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    Holocaust – 11 million people were killed
    Term comes from a Greek word that means burnt whole or consumed by fire
    The term Holocaust refers to the specific period in history dating from 1933 – 1945 and not to any other mass murder or genocide.
     (must click for sound)
    Adolf Hitler, who had wanted to be a painter but was turned down by the Vienna Academy of the Arts, liked to talk to people, and, in 1919, he organized the National Socialistic German Workers Party, Nazi for short.
    The words “Nazis” and “German” do not mean the same thing – A German is someone who is a native of the country of Germany – like a U.S. citizen. A Nazi is a member of a political party – like a Democrat or Republican.
    Hitler used fear to control the German people. Hitler created a secret police force (S.S.) known for its brutal tactics and having absolute power over people. The S.S. would give rewards to informers for aiding the regime or those who betrayed their fellow Germans.
    Hitler was a dynamic speaker – he could speak for 2-3 hours before thousands of people.
    Propaganda – spreading ideas and information to deliberately further one’s cause – can include lies.
    Living in ghettos.
  • SLIDE 17 – KRISTALLNACHT - Sound of breaking glass automatically plays.
    “Night of Crystal” or “Night of Broken Glass” – a government organized riot.
    A form of terrorism.
    Kristallnacht was the name given to the first major attack on the Jewish population of Germany and Austria on November 9-10, 1938. The proclaimed objective of the Nazi regime was to rid Europe of its Jewish population. In November 1938, following the assassination of a German diplomat in Paris by a young Jewish student trying desperately to help his parents obtain visas to return to their homeland, all synagogues in Germany were set on fire, windows of Jewish shops were smashed, and thousands of Jews were arrested. The “Night of Broken Glass” (Kristallnacht) was a signal to Jews in Germany and Austria to leave as soon as possible. Several hundred thousand people were able to find refuge in other countries, but a similar number, including many who were old or poor, stayed to face an uncertain fate.
    November 8, 1938, at an annual celebration at a beer hall, Hitler was overheard telling Goebbels, Hitler’s Chief of Propaganda, that the “SA should have a fling”
    The event was described as a “spontaneous” outrage of German anger against the Jewish population because of the murder of the German diplomat. It also served as “proof” that the Jews were depicted honestly in the Nazi propaganda campaign. Nazi offices all over Germany were given specific details as to what to do during this progrom: burn synagogues, smash windows of Jewish businesses, ransack Jewish businesses and homes, and arrest all Jewish males, taking them to concentration camps. Over one hundred Jews were killed that night; others were subjected to torture. An estimated 20,000 children were left homeless and fatherless by the destruction of Kristallnacht and imprisonment of Jewish men.
    The slide will automatically place swastikas on the concentration camps and skull/crossbones on the killing centers (also referred to as death camps and extermination camps).
    There were two kinds of concentration camps: "extermination" and "labor" camps. There were ultimately seven extermination and 10,000 labor camps. This map only shows the major camps The extermination camps were designed for the sole purpose of killing people, mainly Jews.
    The extermination camps (i.e., Auschwitz, Treblinka, etc.) were all located in Poland. None were located in Germany.
    The Nazis needed a fast method for the mass killings of the Jews. These were the only camps with the gassing chambers. However, many of the camps such as the labor camps had crematoriums. Prisoners in a labor or work camp (Dachau, Buchenwald, etc.) were worked to death or used in medical experiments.
    Note the mass amount.
    When the prisoners were stripped of their clothing, nothing was wasted.
    This is a pile of eyeglasses - Note the mass amount – thousands were killed daily.
    This is a photo of a survivor, showing the tattoo with which he received while at Auschwitz.
    Notice that this baby has a tattoo.
    Because most children were immediately killed, it is likely this baby was part of a study that used twins for experiments preformed by Nazi doctors.
