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The crisis of the ancien regime
 

The crisis of the ancien regime

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    The crisis of the ancien regime The crisis of the ancien regime Presentation Transcript

    • THE 18TH CENTURY: THE CRISIS OF THE ANCIEN RÉGIME THE ENLIGHTENMENT Edurne Barruetabeña
    • DEFINITION: ANCIEN RÉGIME -Political , economical and social sistema that was in Europe d 16 th , 17 th and 18 th century until the French Revolution (1789). MAIN CHARACTERISTICS IN POLITICS IN SOCIETY ABSOLUTISM ESTATE-BASED SOCIETY -Unfair society -The king has all the power -Divine right of the Power of the king -The third estate can not take part in politics -Absolutist ideas of the th 17 IN ECONOMY -Low production economy: st -A minority - the 1 and 2nd estate were privileged -The majorityThe third estate were non privileged DEMOGRAPHY -Low natural growth(some times zero or negative) Subsistence agriculture ● Limits to the economic development (guilds, interior customs, a lot of taxes) ● Reasons: -High birth rate -High mortality rate
    • ABSOLUTE MONARCHY
    • ESTATE BASED SOCIETY
    • THE ECONOMY IN THE ANCIEN REGIME
    • High birth rate POPULATION IN THE ANCIEN REGIME High mortality rate
    • ANCIEN RÉGIME (ancien= former) -Expression used by the French revolutionaries to describe all they wanted to destroy. -Instead of : : - Absolutis m -Estatebased society -Low production economy with limitations to economic development A representative government elected by the citizens A society based on equality of all th citizens without privileged A productive economy who those who had Initiative could make business without limitations
    • THE 18TH CENTURY: THE CRISIS OF THE ANCIEN REGIME IN POLITICS IN SOCIETY IN ECONOMY DEMOGRAPHY IN THE IDEAS -Parlamentary Monarchy -The estatebased society was also criticised. -Economic expansion with new forms of industry and commercemore artisans and merchants -In some countries (England) the population started increasing- (England and the Netherlands) -Enlightened despotism (in absolutist countries) The bourgeoisie became more important and tried to gain more polical power. Absolutism was criticised -People (especially the third estate) questioned the privileges of the 1st and 2nd estates. More powerful middle class (bourgeoisie) Reason: -high birth rate -the death rate started decreasing -THE ENLIGHTENMENT Intellectual movement of the 18th century that criticised the estructures of the Ancien Regime: -absolutism -estate-based society
    • THE ENLIGHTENMENT: DEFINITION: -Intellectual movement developed in Europe in the 18 th century that questioned the estructures and ideas of the Ancien Régime. -IT WAS BASED ON the use of reason as the best way to know the world and transform it. The enlightened philosophers wanted to “illuminate the darkness of the world with the lights of the reason”.This is why the 18 th century was called the “age of reason “ or “century of the lights”
    • PRECEDENTS (17TH CENTURY) -The ideas of the Renaissance (Humanism) about thinking independ (not listening to the church) -The ideas of DESCARTES , philosopher of the 17 th century, father of “rationalism” “I think, therefore I am” The human reason is everything -ISAAC NEWTON: English scientist who created the scientific method, based on observing and checking facts. He discovered the Law of Universal Gravitation Rene Descartes Isaac Newton
    • MAIN FEATURES OF THE ENLIGHTENMENT • Absolute faith in Reason (based on scientific methods) , as the best way of understanding the world. Reason=source of knowledge • Rejection of everything that couldn´t be explained through Reason : religious ideas,divine right of the kings, superstitions… • Optimism and trust in progress . • Trust in education considered to be the best way to improve the living conditions of the people. • Religious tolerance : no religion was superior • Criticism of absolutism and the estates society and defense of freedom and equality of all the human beings. • Elitist movement, reserved to educated people
    • JEAN JACQUES ROUSSEAU - He defended the social contract: the agreement the people and the governors sign to preserve social order. - He defended the general will: power or sovereignty lies on the people and they use it in the elections, when they choose their representatives.
    • MONTESQUIEU He defended the division of powers into three institutions (executive, legislative and judicial) and insisted on the necessity of an independent judicial power
    • VOLTAIRE He defended: - that the power of the king had to be limited by theParliamen t, - a universal tax system - religious tolerance . He strongly criticised theChurch
    • THE 18 century also called ENLIGHTENMENT: POLITICAL SYSTEMS IN THE 18TH CENTURY (in England, Netherlands) th a)DEFINITION -.........................movement developed in …..............in …........ that questioned the …...........of the …............... …................ b)-Based on the use of …...................... using THE PARLIAMENT -th Ren.......................... about ….................................................. -Ideas of D............................= the …................is everything -Ideas of Isaac N......................... who created the …........................ d)FEATURES They believed in: -Absolute …........... in …................(based on …..........................….......................) -Rejection of …..................................................................................through reason -Trust in ….......................... and …................................. -................................... tolerance -Criticism of …................................ and ….....................................and defense of.......................................................... -Elitist …................................., only for …................................................... e)The ideas of the Enlightenment spread through..................................... …................................................................................ Enlightenment philosophers organised spcial meeting to …...................................... …................................................ The Encyclopaedia summarised knowledge from................................................. …........................................... In politics: -JEAN JACQUES …........................ -MONTESQUIEU: -VOLTAIRE: In economy- ADAM SMITH The power is divided between …............................methods. c)Its origins are in the ideas of: f)MAIN THINKERS. PARLAMENTARY MONARCHY THE MONARCH -With legislative power -They have to accept the will (to make laws) of the people -It controls and limits the The power and the expenses power of the king of the monarch are limited and -Two Houses: the Lords and controlled by the Parliament The Commons (with representatives of the commons-the bourgeoisie) ENLIGHTENED DESPOTISM Enlightened ideas + Absolutism (in France, Spain..) -Some European monarchs adopted some ideas of the Enlightenment and introduced some reforms in their kingdoms, but, at the same time,they tried to preserve their absolute power. -They made administrative, educational and economic reforms, but without asking their subjects for their opinion. They did “everything for the people, but without the people”. -They didn´t touch the structure of power, the privileges of nobles and clergy.This is why the reforms they made were insufficient. -The Enlightenment had influence on ….............................................................................
    • THE ENLIGHTENMENT: A change of thinking DEFINITION: -Intellectual movement developed in Europe in the 18th century that questioned the estructures and ideas of the Ancien Régime. -IT WAS BASED ON the use of reason as the best way to know the world and transform it. The enlightened philosophers wanted to “illuminate the darkness of the world with the lights of the reason”.This is why the 18 th century was called the “age of reason “ or “century of the lights ORIGINS -The ideas of the Renaissance (Humanism) about thinking independently (not listening to the church) -The ideas of DESCARTES , philosopher of the 17th century, father of “rationalism” MAIN FEATURES OF THE ENLIGHTENMENT • Absolute faith in Reason (based on scientific methods), as the best way of understanding the world. Reason=source of knowledge • Rejection of everything that couldn´t be explained through Reason: religious ideas,divine right of the kings, superstitions… • Optimism and trust in progress. • Trust in education considered to be the best way to improve the living conditions of the people. • Religious tolerance: no religion was superior • Criticism of absolutism and the estates society and defense of freedom and equality of all the human beings. • Elitist movement, reserved to educated people ENLIGHTENEMENT THINKERS IN POLITICS: JEAN JACQUES ROUSSEAU - He defended the social contract: the agreement the people and the governors sign to preserve social order. - He defended the general will: power or sovereignty lies on the people and they use it in the elections, when they choose their representatives. MONTESQUIEU -He defended the division of powers into three institutions (executive, legislative and judicial) and insisted on the necessity of an independent judicial power. VOLTAIRE He defended:- that the power of the king had to be limited by theParliament, - a universal tax system - religious tolerance. He strongly criticized theChurch . IN ECONOMY: ADAM SMITH -Main Pioneer of economic liberalism. Against the intervention of the state in economy “I think, therefore I am” The human reason is everything THE SPREAD OF THE ENLIGHTENMENT -ISAAC NEWTON: English scientist who created he scientific method, based on observing and checking facts. He discovered the Law of Universal Gravitation Rene Descartes “the reason is everything” Isaac Newton. Creator of the scientific method IDEAS Enlightenment ideas were spread through newspapers and books, and through schools and especial academies Enlightenment thinkers organised philosophical meetings in the saloons of their homes to discuss new ideas. Some intellectuals, such as Dálembert and Diderot , created and extensive collection of writings called the ENCYCLOPAEDIA. That summarised knowledge from many areas of study,including science, philosophy, art and grammar. Meetings of philosophers Cover of the first enciclopedia
    • THE ANCIEN DEFINITION: - Expression used by the French revolutionaries to describe all they wanted to destroy. -Political , economical and social sistema that was RÉGIME in Europe during the 16 th , 17 th and 18 th century until the French Revolution (1789) . 17TH CENTURY 18TH CENTURY THE CRISIS OF THE ANCIEN RÉGIME SOCIETY ECONOMY DEMOGRAPHY -Parlamentary Monarchy (England espec.) -Enlightened despotism (in absolutist countries) The bourgeoisie became more important and tried to gain more polical power. Absolutism was criticised ESTATE-BASED SOCIETY POLITICAL SYSTEM ABSOLUTISM -The king has all the power -Divine right of the power of the king -The third estate can not take part in politics -The estate-based society was also criticised. -People (especially the third estate) questioned the privileges of the 1st and 2nd estates. More powerful middle class(bourgeoisie) -Unfair society -A minority - the 1st and 2nd estate were privileged . -The majority-The third estate were non privileged -Low production economy: ●Subsistence agriculture ●Limits to the economic development (guilds, interior customs, a lot of taxes) -Economic expansion with new forms of industry and commerce- more artisans and merchants -Low natural growth (some times zero or negative) Reasons: -In some countries (England) the population started increasing- Reasons: -high birth rate -the death rate started decreasing -Absolutist ideas -THE ENLIGHTENMENT=Intellectual movement of the 18th century that criticised the estructures of the Ancien Regime: -absolutism -estate-base society -High birth rate -Low mortality rate IN THE IDEAS
    • THE ANCIEN RÉGIME DEFINITION: - - CHANGES 17TH CENTURY POLITICAL SYSTEM SOCIETY ECONOMY DEMOGRAPHY IN THE IDEAS 18TH CENTURY THE CRISIS OF THE ANCIEN RÉGIME