Chap1: Communication Process


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This slideshow was created to accompany the first chapter of Communicate! by Kathleen S. Verderber, Rudolph F. Verderber and Deanna D. Sellnow. Publisher: Wadsworth/Cengage Learning. ISBN-13: 978-0-495-90171-6

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Chap1: Communication Process

  2. 2. INTRO: WHY IS ORAL COMM. IMPORTANT? <ul><li>Communication skills, team work skills, and interpersonal abilities </li></ul><ul><li>For example: engineering </li></ul><ul><li>National Association of Colleges and Employers Top 10 skills from graduates: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>#1: COMMUNICATION (face-to-face, presentational, and writing) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>#3: Teamwork </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>#5: Analytical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>#8: Interpersonal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>#9: Problem-solving </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. COMMUNICATION PROCESS Participants (who) Sender - Send/transmit message Receiver - Interpret message
  4. 4. COMMUNICATION PROCESS Message (what)- verbal, visual, nonverbal behavior to which meaning is attributed Meaning - Your thoughts and interpretation of others’ message Not transferable
  5. 5. COMMUNICATION PROCESS To get meaning, we encode and decode symbols within a message. Encode - Putting thoughts/feelings into words, nonverbal cues, and images. Decode - Process of interpreting another’s message. Symbol - words, sounds, and actions that represent ideas/feelings. Form - Organization of message.
  6. 6. CONTEXT (SETTING) <ul><li>Context: Setting including what precedes and follows what is said. </li></ul><ul><li>5 types: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Historical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Psychological </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cultural </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. CONTEXT (CONTINUED) <ul><li>Physical : Location, environment (temperature, lighting, noise), distance between participants, and time of day. </li></ul><ul><li>Social : Nature of the relationship </li></ul><ul><li>Historical : Background from previous communication </li></ul><ul><li>Psychological : Moods and feelings each participant brings to the interaction </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural : Values, beliefs, orientations, underlying assumptions, and rituals prevalent among people in society </li></ul>
  8. 8. CHANNELS: ROUTE AND MEANS <ul><li>Face-to-face </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3 basic channels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Verbal symbols </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nonverbal cues </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Visual images </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. CHANNELS (CONTINUED) <ul><li>Technology mediated </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Same 3 basic channels, though nonverbal cues become emoticons and acronyms </li></ul></ul>
  10. 11. COMMUNICATION PROCESS Interference (noise)- Any stimulus that hinders the process of sharing meaning. Physical - Sights, sounds, and other things within the environment. <ul><li>Psychological - </li></ul><ul><li>Internal noise (thoughts) </li></ul><ul><li>Semantic noise (symbols) </li></ul>
  11. 12. COMMUNICATION PROCESS Feedback - Reactions and responses to a message that indicate to the sender whether and how the message was heard, seen, and interpreted. Confused look, nod, or saying, “I understand.”
  12. 13. COMMUNICATION SETTINGS <ul><li>Differ by number of participants and interaction characterization (formal/informal) </li></ul><ul><li>Types: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intrapersonal: In your mind (talking to yourself) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interpersonal: Informal between 2 people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Small group: 3-20 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Public: Communication delivered to more than 20 </li></ul></ul>
  13. 14. COMMUNICATION PRINCIPLES <ul><li>#1: Communication has purpose </li></ul><ul><ul><li>5 purposes: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Develop/maintain sense of self </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Meet social needs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Develop/maintain relationships </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Exchange information </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Influence others </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>#2: Communication is continuous </li></ul>
  14. 15. COMMUNICATION PRINCIPLES <ul><li>#3: Communication messages vary in conscious thought </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Occur spontaneously (without much thought) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Based on a learned “script” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Constructed based on understanding of a situation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>#4: Communication is relational </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reflect two aspects: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Immediacy : Degree of liking or attractiveness in relationship </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Control : Degree one participant is perceived to be dominant/powerful </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 16. COMMUNICATION PRINCIPLES <ul><li>#5: Communication is guided by culture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Culture: System of knowledge shared by a relatively large group of people. Shared beliefs, values, symbols, and behaviors. </li></ul></ul>
  16. 17. The word &quot;swastika&quot; comes from the Sanskrit svastika  - &quot;su&quot; meaning &quot;good,&quot; &quot;asti&quot; meaning &quot;to be,&quot; and &quot;ka&quot; as a suffix. Until the Nazis used this symbol, the swastika was used by many cultures throughout the past 3,000 years to represent life, sun, power, strength, and good luck. Source:
  17. 18. COMMUNICATION PRINCIPLES <ul><li>#6: Communication has ethical implications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>5 ethical standards: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Truthfulness and honesty mean refraining from lying, cheating, stealing, and deception </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Integrity means maintaining a consistency of belief and action </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fairness means achieving the right balance of interest without regard to one’s own feelings and without showing favor to any side in a conflict </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Respect means showing regard or consideration for others and their ideas, even if we don’t agree with them </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Responsibility means being accountable for one’s actions and what one says </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>#7: Communication is learned </li></ul>
  18. 19. COMMUNICATION COMPETENCE <ul><li>Communication competence: The impression that communicative behavior is both appropriate and effective in a given situation. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Communication is effective when it achieves its goals; it is appropriate when it conforms to what is expected in a situation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Perceptions of competence depend, in part, on personal motivation (want to), knowledge (of what is involved), and skills (goal-oriented actions). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Credibility : perception of speaker’s knowledge, trustworthiness, and warmth. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social ease : Managing so you don’t appear nervous/anxious. </li></ul></ul>
  19. 20. COMMUNICATION APPREHENSION <ul><li>“ The fear or anxiety associated with real or anticipated communication with others.” </li></ul><ul><li>4 types: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Traitlike : Anxious in most speaking situations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Audience-based : Only to certain people or group </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Situational : Short-lived during specific encounter (e.g. job interview) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Context-based: Anxiety in a particular situation </li></ul></ul>
  20. 21. COMMUNICATION SKILLS IMPROVEMENT <ul><li>1: State the problem </li></ul><ul><li>2: State the goal </li></ul><ul><li>3: Outline a specific procedure for reaching the goal </li></ul><ul><li>4: Devise a method for determining when the goal is reached. </li></ul>
  21. 22. THANK YOU (TY,  )