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Modern era economy
 

Modern era economy

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    Modern era economy Modern era economy Presentation Transcript

    • MODERN ERA ECONOMY 16TH , 17TH ,18TH CENTURIES ASTI-LEKU SOCIAL SCIENCES DEP. Edurne Barruetabeña
    • PRIMARY SECTOR 16 TH CENTURY NO USE OF MANURE SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE BUT.... CHANGES: OLD IMPLEMENTS FALLOW SYSTEM (DUE TO THE DEMOGRAPHIC GROWTH) -Introduction of new American crops: potatoes, maize, tomatoes, beans -New methods of increasing production POLY-CULTIVATION SYSTEM :combine ROTATION with ANIMAL PASTURE to grow crops for humans animals
    • CATTLE RAISING – Merino lambs highly valuated WOOL trade -Exported from Castile through Basque ports (Bilbao, Pasaia, Deba) to northern European buyers. -Controlled by “LA MESTA” Corporation of sheep owners, very rich and powerful enjoying royal priviledge. CONFLICTS BETWEEN farmers Sheep owners
    • 16 TH CENTURY SECONDARY SECTOR The most important industrial (craftwork) activities: Mining, wood , iron & textiles Especially in FLORENCE FLANDERS and ENGLAND FOR THE NEW CLOTHING MARKET IN THE iNDIES . -CRAFTWORK was controlled by GUILDS union of men in the same craft or trade -From the Middle Ages they controlled : -all the industrial process -prices -conditions -Quite rigid , not permitting either innovation or improvements
    • 16 TH CENTURY TERTIARY SECTOR - The merchant routes of Europe spread to the whole world -Two principal mercantile routes To the Indies To the North of Europe
    • TRADE 1) with America: Shipping of GOLD and SILVER to Spain. Also PEARLS -Seville´s port -The The only port for American-European trade “Casa de Contratación of Seville” To monopolise all the trade between Spain and America -With the growing importance of the new transoceanic trade 2) Appearance of bankers and financiers(Italian and Flemish)
    • 17 TH CENTURY PRIMARY SECTOR 1-Decrease of agricultural production caused by INADEQUATE METHODS 2- EXCEPTIONS : -ENGLAND , THE NETHERLANDS) -Large plantations in America of cacao, tobacco and sugar cultivated by African slaves New World slaves manufacturing sugar ... 3- Introduction of maize in The Basque Country
    • 17 TH CENTURY SECONDARY SECTOR -No development of industry because of the GUILDS Exception THE DOMESTIC SYSTEM in England and the Netherlands -Industries encoraged by the Monarchy ROYAL FACTORIES (Royal Factory of Tobacco in Seville) (tapestry made in the Royal Factory of Tapestry in Santa Barbara)
    • 17 TH CENTURY TERTIARY SECTOR -Spain and Portugal lose their commercial monopoly (decrease power) - England and Netherlands increase international power (shift in power to the northern maritime powers) These develope new systems of FINANCES:-banks -Stock Exchange The Bank of Amsterdam The Amsterdam Stock Exchange
    • 18 TH CENTURY PRIMARY SECTOR Changes in agriculture - only in Great Bretain AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT : CAUSES -Use of the enclosure system -New crops for industrial needs -Mechanisation and new technology -Four year crop rotation -Improvement of the quality and INCREASE IN AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION quantity of animals Many poor peasants HAD TO: -sell their land and, -move where industry was beginning or - working as a salaried peasant
    • ENCLOSURES: -TERM used in England and Wales for the process by which arable farming in open field systems was ended. -It is also applied to the process by which some commons (a piece of land owned by one person, but over which other people could exercise certain traditional rights, such as allowing their livestock to graze upon it), were fenced (enclosed) and deeded or entitled to one or more private owners, who would then enjoy the possession and fruits of the land to the exclusion of all others. The Inclosure Acts were a series of United Kingdom Acts of Parliament which enclosed open fields and common land in the country. This meant that the rights that people once held to graze animals on these areas were denied.
    • T h e F o u r F ie ld S y s t e m V is c o u n t T o w n s h e n d s u c c e s s f u lly in t r o d u c e d a n e w m e t h o d o f c r o p r o t a t io n o n h is f a r m s . H e d iv id e d h is f ie ld s u p in t o f o u r d iff e r e n t t y p e s o f p r o d u c e w it h w h e a t in t h e f ir s t f ie ld , c lo v e r ( o r r y e g r a s s ) in t h e s e c o n d , o a t s o r b a r le y in th e th ir d a n d , in th e f o u r t h , t u r n ip s o r s w e d e s . T h e tu r n ip s w e r e u s e d a s f o d d e r to fe e d liv e s to c k in w in te r . C lo v e r a n d r y e g r a s s w e r e g r a z e d b y liv e s to c k . U s in g t h is s y s t e m , h e f o u n d t h a t h e c o u ld g r o w m o r e c r o p s a n d g e t a b e tte r y ie ld f r o m th e la n d . Year 1 Year 2 T h e fo u r fie ld s y s te m w a s s u c c e s s fu l b e c a u s e it im p ro v e d th e a m o u n t o f fo o d p ro d u c e d . FOUR YEAR CROP ROTATION Year 3 Year 4
    • 18 TH CENTURY SECONDARY SECTOR Beginning of the Industrial Revolution in England and the Netherlands due to: Improvement of communications Urban growth Increase in capital through Colonial market Colonial markets for the new manufactures
    • 18 TH CENTURY TERTIARY SECTOR Transoceanic trade increased due to : -colonial imports -the new+ industrial products exported to the colonies The most important empire TRADE TRIANGLE THE ENGLISH The English took African slaves to America , then from America they brought colonial produce back to Europe Capital for the INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION BEGINNING OF THE ERA OF THE NEW CAPITALISM
    • THE TRADE TRIANGLE Manufactured goods Raw materials Slaves
    • THE BRITISH EMPIRE
    • SLAVE TRADE
    • Slave Trade * Slaves captured or bought in Africa * Shipped to Caribbean to work on Sugar plantations * Slaves traded for sugar * Sugar traded in Europe for manufactured goods * European manufactured goods traded in Africa for slave