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Demystifying Fault Isolators
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Demystifying Fault Isolators

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This presentation by David Sylvester of the Mircom Group of Companies discusses fault isolators and how they related to system survivability, data communications, applications of isolators as they …

This presentation by David Sylvester of the Mircom Group of Companies discusses fault isolators and how they related to system survivability, data communications, applications of isolators as they relate to fire alarm and life safety systems.

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  • 12.3* Pathway Class Designations. Pathways shall be designated as Class A, Class B, Class C, Class D, Class E, or Class X, depending on their performance.A.12.3 The intent of the circuit designations is not to create a hierarchal ranking; rather it is to provide guidance on the levels of performance.The initiating device circuit, signal line circuit, and notification appliance circuit performance class/style tables from previous editions of the Code have been included as Table A.12.3(a), Table A.12.3(b), and Table A.12.3(c) but have been modified to include the enhanced class references. These tables reflect the classifications as applied to fire alarm systems. Some of the operations are a combination of the requirements of Chapter 12 in conjunction with the requirements of Chapters 10 and 23. Singular ground-fault conditions that do not affect operation of the pathway are not specifically covered in Chapter 12, but are covered by the requirements of other chapters. Users of the Chapter 12 designations should review whether there are other abnormal conditions not specified in Chapter 12 that the pathways need to annunciate and operate through for their application.12.3.1* Class A. A pathway shall be designated as Class A when it performs as follows:(1) It includes a redundant path.(2) Operational capability continues past a single open.(3) Conditions that affect the intended operation of the path are annunciated.A.12.3.1 The Class A references for initiating device circuit and notification appliance circuit performance have been changed to eliminate the need for alarm receipt capability during a single ground or annunciation of a single ground fault. The signal line circuit performance has changed to provide a clear separation between the Class A Style 6 and Class A Style 7 performance. The Class A Style 7 performance is now defined as Class X.Fiber optic or wireless pathways are examples of Class A circuitry not impaired by earth ground connection, and short-circuits, and therefore do not annunciate those conditions as a fault. Users of the code are advised that fire alarm circuits still require alarm receipt capability during a single ground. See Chapter 23. 12.3.2* Class B. A pathway shall be designated as Class B when it performs as follows:NFPA 72-2010 National Fire Alarm and Signaling Code Copyright © 2010 Michael B. Baker, SET Page 36 (1) It does not include a redundant path.(2) Operational capability stops at a single open.(3) Conditions that affect the intended operation of the path are annunciated.A.12.3.2 The Class B references for initiating device circuit, signal line circuit, and notification appliance circuit performance have been changed to eliminate the need for alarm receipt capability during a single ground or annunciation of a single ground fault. Users of the code are advised that fire alarm circuits still require alarm receipt capability during a single ground. (See Chapter 23.)12.3.3* Class C. A pathway shall be designated as Class C when it performs as follows:(1) It includes one or more pathways where operational capability is verified via end to-end communication, but the integrity of individual paths is not monitored.(2) A loss of end-to-end communication is annunciated.A.12.3.3 The Class C reference is new and is intended to describe technologies that supervise the communication pathway by polling or continuous communication “handshaking” such as the following:(1) Fire control unit or supervisory station connections to a wired LAN, WAN, or Internet(2) Fire control unit or supervisory station connections to a wireless LAN,WAN, and Internet(3) Fire control unit or supervisory station connections to a wireless (proprietary communications)(4) Fire control unit digital alarm communication transmitter or supervisory station digital alarm communication receiver connections to the public switched telephone network12.3.4* Class D. A pathway shall be designated as Class D when it has fail-safe operation, where no fault is annunciated, but the intended operation is performed in the event of a pathway failure.A.12.3.4 The Class D reference is intended to describe pathways that are not supervised but have a fail-safe operation that performs the intended function when the connection is lost.Examples of such pathways include the following:(1) Power to door holders where interruption of the power results in the door closing(2) Power to locking hardware that release upon an open circuit or fire alarm operation12.3.5* Class E. A pathway shall be designated as Class E when it is not monitored for integrity.A.12.3.5 The Class E reference is new and is intended to describe pathways, which do not require supervision as described in 10.17.12.3.6* Class X. A pathway shall be designated as Class X when it performs as follows:(1) It includes a redundant path.(2) Operational capability continues past a single open or short-circuit.(3) Conditions that affect the intended operation of the path are annunciated.A.12.3.6 The Class X reference is new and is intended to describe pathways as described as Class A Style 7 of the signal line circuit performance of Table A.12.3(b} 
