History of photographySkepticisms of photographyWhat is craft?What is art?Is photography an art or a craft?Case study-Arts relationship to craftQuestionsReferences
- 1822 – Nicéphore Niépce1835 – William Fox Talbot creates his own photography process.1839 – Louis Daguerre patents the daguerreotype.1839 – William Fox Talbot invented the positive / negative processwidely used in modern photography. He refers to this as photogenicdrawing.1851 – Introduction of the collodionprocess by Frederick Scott Archer.1861 – The first color photograph, an additive projected image of a tartanribbon, is shown by James Clerk Maxwlll.1871 – The gelatin emulsion is invented by Richard Maddox.1887 – Celluloid film base introduced.1888 – Kodak n°1 box camera is mass marketed; first easy-to-use camera.1891 – Thomas Edison patents the "kinetoscopic camera" (motionpictures).1895 – Auguste and Louis Lumière – Invented the cinématographe.
1948 – Edwin H. Land introduces the first Polaroid instantimage camera .1949 - The Contax S camera was introduced, the first 35mmSLR camera with pentaprism for eye-level viewing.- 1957- first image scanned into a digital computer1975 – Bryce Bayer of Kodak develops the Bayer filter mosaicpattern for CCD color image sensors.1986 – Kodak scientists invent the worlds first megapixelsensor.2005 – AgfaPhoto files for bankruptcy. Production of Agfabrand consumer films ends.2006 – Dalsa produces 111 megapixel CCD sensor, the highestresolution at its time.2008 – Polaroid announces it is discontinuing the productionof all instant film products, citing the rise of digital imagingtechnology.
•When the camera was first introduced portraitartist were concerned.•Landscape artists were threatened.•”photography is just mechanics”•”Photography is just realism”•“Anyone can take a photo”•“Everyone has a photo album”
-From the German word „Kraft‟ meaning power or ability.- Usually a human element associated with craft -There is a level of technique involved - Craft work is skilled work: any kind of craft must involve the application of a technique. (Dutton, 1990)
Definition-1. The expression or application of human creative skill and imagination, typically in a visual form such as painting or sculpture, producing works to be appreciated primarily for their beauty or emotional power.2. Works produced by such skill and imagination. - Some say that Art is the application of emotion whereas craft involves a technique.
-Craftcan be quantified whereas art is not. -Originally artist were scared and intimidated by photographers and other craftsmen, however in todays society it has become increasingly more common for artists to acknowledge craft as a means to art. -However there are still some that do not see this viewpoint, looking down on photographers because there is „less artistic skill required‟.Making something purely technically is a feature of craft andimplies a preconceived end this sort of claim about theimpossibility of foreknowledge for Art is made frequently in arttheory and has something in common with the divine inspirationview (Bailin 1988)
Art is anything that adds something new to the sum total of human aestheticexperience. Craft is a means to art, craft ismerely the craft of making something. It ismaking something that has no more to do with art than it does with wagons. You have to be a craftsman to do either one, but they serve totally differentfunctions, and to call something a craft, to make a noun out of a craft I think isridiculous; it isnt – its a verb as far as Im concerned.‟ Robert Sperry Interview by Lamar Harrington Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institute
The separation of craft from art and design is one of the phenomena of late-twentieth-century Western culture. The consequences of this split have been quite startling. It has led to the separation of having ideas from making objects. It has also led to the ideathat there exists some sort of mental attribute known as creativity that precedes or can be divorced from a knowledge of how to make things. This has led to art without craft. Peter Dormer The Culture of Craft
There are two sides to this story…
YES-solution- „why not say more simply there is a kind of excellence peculiar to the arts that any form ofactivity that can achieve this form of excellence is an art?” (Passmore, 1991) Creativity is a basic human ability that is just asapplicable to art as it is to math and science. Anyone who can achieve excellence is capable of achieving art.
