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Human Enhancement Technologies

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  • Nano-, Bio-, Info-, und Kognitionsiwssenschaften ergänzen sich gegenseitig. insbes. im bereich der Medizintechnik, v.a. in den
    Hauptbereichen: Diagnose (Imaging Technologies), Neuroprothetik und Therapie auf Basis der Molekularbiologie (auf
    unterster Ebene)  die hat auch Auswirkungen auf andere Bereiche wie KI, Robotik [1 Min.]
  • Transcript

    • 1. Dr. M. Leis 09/03/09
    • 2. Human Enhancement Technologies Dr. M. Leis 09/03/09
    • 3. BCI implant The Artificial Human of Today (below 5mio.$) stents artificial skin artificial vision system (oxycyte can carry 5 times more oxygen than hemoglobin) bionic liver machine neurostimulator windpipe with stem cell technology artificial lung RFID implant neurostimulator/ implanted drug delivery system artificial blood cochlear implant bionic arm artificial heart implantable insulin pump bionic hand portable dialysis hip replacement intelligent leg prosthesis artificial foot Dr. M. Leis 09/03/09
    • 4. NANO imaging tech. drug delivery biogerontology Genetic engineering Nano-medicine BIO INFO brain simulation BCI & prosthetics COGNO Dr. M. Leis 09/03/09
    • 5. Definitions (M. Leis): a human enhancement (HE) procedure is any kind of method that is aimed at increasing a human individual’s “possibility space” of capabilities beyond the current status quo. human enhancement technologies (HET) are human enhancement procedures based on science and technology as methods.  goal: HET = safe and evidence-based HE Dr. M. Leis 09/03/09
    • 6. Goals of HE(T): enhance cognitive abilities • cognitive stimulants • neurotechnology • neurochips enhance physical abilities • modified biological functions • prosthetics/exoskeleton modify psychology • stimulants / medication • neurotechnology get non-human abilities life-span enhancement • night-vision technology etc. • prosthetics/implants • modified biological functions • genetic engineering Dr. M. Leis 09/03/09
    • 7. “Traditional” HE: • specific practices (e.g. meditation, yoga, kung fu, body building) • natural substances with HE-effects (e.g. green tea, coffee, ginkgo, marihuana, nicotine) • conventional technology (e.g. telephone, car, crane) Dr. M. Leis 09/03/09
    • 8. Current HET under Evaluation: • medication (e.g. modafinil, ritalin, prozac) • neurotechnology (e.g. TMS, neurostimulation, BCIs, deep brain stimulation) • prosthetics / implants / surgery (e.g. exoskeletons, LASIK, functional body modification) • genetic / biological HET (e.g. PID, “gene doping”, anabolic steroids) Dr. M. Leis 09/03/09
    • 9. Future HET in Research: • nan(bio)otech (e.g. nanobots, artificial immune system) • anti-aging / Health-Life-Extension (medication for altering natural body functions, tissue engineering) • genetic engineering (e.g. hybrids, artificial chromosomes) • implants/prosthetics (“Cyborg” technologies, BCI) • “supersoldier” (US/DARPA) Dr. M. Leis 09/03/09
    • 10. From Therapy to HET • reconstructive surgery  cosmetic surgery  functional body modification ? • anabolic steroids: used for therapeutic purposes (e.g. burns, anemia, osteoporosis)  (illegally) used by athletes/bodybuilders to enhance muscle mass (negative side effects) • modafinil, ritalin etc.: therapy for nacrolepsy, ADHD  use for performance/cognitive enhancement (problem: insufficient proof regarding healthy subjects, dispute over negative side effects) Dr. M. Leis 09/03/09
    • 11. From Therapy to HET • prosthetics: assistance for disabled  improvement beyond the healthy normal (e.g. oscar pistorius) • powered exoskeletons: developed to assist aged and weak persons  assistance for healthy people (e.g. in military, construction, rescue operations) • gene therapy  same method is used for “gene doping” Dr. M. Leis 09/03/09