  • 12.3* Pathway Class Designations. Pathways shall be designated as Class A, Class B, Class C, Class D, Class E, or Class X, depending on their performance.A.12.3 The intent of the circuit designations is not to create a hierarchal ranking; rather it is to provide guidance on the levels of performance.The initiating device circuit, signal line circuit, and notification appliance circuit performance class/style tables from previous editions of the Code have been included as Table A.12.3(a), Table A.12.3(b), and Table A.12.3(c) but have been modified to include the enhanced class references. These tables reflect the classifications as applied to fire alarm systems. Some of the operations are a combination of the requirements of Chapter 12 in conjunction with the requirements of Chapters 10 and 23. Singular ground-fault conditions that do not affect operation of the pathway are not specifically covered in Chapter 12, but are covered by the requirements of other chapters. Users of the Chapter 12 designations should review whether there are other abnormal conditions not specified in Chapter 12 that the pathways need to annunciate and operate through for their application.12.3.1* Class A. A pathway shall be designated as Class A when it performs as follows:(1) It includes a redundant path.(2) Operational capability continues past a single open.(3) Conditions that affect the intended operation of the path are annunciated.A.12.3.1 The Class A references for initiating device circuit and notification appliance circuit performance have been changed to eliminate the need for alarm receipt capability during a single ground or annunciation of a single ground fault. The signal line circuit performance has changed to provide a clear separation between the Class A Style 6 and Class A Style 7 performance. The Class A Style 7 performance is now defined as Class X.Fiber optic or wireless pathways are examples of Class A circuitry not impaired by earth ground connection, and short-circuits, and therefore do not annunciate those conditions as a fault. Users of the code are advised that fire alarm circuits still require alarm receipt capability during a single ground. See Chapter 23. 12.3.2* Class B. A pathway shall be designated as Class B when it performs as follows:NFPA 72-2010 National Fire Alarm and Signaling Code Copyright © 2010 Michael B. Baker, SET Page 36 (1) It does not include a redundant path.(2) Operational capability stops at a single open.(3) Conditions that affect the intended operation of the path are annunciated.A.12.3.2 The Class B references for initiating device circuit, signal line circuit, and notification appliance circuit performance have been changed to eliminate the need for alarm receipt capability during a single ground or annunciation of a single ground fault. Users of the code are advised that fire alarm circuits still require alarm receipt capability during a single ground. (See Chapter 23.)12.3.3* Class C. A pathway shall be designated as Class C when it performs as follows:(1) It includes one or more pathways where operational capability is verified via end to-end communication, but the integrity of individual paths is not monitored.(2) A loss of end-to-end communication is annunciated.A.12.3.3 The Class C reference is new and is intended to describe technologies that supervise the communication pathway by polling or continuous communication “handshaking” such as the following:(1) Fire control unit or supervisory station connections to a wired LAN, WAN, or Internet(2) Fire control unit or supervisory station connections to a wireless LAN,WAN, and Internet(3) Fire control unit or supervisory station connections to a wireless (proprietary communications)(4) Fire control unit digital alarm communication transmitter or supervisory station digital alarm communication receiver connections to the public switched telephone network12.3.4* Class D. A pathway shall be designated as Class D when it has fail-safe operation, where no fault is annunciated, but the intended operation is performed in the event of a pathway failure.A.12.3.4 The Class D reference is intended to describe pathways that are not supervised but have a fail-safe operation that performs the intended function when the connection is lost.Examples of such pathways include the following:(1) Power to door holders where interruption of the power results in the door closing(2) Power to locking hardware that release upon an open circuit or fire alarm operation12.3.5* Class E. A pathway shall be designated as Class E when it is not monitored for integrity.A.12.3.5 The Class E reference is new and is intended to describe pathways, which do not require supervision as described in 10.17.12.3.6* Class X. A pathway shall be designated as Class X when it performs as follows:(1) It includes a redundant path.(2) Operational capability continues past a single open or short-circuit.(3) Conditions that affect the intended operation of the path are annunciated.A.12.3.6 The Class X reference is new and is intended to describe pathways as described as Class A Style 7 of the signal line circuit performance of Table A.12.3(b} 