NO-Instead of hard-earned craft and artistic masterworks, we have junk that showsus that "Art is...everything to do with love. Students are encouraged and rewarded for personal and "creative” writingswhich seem to be judged by the same.prizes for writing brief diary entries which involve as much craft as makingbreakfast with cereal from a box.long apprenticeship in a craft, such as sculpture or painting."There are no shortcuts” in academic expository writing or in art.Artists and writers who try to take a shortcut and skip learning their craft turnout junk. Perhaps we should consider expecting our students, if not ourmodern artists, to try for a little higher level of achievement than craft-freejunk?(Fitzhugh, 2008)
WHAT IS ART??????? Who has the ability to define what art is and what is deemed artistic? Photography in particular had become the chief catalyst inrendering out of date many mythical and notions about art. It is in the process of changing right now. (Lovejioy 1990) Some photographers have been considered art, some are considered commercial. Rethinking the notion of art
Is art as is assumed by common sense more creative and thus more valuable than craft?Harold Osborne points out in Aesthetics and art theory that „the making of aesthetic objects has been almost universal through human history. There have been comparatively few peoples at any time that did not produce artifacts that were beautifully made.The idea of creativity in the modern romantic sense in connection with the arts was absent from Greekphilosophy equally foreign to their mentality was the idea of art as an expression of the artists personality (Osborne 1968 pp 13-14)
“Annie Leibovitz has been makingpowerful images documenting American popular culture since the early 1970s, when her photographs beganappearing in Rolling Stone Magazine. Ten years later she began working for Vanity Fair, and then Vogue US, creating adiverse body of work. Following a record- breaking tour in the US and Europe, this hugely popular exhibition showcases commercial, documentary and personal works selected by the artist.” -MCA
"I took part in a photo shoot that wassupposed to be artistic and now, seeingthe photographs and reading the story, Ifeel so embarrassed. I never intended for any of this to happen and I apologize to my fans who I care so deeply about,” she said at the time. Disney claimed the young singer and actress had been"deliberately manipulated" but Leibovitzdefended the portraits, calling them "very beautiful" and claiming they had been misinterpreted.
NO_____________________ YES____________________•Anyone can take a photo •If the photographer has an artistic•It is simply just recording an event vision and has planned a concept it isnot taking into account the time it has arttaken •Editing techniques allow the original•‘Artist and their publics think that no photo to be altered, subverting thetwo objects produced by an artist original and letting the photographershould be alike. But for good create.craftsmen, that is not a •Anyone can take a photo but notconsideration, on the contrary the anyone can learn the craft and take itartists craftsmen control shows in his that further to create art.ability to make things as much alike ashe does… nobody wants to buy a copyfrom an artist, only from a craftsmen(Becker)
The arts have always been with us and so havethe ideas of beauty, sublimity, and transcendence along with the virilities of the human condition:love, death, memory, suffering, power, fear, loss, desire and hope‟ Ellen Disseankye
What do you think?Are there any photographers that you think are artists?Should the arts include photography?
Becker, Howard S (1982), Art Worlds. Berkley: University of California PressCollingwood, R, (2005). "Man Goes Mad" in The Philosophy of Enchantment. Oxford UniversityPress, 318.Csikszetnmhalyi, M. (2004) Extract from: „Creativity Across the Life-Span: A SystemsView‟, online, pp1-2.Dissenkye, E, (1980) "Art as a human behavior: Toward an ethological view of art", Journal ofAesthetics and Art Criticism 38/4, 397-404.Harvey D. (1990) „The Work of Art in an age of Electronic Reproduction and Image Banks‟ in TheCondition of PostModernity: An Enquiry Into the Origins of CulturalChange, Blackwell, Oxford, 1990, pp347-349.Liebovitz, A, Annie Leibovitz: A Photographers Life, 1990–2005Museum of Contemporary Art,(2008), Annie Liebovitz exhibition websitePassmore, J, Serious art : a study of the concept in all the major art, 1991Price, D and Wells, L. (2003) „Aesthetics and Technology‟ in Liz Wells (ed) Photography: A CriticalIntroduction 2nd ed., Routledge, London, 2003, pp12-24.Singh, A, (2008) Hannah Montana star Miley Cyrus: Vanity Fair photo scandal made fans relate tome, The Telegraph