  • http://youtu.be/REhsVkNyUsE
  • SLIDE 54 – CAMP
  • Holocaust

    1. 1. Mrs. Battles’s lesson on The Holocaust- this is a SERIOUS topic– Be RESPECTFUL! The Holocaust Fill in the K section of the KWL chart! (page 232) What do you already know about the Holocaust?
    2. 2. Holocaust (hol · o · caust): n -    1. Great destruction resulting in the extensive loss of life, especially by fire 2. Greek word that means burnt whole or consumed by fire
    3. 3. Holocaust Victims… • 6 million Jews • 1.5 million children under 12 • “Other Undesirables” • 5 million 11 MILLION KILLED
    4. 4. Adolf Hitler courtesy of USHMM Photo Archives Photo credit: USHMM Photo Archives Photo credit: National Archives, courtesy of USHMM Photo Archives
    5. 5. Adolf Hitler (1889-1945) • He was a war veteran who fought in WWI. • He became the leader of the Nazi Party in 1921. • He later became the absolute dictator of Germany. • He was appointed Chancellor of Germany in 1933. • He became the President or Führer of Germany in 1934.
    6. 6. Hitler’s Mother—Clara Hitler Geli Raubel, his niece- Hitler’s first lovedied of a unexplained self inflicted gun shot wound. She died of cancer—with a Jewish doctor and experimental treatments
    7. 7. Swastika- The nazi sign The Swastika is an ancient symbol of life, luck and wellbeing, a solar sign that was sacred to many Gods and people. Nazi Swastika- turned the ends upward instead of down.
    8. 8. The Ban on Jewish Business • The signs read,” Germans, defend yourselves against the Jewish atrocity propaganda, buy only at German shops!" and "Germans, defend yourselves, buy only at German shops!"
    9. 9. Propoganda
    10. 10. “You have no right to live among us.”
    11. 11. Kristallnacht “Night Of Broken Glass” Photo credits: Hauptstaatsarchiv Stuttgart, courtesy of USHMM Photo Archives
    12. 12. World War II A military conflict lasting from 1938-1945 involving two opposing alliances: The Axis Leaders •Germany •Italy •Japan Additional Axis Nations •Hungary •Romania •Bulgaria The Allies Leaders • England • United States of America • Soviet Union (USSR/Russia) Additional Allied Nations • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • France Australia Belgium Bolivia Brazil Canada China Denmark Greece Mexico Netherlands New Zealand Norway Poland South Africa Yugoslavia
    13. 13. German Expansionism
    14. 14. Identification Cards • This is the cover of a kennkarte or identification card issued during WWII. • The “J” printed on the front in black identified a Jew. • The eagle printed on other kennkartes is absent.
    15. 15. Identification Cards • The “J” was also stamped inside in red or purple ink. • Fingerprints and a photograph showing the left ear were required of all Jews . • All women were required to add the Jewish middle name “Sara” and the men “Isreal”. • This woman’s name is Erna “Sara” Fromm
    16. 16. Wearing the Yellow Badge
    17. 17. Nuremberg Laws The white figures represent Aryans; the black figures represent Jews; and the shaded figures represent Mischlinge.
    18. 18. Hitler Youth Movement • • • • A youth organization that formed in the 1920s for boys aged 10-18. Membership became compulsory in 1936. One aim was to instill the boys motivation as soldiers, to fight faithfully for the Third Reich. Many of the members were drafted into the military during WWII. Some as young as 12.
    19. 19. Hitler Youth
    20. 20. The League of German Girls • Formed in the 1920s for girls age 10-18. It was the only organized youth group for girls in Germany. • Enrolment grew when the Nazi Party came to power in 1933. • Membership became compulsory in 1939 for all girls age 10-18.
    21. 21. First They Came In Germany they first came for the Communists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Communist. Then they came for the Jews, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Jew. Then they came for the trade unionists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a trade unionist. Then they came for the Catholics, and I didn't speak up because I was a Protestant. Then they came for me — and by that time no one was left to speak up. - Pastor Martin Niemöller Date: 1959 or 1960
    22. 22. Part I Pictures of Frankfurt Fill in some information in your KWL chart!!
