Grammar I Modal Auxiliaries and related verbs
<ul><li>General Characteristics: </li></ul><ul><li>Verbs like *can </li></ul><ul><li>*may  are called Modal Auxiliaries; t...
2-   Secondary :( nine of the modal auxiliaries-not shall- can be used to express the degree of certainty /uncertainty a s...
<ul><li>Primary and secondary functions of 'must' compared:   </li></ul><ul><li>Some ways in which modals resemble 'be', '...
<ul><li>Questions : </li></ul><ul><li>Yes/No questions  are formed as for  be have and do.(M + Subj + Predicate)  e.g.  Ma...
<ul><li>M.Auxiliaries compared with future tenses: </li></ul><ul><li>Uses of M compared with verb tenses: </li></ul><ul><l...
<ul><li>*Couldn´t and  wasn´t able to: are usually interchangeable </li></ul><ul><li>Other main use of could; as a more po...
<ul><li>` Can´= ability : the present </li></ul><ul><li>1)` Can +  verb (natural ability) </li></ul><ul><li>eg.  Can you r...
<ul><li>Another often use to talk about or describe past abilities:  used to  -  be able to </li></ul><ul><li>eg. I used t...
<ul><li>´ Can/could´ +  verbs of perception: </li></ul><ul><li>Verbs like see, hear, smell, rarely occur in the progressiv...
<ul><li>´ Could have´ and ´would have been able to´: </li></ul><ul><li>We don´t use can/can´t have + past participle to ex...
<ul><li>Can/   could = capability/ possibility: </li></ul><ul><li>Can + be+ adject. or noun   has the effect of ´is somet...
<ul><li>Grammar practice: </li></ul><ul><li>1)Five of these sentences have mistakes.Find and correct the mistakes and then...
<ul><li>Bibliografia: </li></ul><ul><li>Longman -English Grammar by </li></ul><ul><li>L. G. Alexander. </li></ul><ul><li>L...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Modals general characteristics- Modals of Ability

5,274

Published on

Elias, Acevedo, Ramirez, Acosta Luz

Published in: Education, Technology
1 Comment
2 Likes
Statistics
Notes
No Downloads
Views
Total Views
5,274
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
146
Comments
1
Likes
2
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Modals general characteristics- Modals of Ability