  • Transcript

    • 1. December 4, 2012
    • 2. Agenda 1- System Survivability2- Lessons Learned from Failed System Survivability 3 - Understanding Data Communication Links 4 – Fault Isolator Applications 5 - Networked Data Communications Links 6 – NFPA Updated Performance Nomenclature
    • 3. 1- System Survivability & CAN/ULC-S524• There is an expectation that life safety systems should continue to provide some level of performance in a fire or a disaster• Survivability of the fire alarm system during a fire is a relatively new paradigm• Data Communications Links (DCLs) in new fire alarm systems are at the heart of the issue of the reliability and survivability
    • 4. 2- Lessons Learned from Failed System Survivability• 2 Fore2st Laneway 2 Forest Laneway North York
    • 5. 2- Lessons Learned from Failed System Survivability Fatal fire in a Toronto high-rise Six people died, the issue of the early failure of life safety systems during the fire was examined• Failure of the exit lighting• Failure of the emergency lighting• Failure of the fire alarm annunciation• Failure of the fire alarm signaling• Failure of the voice communication system
    • 6. 3 - Understanding Data Communication LinksDATA COMMUMICATIONS LINK• The data channel between control units and/or transponders and annunciatorsThe fire alarm network____________________________________• Active field devicesAddressable fire alarm devices
    • 7. 3 - Understanding Data Communication Links
    • 8. 3 - Understanding Data Communication Links 2006Data Communication Link Table 3 Addressable fire alarm devices
    • 9. 3 - Understanding Data Communication LinksCapacity of addressable devicesDCLA300 Device Limit per loop2 loops shown Zone 1 ADDRESSABLE MANUAL STATION ADDRESSABLE SMOKE DETECTOR ADDRESSABLE HEAT DETECTOR Data Communication Link Table 3 Addressable Devices
    • 10. 3 - What is a Data Communication LinkCapacity of addressable devicesDCLB200 Device Limit per loop2 loops shown Zone 1 ADDRESSABLE MANUAL STATION ADDRESSABLE SMOKE DETECTOR ADDRESSABLE HEAT DETECTOR Data Communication Link Table 3 Addressable Devices
    • 11. 3 - Understanding Data Communication LinksCapacity of addressable devicesDCLC300 Device Limit per loopIsolators used2 loops shown Multiple Zones ADDRESSABLE MANUAL STATION ADDRESSABLE SMOKE DETECTOR ADDRESSABLE HEAT DETECTOR Data Communication Link Table 3 Addressable Devices
    • 12. 4 – Fault Isolator ApplicationsThe Alpha isolator, part no. MIX-100X, is designed to sense and isolate short-circuitson loops. It is a stand-alone device which is fitted into its own base.
    • 13. 4 – Fault Isolator ApplicationsClause 4.2.7 of CAN/ULC-S524 When a data link serves more than one floor area, a fault within one floor area cannot affect normal operation of devices in another floor area.
    • 14. 4 – Fault Isolator ApplicationsAddressable devices 300 Device Limit FOURTH FLOOR THIRD FLOOR Fault isolation SECOND FLOOR module pairs ADDRESSABLE MANUAL STATION FIRST FLOOR ADDRESSABLE SMOKE DETECTOR ADDRESSABLE HEAT DETECTOR FIRE ALARM CONTROL PANEL FAULT ISOLATION MODULE OR TRANSPONDER DATA COMMUNICATION LINK
    • 15. 4 – Fault Isolator ApplicationsClause 5.14.6 of CAN/ULC-S524Do not install the fault isolation modules back to back
    • 16. 4 – Fault Isolator Applications5.14.6 of CAN/ULC-S524 400mm Offset the fault isolation modules
    • 17. 4 – Fault Isolator Applications 5.14.8 of CAN/ULC-S524 ZONE 2 ZONE 1 STAIRFault isolation modules serving a single device in an exit
    • 18. 4 – Fault Isolator Applications• Class A Wiring Circuit, DCL Style A, DCL Style C • Defines the distance between the primary and alternate wiring circuit paths
    • 19. 4 – Fault Isolator Applications• Class A Wiring Circuit, DCL Style A, DCL Style C • Defines the distance between the primary and alternate wiring circuit pathsSeparation of Wiring
    • 20. 4 – Fault Isolator ApplicationsClass A Wiring Circuit, DCL Style A, DCL Style C Defines the distance between the primary and alternate wiring circuit paths Separation of Wiring
    • 21. 4 – Fault Isolator Applications• Class A Wiring Circuit, DCL Style A, DCL Style CSeparation of Wiring
    • 22. 4 – Fault Isolator Applications• Class A Wiring Circuit, DCL Style A, DCL Style CSeparation of Wiring
    • 23. 4 – Fault Isolator ApplicationsSeparation of Wiring