    23. 23. Frankfurt, Germany World War II
    24. 24. The Frankfurt Ghetto
    25. 25. Public Humiliation Jewish men cleaning the streets
    26. 26. At Belzec death camp, SS Guards stand in formation outside the kommandant's house.
    27. 27. Deportation by Train to the Lodz Ghetto
    28. 28. List of Jewish Ghettos Biala Podlaska Bialystok Bochnia Brody Czestochowa Grodno Izbica Jozefow Kielce Krakow Krasnystaw Kovno Kutno Lodz* Lubartow Lublin Lvov Miedzyrzec Minsk Piaski Prague Przemysl Radom Riga Rzeszow Siedlce Tarnow Tluszcz Vilnius Warsaw Zamosc Zwolen
    29. 29. Part II Pictures of Lodz Fill in some information in your KWL chart!!
    30. 30. Shoes
    31. 31. Wedding Rings
    32. 32. eyeglasses
    33. 33. Hair cut and tattoo of number
    34. 34. Even the very young…
    35. 35. The Lodz Ghetto
    36. 36. The German SS Schutzstaffel
    37. 37. Lodz Soup Kitchen in Lodz A meal in Lodz
    38. 38. Children Scavenging
    39. 39. Children of the Holocaust
    40. 40. German Police in Lodz
    41. 41. Deportation to Chelmno Death Camp from Lodz
    42. 42. Courtyard in Lodz Ghetto. Residents here await the final deportation in 1943
    43. 43. Cattle Cars
    44. 44. Part III Pictures of Auschwitz Fill in some information in your KWL chart!!
    45. 45. Transports
    46. 46. Auschwitz Gates- “work will set you free”
    47. 47. Selection off the Birkeneau ramp
    48. 48. Prison Uniforms
    49. 49. Sacks of Hair found at Auschwitz
    50. 50. A Pile of Auschwitz Shoes
    51. 51. The Barracks
    52. 52. Prisoners
    53. 53. Entrance to Showers
    54. 54. Zyclon-B
    55. 55. Video
    56. 56. Part IV Pictures of Buchenwald Fill in some information in your KWL chart!!
    57. 57. Prisoners at Buchenwald Camp
    58. 58. Survivors in Mauthausen open one of the crematoria ovens for American troops who are inspecting the camp.
    59. 59. Destinations There were 11 Concentration Camps • Dachau • Sachsenhausen • Ravensbrucke • Buchenwald • Flossenburg • Neungamme • Gross Rosen • Natzweiler • Mauthausen • Stutthof • Dora/ Nordhausen • Many sub-camps existed as offshoots to these main 11 Concentration Camps There were 4 main Death Camps •Belzec •Chelmno •Sobibor •Treblinka There were 2 Labour / Extermination Camps •Auschwitz/ Birkenau •Majdanek (KZ Lublin) There were 2 Reception / Holding Centres •Bergen Belsen •Theresienstadt (Terezin)
    60. 60. Josef Mengele- “Angel of Death”
    61. 61. Mengele • • • • 'Angel of Death’ became his nickname He was a German Schutzstaffel (SS) officer and a physician in the Nazi concentration camp Auschwitz. He was known for performing bizarre and murderous human experiments on prisoners. He also was one responsible for determining who was to be killed and who was to temporarily become a forced laborer
    62. 62. Mengele’s Interests Twins The 7 Dwarfs of Auschwitz
    63. 63. experiments Medical Experiments Pregnant Women
    64. 64. Human skin lamp shade Jew Hair
    65. 65. ART • Art made by children in the concentration camps. Fill in some information in your KWL chart!!
    66. 66. Anne Frank
    67. 67. • Fill in some information in your KWL chart!! • Make sure that you have at least 5 questions that you would want to answer about the topic on the “L” section of the KWL chart.