  1. 1. Grammar I Modal Auxiliaries and related verbs
  2. 2. <ul><li>General Characteristics: </li></ul><ul><li>Verbs like *can </li></ul><ul><li>*may are called Modal Auxiliaries; though we often refer to them simply as modal verbs or modal. </li></ul><ul><li>Frequently Uses: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ask for permission </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grant permission </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Give/receive advice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make/respond : requests and offers, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Modals have two major functions: </li></ul><ul><li>1- Primary : when they closely reflect meanings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ability : can------  I can type really fast. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>could--  Sara could speak three languages by the age of six. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Permission: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>may--  You may leave early. </li></ul><ul><li>might  Migth I borrow your jacket? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prediction: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>will--  It will rain soon. </li></ul><ul><li>would  I would feel better after this medicine </li></ul><ul><li>* shall(after I/We)-  Can we find our way home?-I´m sure we shall. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Escapable obligation or duty: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>should-  You should do as you´re told. </li></ul><ul><li>ought to  You ought to be right. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inescapable obligation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>must-  You must be quiet! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Absence of obligation: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>needn´t-  You needn´t wait. </li></ul>
  3. 3. 2- Secondary :( nine of the modal auxiliaries-not shall- can be used to express the degree of certainty /uncertainty a speaker feels about a possibility:
  4. 4. <ul><li>Primary and secondary functions of 'must' compared: </li></ul><ul><li>Some ways in which modals resemble 'be', 'have', 'do': </li></ul><ul><li>The Negative : </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Questions : </li></ul><ul><li>Yes/No questions are formed as for be have and do.(M + Subj + Predicate) e.g. May we leave early? </li></ul><ul><li>In question-word questions, the q-w precedes the modal. e.g. When may I leave? </li></ul><ul><li>With Yes/No question, the m used in the answer is normally the same as the one used in the question. </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. Can you come and see me tomorrow? - Yes I can 'No, I can't. </li></ul><ul><li>Negatives questions : </li></ul><ul><li>As with be,have and do, the full form of the negative q with M. requires `not´ after the subj e.g.Can you not help me?<This is FORMAL and RARE>So, contracted forms are normally used e.g. Can´t you help me? </li></ul><ul><li>Shouldn´t you ...? Is usually prefered to Oughtn´t you to....?perhaps because the latter is more difficult to pronounce. </li></ul><ul><li>Some ways in which modals differ from be, have and do </li></ul><ul><li>´Defective Verbs´ </li></ul><ul><li>`1)M cannot be used as infinitives. If we ever need an infinitive, we have to use another verb: </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. If you wanto to apply for this job, you have to be able to type at least sixty words a minute. </li></ul><ul><li>2) We do not use a to-infinitive after M . Only the bare infinitive can be used after modals(EXCEPT ought which is ALWAYS FOLLOWED by to ) </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. You mustn´t/mus´t phone him this evening.......not ^to phone^ </li></ul><ul><li>3)M . have no –ing. form. Instead of- ing we have to use another verb or verb phrase </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. I couldn´t go/I wasn´t able to go home by bus, so I took a taxi. </li></ul><ul><li>4)M . Have no –(e)s in the 3rd person sing </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. The boss can see you now. </li></ul><ul><li>5) Each of the M. has a basic meaning of its own </li></ul><ul><li>Only one M can be used in a single verb phrase: e.g. </li></ul><ul><li>-We may call the doctor. </li></ul><ul><li>-We must call the doctor ------------------------- but not may and must together </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>M.Auxiliaries compared with future tenses: </li></ul><ul><li>Uses of M compared with verb tenses: </li></ul><ul><li>The labels we use to describe the verb tenses( pres, progr, past, perf) cannot easily be applied to M </li></ul><ul><li><Present> All M can refer to the immediate pres or the fut, therefore pres is not always a reliable label. </li></ul><ul><li>eg. I can/may phone now. I can/may phone tomorrow. </li></ul><ul><li><Progresive> There is no prog form for M. But we can put the verb that follows the M into the pregressive form </li></ul><ul><li>eg. Alan is singing in public. ( present prog) </li></ul><ul><li>Alan may be singing in public. (m + be + verb-ing) </li></ul><ul><li>Alan may have been singing in public. (m + have been + -ing) </li></ul><ul><li><Past>Woud ,could, might, should--  can be called `past´ when are used in indirect speech </li></ul><ul><li>eg. John says you could/might/would leave early. </li></ul><ul><li>Migth can have a past reference in historical narrative, however