    • 12. From Therapy to HET • artificial organs/tissue engineering  future: use for anti-aging and life-extension? • nanomedicine  future: nano-based HET (e.g. respirocytes) • medication against degenerating cognitive diseases (e.g. alzheimer’s)  future: cognitive enhancement for healthy? • BCIs: help tetraplegics to communicate  future: neurochips for cognitive HET? Dr. M. Leis 09/03/09
    • 13. HET Research Funding • HET as (unintended) consequence of public and private medical research (e.g. against dementia, age-related diseases, prosthetics) • indirect funding through projects like “Blue Brain”, robotics AI, ICT, neuroscience etc. public and industrial research) • funding for HET projects from DARPA, NASA???) • private research and funding (challenge grants, prizes, donations, through start-ups, NGOs, private research) Dr. M. Leis 09/03/09
    • 14. Unconventional Research Funding (emerging tech) prices Feynman Prize donations/NGOs startups/niche SMEs s u p p o r t e r s DIY Dr. M. Leis 09/03/09
    • 15. 5 Possible Approaches for Europe STOA-workshop on HET (Feb. 24, 2009 in EU-Parliament/Brussels) • laisser faire (“libertarian” - let the individual and market decide) • pro-enhancement • • (“technoprogressive” – allow and promote safe HET and prevent harm) case by case (“dutch approach” – give room to experiment and then find a solution from experience) restrictive ( “precautionary” – define strict limits in advance) • total ban (“conservative” - total ban of HET) (source: Rathenau Institute) Dr. M. Leis 09/03/09
    • 16. 5 Possible Approaches for Europe STOA-workshop on HET (Feb. 24, 2009 in EU-Parliament/Brussels) • laisser faire (“libertarian” - let the individual and market decide) • pro-enhancement • • (“technoprogressive” – allow and promote safe HET and prevent harm) case by case (“dutch approach” – give room to experiment and then find a solution from experience) restrictive ( “precautionary” – define strict limits in advance) • total ban (“conservative” - total ban of HET) (source: Rathenau Institute) Dr. M. Leis 09/03/09
    • 17. Outcome and Problems interest, but still no conclusions… • discussion gets very philosophical (e.g. can Europe agree on a definition about human nature) • shouldn’t we not concentrate on other issues than HET? (e.g. financial crisis, hunger, environment) • if we ban HET, what about therapy and vice versa? • more public dialogue is needed Dr. M. Leis 09/03/09
    • 18. Internal Version Prepared for TNO Outcome and Problems interest, but still no conclusions, however… • discussion gets very philosophical (e.g. can Europe agree on a definition about human nature) • shouldn’t we not concentrate on other issues than HET? (e.g. financial crisis, hunger, environment) • if we ban HET, what about therapy and vice versa? • more public dialogue is needed  pragmatic approach (M.J.S. Leis) Dr. M. Leis 09/03/09
    • 19. Internal Version Prepared for TNO Pragmatic Policy Approach (M.J.S. Leis) premises: • the necessary technology is there or under development • people are interested in HE(T) (e.g. boom of energy drinks, natural HE-”medicine”) • people will try out HET legally or illegally • the current social climate may force HET practice (“destructive performance society”, performance norms) Dr. M. Leis 09/03/09
    • 20. Internal Version Prepared for TNO Pragmatic Policy Approach (M.J.S. Leis) proposal for legal considerations: • ensure safety controls for HET  testing • minimize fraud and wrongful claims  evidence-based • harmful/disabling practices should be banned (HET should always maximize not minimize a human’s possibilities) • symmetric evaluation of “natural HE” methods and HET • consider both: improving technology or modifying humans to achieve a HE-goal (e.g. human factors research) • create a favourable social climate of respect for diversity Dr. M. Leis 09/03/09
    • 21. dank u voor uw aandacht euro-technoprogressives.50webs.org Dr. M. Leis 09/03/09

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