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Mi presentation march2012

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NACADA Region 8 (2012) presentation on Motivational Interviewing in Academic Advising

NACADA Region 8 (2012) presentation on Motivational Interviewing in Academic Advising

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  • 1. “I’ve Been Afraid of Changing”: Using Motivational Interviewing principles in academicadvising to promote positive student change Miranda Atkinson Career & Academic Adviser School of Journalism & Communication University of Oregon
  • 2. Outline• Background and Context• Definition of MI• Development of/theory behind MI• The spirit of MI• Key areas of skill• Traps to avoid• Advising applications• Important considerations
  • 3. Background and Context•  My background •  M.Ed. in counseling •  Trained in MI as part of a smoking cessation research program for University of Michigan•  Motivational Interviewing •  Counseling theory/approach developed in 1991 by William Miller and Stephen Rollnick •  Designed to help clients change •  Originally developed for counseling clients with substance abuse •  Other appropriate applications have been developed.
  • 4. Background and Context • Conception •  Retention and Outreach program •  Used elements of Motivational Interviewing in individual conversations •  Presence of “change language” indicated higher likelihood of improved grades
  • 5. What is Motivational Interviewing?• A client-centered, directive approach for enhancingintrinsic motivation to change by exploring andresolving ambivalence.
  • 6. Development of and theory behind MI•  The “dilemma of change” •  ambivalence = feeling two ways about something •  ambivalence is normal, getting “stuck” is the problem •  “Ambivalence is a reasonable place to visit, but you wouldn’t want to live there” (Miller & Rollnick, 2002, p. 14). •  lack of motivation = unresolved ambivalence
  • 7. Ambivalence Illustration
  • 8. Development of and theory behind MI•  Types of ambivalence •  Approach-approach conflict: choose between two similarly attractive options •  Avoidance-avoidance conflict: choose between two negative options •  Approach-avoidance conflict: attracted to and repelled by same option •  Double approach-avoidance conflict: choose between two options, each with attractive and negative qualities
  • 9. Development of and Theory behind MI • We usually see double approach-avoidance, the most challenging to resolve.
  • 10. Development of and theory behind MI•  Motivation has three critical components: •  Ready: priorities •  Willing: importance •  Able: confidence•  These components are intrinsic•  Our goal is to help students become ready, willing, and able to change.
  • 11. Noticing motivation to change• Listen for “changetalk” • Disadvantages of status-quo • Advantages of change • Optimism for change • Intention to change
  • 12. Example“I’ve been afraid of changing, ‘cause I’ve built my lifearound you. But time makes you bolder, children getolder, I’m getting older too.” What types of change talk did you hear?
  • 13. Resistance • You will also hear “resistance talk” • “I’ve been afraid of changing, ‘cause I’ve built my life around you.” • This is a reflection of ambivalence, which is a normal part of the change process.
  • 14. The “Righting Reflex”•  Avoid the “righting reflex” •  Reflex to push someone in the “right” direction •  “Have you considered...?” •  “You should try...?” •  “If you would just...?” •  A physics lesson
  • 15. What is Motivational Interviewing? • Re-examine the definition: • Client-centered (student-centered) • Directive approach • Enhances intrinsic motivation to change • Explores and resolves ambivalence
  • 16. The Spirit of MI•  Collaboration •  Exploration and support vs. authoritarian coercive•  Evocation •  Elicit vs. impart information•  Autonomy •  Facilitate self-direction vs. telling client/ student what to do
  • 17. Key Areas of Skill• Reflective listening• Responding to change talk• Responding to resistance
  • 18. Reflective Listening•  Reflect the core of thestudent’s statement back tohim/her. • Clarifies meaning • Encourages continued exploration of issue • Does not simply repeat the student’s words
  • 19. Responding to Change Talk• It is not possible to reflect allmeanings of a statement. • Reflect selectively by choosingto reflect change talk.• This encourages the client/student to continue exploringchange talk.
  • 20. Responding to Resistance• Resistance is a reflection ofambivalence.• Resistance rises from the client/counselor relationship. • It is not fixed.• Resistance is an indication ofdissonance • Client is not on the same page • Roll with resistance to find themeaning behind it and moveforward together.
  • 21. The Phases of MI•  The goal is to use these guiding principles to move clients through the phases of MI: •  Building intrinsic motivation for change •  Strengthening commitment to change and developing a plan to accomplish it
  • 22. Tempting traps• Q/A trap: avoid with open-ended questions andreflective listening• Taking sides: avoid arguing one side of ambivalence• Expert trap: avoid “fixing” or prescribing a solution• Labeling trap: avoid attaching a diagnosis or label tothe client
  • 23. Student Populations and MI •  What student populations might benefit from an MI approach? •  Students struggling with academic performance •  Students struggling with destructive behavior •  Students struggling with a difficult decision •  All students benefit from an open, non- judgmental student-advisor relationship.
  • 24. Important Considerations • MI’s popularity has resulted in confusion • Not teaching how to practice, just basic underlying principles. • Brief adaptations of MI are not = MI • Advisers will not always have time for MI. • Not all students are ready to change.
  • 25. References• Miller, W. R. & Rollnick, S. (2002).Motivational Interviewing: PreparingPeople for Change, (2nd ed.). NewYork, NY: The Guilford Press.• Other resources: MI Website • http://www.motivationalinterview.org/• Questions?