might usually expresses more uncertainty than may. </li></ul><ul><li>Could sometimes expresses ability in the past: </li></ul><ul><li>eg. Tania could(or was able to) swim five miles when she was a child . </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>*Couldn´t and wasn´t able to: are usually interchangeable </li></ul><ul><li>Other main use of could; as a more polite alternative to can in requests.eg. Could you help me, please? </li></ul><ul><li>*Would and should have special uses ,but would expresses the past in: </li></ul><ul><li>When we were young we would spend our holidays in Bs.As. </li></ul><ul><li>*Must can express past time only in inderict speech, otherwise it has to be replaced by have to, etc </li></ul><ul><li>eg. Alice asked her boss if she must work or ( had to work ) overtime. </li></ul><ul><li><Perfect and Past> </li></ul><ul><li>Forms with M + have + past part or with </li></ul><ul><li>M + have been + progressive -------------are not necessarily the equivalent of the present perfect. </li></ul><ul><li>The M refers to the present while have+ past participle refers to the pas…..So, depending on the context, </li></ul><ul><li>You must have seen him can mean: </li></ul><ul><li>I assume (now) you have seen him (bef now; equivalent of the pres perf) </li></ul><ul><li>I assume (now) you saw him (then equivalent to the past) </li></ul><ul><li>I assume (now) you had seem him( before then, equivalent to the past perfect) </li></ul><ul><li>Uses of Modals to express ability: </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>` Can´= ability : the present </li></ul><ul><li>1)` Can + verb (natural ability) </li></ul><ul><li>eg. Can you run 1500 metres in 5 minutes? (= Are you able to run? Are you capable of running) </li></ul><ul><li>I can/cannot/can´t run 1500 metres….. </li></ul><ul><li>Can and (am/is/are) able to are generally interchangeable to describe natural ability.though able to is less common </li></ul><ul><li>Jack is only nine months old and he can already stand up. </li></ul><ul><li>Jack is only nine months old and he is already able to astand up. </li></ul><ul><li>*Able to* would be unusual when we are commenting on something that is happening at the time of speaking: </li></ul><ul><li>eg. Look! I can stand on my hands! </li></ul><ul><li>2)` Can ´ + verb (learned ability or ´know-how´) </li></ul><ul><li>eg. Can you drive a car? (=Do you know to ? Have you learnt how to?) </li></ul><ul><li>Verbs such as drive,play,speak,undrstand -  indicate skills or learned abilities. Can, and to a lesser extent, am/are/is able to, often combine with such verbs and may generally be used in the same way as the simple present tense: </li></ul><ul><li>eg. I can/can´t play chess( I play/don´t play chess). </li></ul><ul><li>´Could/Couldn´t = ability: the past </li></ul><ul><li>Past ability (natural and learned) expressed with could </li></ul><ul><li>Could/couldn´t or was/ were (not) able to----  can decribe natural and learned ability in the past, not related to any specific event: </li></ul><ul><li>eg. </li></ul><ul><li>Jim could/couldn´t run very fast when he was a boy. </li></ul><ul><li>Barbara could/ couldn´t sing very well when she was younger. </li></ul><ul><li>Jim was able to/ was unable to run fast when he was a boy </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Another often use to talk about or describe past abilities: used to - be able to </li></ul><ul><li>eg. I used to be able to hold my breath for one minute under water. </li></ul><ul><li>* Could and was ( or would be) able to occur after reporting verbs: </li></ul><ul><li>eg. He said he could see me next week. </li></ul><ul><li>2) The past: could + verb: achievement after effort </li></ul><ul><li>Could and was/were aable to can be interchangeable when we refer to acquisition of a skill after effort: </li></ul><ul><li>I tried again and found I could swim/ was able to swim. </li></ul><ul><li>*Could cannot normally be used when we are describing the successful completion of a specific action </li></ul><ul><li>Was/were able to, managed to or succededed in + -ing must be used instead.- </li></ul><ul><li>eg. In the end they  were able to rescue  the cat on the roof. </li></ul><ul><li>“ “ “ “  managed to rescue  “ “ “ “ “ . </li></ul><ul><li>“ “ “ “  succeeded in rescuing  “ “ “ “ “ . </li></ul><ul><li>If an action was not successfully completed, we can use couldn´t. </li></ul><ul><li>eg. They tried for hours, but they couldn´t save the cat. </li></ul><ul><li>(or weren´t able to, didn´t manage to, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>*Could can be used when we are asking about a specific action ( as opposed to describing it ): </li></ul><ul><li>Could they rescue the cat on the roof?( did they manage to? ) </li></ul><ul><li>-No, they couldn´t .It was too difficult. </li></ul><ul><li>However an affirmative response requires an alternative to could: </li></ul><ul><li>-Yes, they managed to. (Not ´could´) </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>´ Can/could´ + verbs of perception: </li></ul><ul><li>Verbs like see, hear, smell, rarely occur in the progressive. Can and to a lesser extent, am/is/are able to, combine with such verbs to indicate that we can see, hear, smell,etc something happening at the moment of speaking. In such cases can has a grammatical function equivalent to the simple present in statements and to do/does in questions and negatives. </li></ul><ul><li>eg. I can smell something burning </li></ul><ul><li>I can´t see anyone. </li></ul><ul><li>*Could can be used in place of the simple past in the same way: </li></ul><ul><li>eg. I listened carefully, but couldn´t hear anything. </li></ul><ul><li>*Can/could can be used with verbs suggesting “ understanding” : </li></ul><ul><li>I can/can´t understand why he decided to retire at 50. </li></ul><ul><li>I could/couldn´t “ “ “ had decided to retire at 50. </li></ul><ul><li>*Couldn´t/Can´t cannot be replaced by the simple present or simple past when conveying the idea ´beyond (my)control´ </li></ul><ul><li>I can´t /couldn´t imagine what would be like to live in a hot climate .