, newsletters, magazine ads, personal contacts, exhibits, coupons, radio & TV ads
Make a marketing campaign plan:
Specify your audience
Have a well planned program and date
Prepare and distribute promotional material
Specify target completion dates and costs.
Tip: Constantly improve your program
Look at the long-term view and develop high quality programs.
Listen to what participants say when they fill out the assessment forms and make appropriate changes.
Know your competition and how they attract participants
Find a market niche.
Critical that program planners be detail-oriented and track tasks before, during and after a program.
Proper logistics can contribute to a positive learning environment.
“ The physical environment in which education and training activities take place affect participants learning” (p. 339).
5 types of facilities commonly used:
Hotel & motel facilities
In-house organizational facilities
Conference & retreat centers
College & university facilities
Coffee shops, libraries, on location in parks, historical buildings, other new evolving spaces.
Key Points to Consider
Before determining final location, consider type of event, costs and contracts
If possible, visit meeting space prior to event to confirm it meets needs
Be intentional in ensuring all details are in place once location confirmed; checking if possible, the room’s arrangements or equipment the day before event
Depending on the type of activity different spaces can be considered, from a large auditorium to small seminar rooms. Consider the items above.
“ The key to finalizing program arrangements is ensuring that everything that can be in place is in place prior to the arrival of the participants (p.354).”
Opening the Program
Ensure positive learning environment; consider healthy refreshments, bring-your-own-mug, hand-cleaner, registration, orientation to the program,
Group size will influence the specifics on how these elements are designed
Monitoring the Program
Be prepared for the unexpected; be flexible, creative and have alternative solutions available
Consider collecting participant feedback during the event itself for quick ‘check in’
Concluding the Program
3 main tasks:
collect data for evaluation
recognize participants for taking part
And finally be responsible to finish last few details of event including accounting for equipment, returning meeting space to previous setup, paying bills and other administrative functions
There are 3 key factors that make this model a viable resource: (pg 367)
Practicality and usefulness as a technical description of the process
Emphasis on people being at the heart of this process
Importance of context as a centering point for action
Planning Model Main Steps Building a Solid Base of Support Discerning the context Identifying Program Ideas Sorting and Prioritizing Program Ideas Developing Program Objectives Designing Instructional Plans Devising Transfer-of-Learning Plans Formulating Evaluation Plans Making Recommendations and Communicating Results Selecting Formats, Schedules, and Staff Preparing Budgets and Marketing Plans Coordinating Facilities and On-Site Events
Please refer to Caffarella page 369 for a complete and detailed checklist of the planning model.