    • 24. 5 - Networked Data Communications Links Only DCLC permitted 1000 Addressable device limit for entire systemFire AlarmControl Unit Fire Alarm Control Unit One fault does not disable the system Data communicationsFire AlarmControl Unit Fire Alarm Fire Alarm Annunciator Control Unit DCLA or DLCB Data communication Permitted here
    • 25. 5 - Networked Data Communications Links More than 1000 Addressable device limit for entire system Must meet Large Scale Network and only DCL-C permittedFire AlarmControl Unit Fire Alarm Control Unit Data communicationsFire AlarmControl Unit Fire Alarm Fire Alarm Annunciator Control Unit DCLA or DLCB Data communication Permitted here
    • 26. 5 - Networked Data Communications LinksNBCC 2010 Division B 3.2.7.9 Emergency Power ForBuilding Services & 3.2.7.10.(2) & (4) Protection ofElectrical Conductors MECHANICAL PENTHOUSEPower and/or data Wiring between fire alarm control unit, ortransponder, and primary annunciator(s) one hour fire ratedcable or construction methods for data only. If the fire alarm emergency communication control units ortransponders are provided with sufficient batteries then firerated cables for the 120 volt power supply is not required. 2 hour rated MI or CI cable or construction method Data Communication Link Fire Alarm Emergency Communication System Network Backbone Ground Floor PARKING GARAGE P1-P4
    • 27. 5 - Networked Data Communications Links2010 NBCC Division B 3.2.7.8Emergency Power For Fire Alarm MECHANICAL PENTHOUSEAll emergency power feed wiringfrom the generator to the individualfire alarm emergencycommunication control units mustbe installed to survive two hours.If the fire alarm emergencycommunication control units ortransponders are provided withsufficient batteries then cables donot require fire rating.Low rise buildings do not requirefire rated cables2 hour rated MI or CIcable or constructionmethod Emergency Transfer Power Distribution Generator switch Panel Ground Floor PARKING GARAGE P1-P4
    • 28. 5 - Networked Data Communications Links• Refer to Table 3 of CAN/ULC-S524• More than 1000 Addressable device limit for entire system• Must meet Large Scale Network• Only DCL-C permitted
    • 29. 5 - Networked Data Communications Links• Each transponder has STAND ALONE capability• Degraded mode capability• Each transponder must have: • Signal silence • Reset • Trouble silence • Stand alone indicator• In high buildings per Quebec Construction Code• At least one ADDITIONAL transponder with • Full annunciation per QCC • Means to transmit voice communication with “ ALL CALL” capability• Transponders must be in an electrical room with a 1 hour fire separation
    • 30. 6 – NFPA Updated Performance NomenclatureThe new NFPA 72 NFPA 72: National Fire Alarm andSignaling Code Handbook (2010) has eliminated thecircuit styles.Instead, NFPA now designates circuits and pathways asClass A, Class B, Class C, Class D, Class E or ClassX, depending on their performance.
    • 31. 6 – NFPA Updated Performance Nomenclature12.3.1* Class A. A pathway shall be designated as Class A when itperforms as follows:(1) It includes a redundant path.(2) Operational capability continues past a single open.(3) Conditions that affect the intended operation of the path areannunciated.The Class A Style 7 performance is now defined as Class X. FOURTH FLOOR THIRD FLOOR SECOND FLOOR FIRST FLOOR FIRE ALARM CONTROL PANEL
    • 32. 6 –NFPA Updated Performance Nomenclature12.3.3* Class C. A pathway shall be designated as Class C when it performs as follows:(1) It includes one or more pathways where operational capability is verified via end to- end communication, but the integrity of individual paths is not monitored.(2) A loss of end-to-end communication is annunciated.A.12.3.3 The Class C reference is new and is intended to describe technologies thatsupervise the communication pathway by polling or continuous communication“handshaking” such as the following:(1) Fire control unit or supervisory station connections to a wired LAN, WAN, or Internet(2) Fire control unit or supervisory station connections to a wireless LAN,WAN, andInternet(3) Fire control unit or supervisory station connections to a wireless (proprietarycommunications)(4) Fire control unit digital alarm communication transmitter or supervisory station digitalalarm communication receiver connections to the public switched telephone network
    • 33. 6 – NFPA Updated Performance Nomenclature NFPA 72 Signal Line Circuit Performance NFPA 72- 2007 Style 4 Style 6 Class A Style 7 NFPA 72 - 2010 Class B Class A Class X Type of Fault Single Open Trouble Alarm, Trouble Alarm, Trouble Single Ground , Alarm, Trouble Alarm, Trouble Trouble (ground) (ground) Alarm, Trouble (ground) Short Trouble Trouble Alarm, Trouble Short and open Trouble Trouble Trouble Short and ground Trouble Trouble Alarm, Trouble Open and ground Trouble Alarm, Trouble Alarm, TroubleCommunications loss Trouble Trouble Trouble• Alarm - The control panel must be able to process an alarm input signal in thepresence of this type of fault.• Trouble - The control panel will indicate a trouble condition for this type of fault.• Class E does not require supervision
    • 34. Module Day 1

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