( Not * don´t/didn´t*) </li></ul><ul><li>´ Could´ and ´would be able to´ : </li></ul><ul><li>We can use can as an unreal past in the sense of ´would be able to´. When we do this, an if-clause is something implied: </li></ul><ul><li>Could + never has the sense of `would never be able to´ eg. I could never put up with such inefficiency if I were running an office. </li></ul><ul><li>Could is often used to express surprise,anger, etc, in the present: I could eat my hat. I could slap your face! </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>´ Could have´ and ´would have been able to´: </li></ul><ul><li>We don´t use can/can´t have + past participle to express ability or capacity. We use them for possibility or conjecture( He can´t have told you anything I don´t already know) </li></ul><ul><li>However, in conditional sentences and implied conditionals we may use could have+past participle ( in place of would have been able to) to refer to ability or capacity that was not used owing to personal failure or lack of opportunity </li></ul><ul><li>If I hadn´t been for the freezing wind and blinding snow, the rescue party could have reached the injured man before nightfall. </li></ul><ul><li>Ability in tenses other than present and past </li></ul><ul><li>If we need to express abilitty in other tense combinations ( future or present perf, then the appropiate forms of be able to, manage to or succeeded in must be used: </li></ul><ul><li>I´ll be able toto pass my driving test after I´ve had a few lessons. </li></ul><ul><li> I´ve been trying to contact him, but I haven´t managed to. </li></ul><ul><li>*Can referring to ability,skill, or perception, is usable in clauses after if and when to refer to the future: </li></ul><ul><li>If you can pass ( or are able to pass )your driving test at the first attempt, I´ll be very surprised. </li></ul><ul><li>Expressing ability with ´can´ and ´could´in the passive: </li></ul><ul><li>Passive constructions with can and could, indicating ability, are possible where the senses allows: </li></ul><ul><li>This car can only be driven by a midget. </li></ul><ul><li>The lecture couldn´t be understood by anyone present. </li></ul><ul><li>The injured men could have been reached if heavy equipment had been available during the rescue operation. </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Can/ could = capability/ possibility: </li></ul><ul><li>Can + be+ adject. or noun  has the effect of ´is sometimes´or ´is often´and refers to capability or possibility. It can be replace by be capable of + -ing , but not by am/are/is able to: </li></ul><ul><li>-It can be quite cold in Cairo in January. </li></ul><ul><li>(=It was sometimes-or often-quite cold) </li></ul><ul><li>-He can be very naughty. </li></ul><ul><li>*Could has the same effect in the past: </li></ul><ul><li>-It could be quite cold in Cairo in January when I lived there. </li></ul><ul><li>(= It was sometimes –or often-quite cold.) </li></ul><ul><li>-He could be very naughty when he was a little boy. </li></ul><ul><li>*Could can also have a future reference in this kind of context: </li></ul><ul><li>It could be quite cold when you get to Cairo. </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Grammar practice: </li></ul><ul><li>1)Five of these sentences have mistakes.Find and correct the mistakes and then tick the other sentences. </li></ul><ul><li>My mother could speak chinese when she was young. </li></ul><ul><li>Where you able to go to the bank at lunchtime? </li></ul><ul><li>I don´t be able to see you today. </li></ul><ul><li>Can you finish the report by Friday? </li></ul><ul><li>I couldn´t get the tickets for the concert. </li></ul><ul><li>We don´t can afford to buy a new car. </li></ul><ul><li>Will you be able to come to the party? </li></ul><ul><li>Can you be able to help me with this exercise? </li></ul><ul><li>2)Decide whether you can use could and was/were able to in these sentences. I f you can only use was able to , cross out could . If you can use both, put a tick: </li></ul><ul><li>a)I *was able to/could *get to the bank just before it colsed. </li></ul><ul><li>b)He *was able to/ could* speak several languages by the time he was twelve. </li></ul><ul><li>c)They *were able to/could* get the tickets for the concert on Friday. </li></ul><ul><li>d)She *was able to/could* find out how to pronounce memorise by looking it up in a dictionary. </li></ul><ul><li>e)We *were able to/ could* meet our friends for a coffee on the last day of our holidays. </li></ul><ul><li>f)You *were able to/ could* read at least a year before you started school. </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Bibliografia: </li></ul><ul><li>Longman -English Grammar by </li></ul><ul><li>L. G. Alexander. </li></ul><ul><li>Longman-Going for Gold, Intermediate by Sally Burgess with Richard Acklam and Araminta Crace. </li></ul><ul><li>Profesora: Graciela Tutuy </li></ul><ul><li>Año: 2009 </li></ul>
  1. A particular slide catching your eye?

    Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.

×