Appendix: Interviews


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This slideshow was created to accompany the interviewing appendix chapter of Communicate! by Kathleen S. Verderber, Rudolph F. Verderber and Deanna D. Sellnow. Publisher: Wadsworth/Cengage Learning. ISBN-13: 978-0-495-90171-6

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Appendix: Interviews

  1. 1. By: Miranda Emery
  2. 2. <ul><li>Interview - Highly structured conversation in which one person asks questions and another answers them. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Highly structured- Purpose and questions determined ahead of time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used for comparison </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Effective participants prepare in advance </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Interview Protocol - List of questions you prepare to elicit the information you want to know from the interviewee. </li></ul><ul><li>Effective Questions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Primary - Lead-in questions about one of the major topics of the interview. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Secondary - Follow-up questions designed to probe the answers to primary questions. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><ul><li>Open - Broad-based probes that allow interviewee to provide perspective, ideas, information, feelings, or opinions as he/she answers. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Closed - Narrowly focused and control what the interviewee can say. Allow very brief answers. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Neutral - Do not direct the person’s answer. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leading - Guide respondents toward providing certain types of information and imply that the interviewer prefers one answer over another. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Order and Time (pg. 189, sample) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>List questions and estimate interview length (4 min/open, 1 min/closed) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You never want an interview to take longer than scheduled </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Initial questions should be short and get the interviewee involved </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leave more complex questions until later </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Place important topics toward the beginning of the interview </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Research Interviewees </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Figure out who you want to talk to (sometimes obvious, sometimes not) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ask around </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Look online </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Contact via email and telephone </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Clearly state interview purpose, how the info will be used, and expected length of interview </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Research the topic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Prepare better questions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Better experience for interviewee </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Conducting the Information Interview </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Be prompt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be courteous </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Thank them for time </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Be respectful of what they say (regardless of your opinion) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ask permission to record </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Listen carefully </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Keep the interview moving </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Match nonverbal cues to interview tone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Get permission to quote </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Written if direct quotes will be published </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Always end by thanking the interviewee </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Organizations assess knowledge, experience, skill, and who will best fit the organization’s culture. </li></ul><ul><li>In the past 50 yrs., average number of yrs. Spent with one company dropped from 23.5 to 3.5. </li></ul><ul><li>HR pros/managers to current employees </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Preparing for the Interview </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Research </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge, skills, and aptitude needed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Study </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Résumés, references, and (if available) test scores of applicants </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid Q’s that violate fair employment legislation </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Conducting the Interview </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Greet applicant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ask prepared questions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consider your nonverbal cues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use follow-up questions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conclude with clarification of next steps </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Job seeker - Anyone who is looking for a job or considering a job change. (pg. 192) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“As a rule, the best jobs do not go to the best-qualified individuals-they go to the best job seekers” (Graber, 2000) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Applying for the job </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interviews= time consuming, so companies use screening devices to eliminate. Chiefly, evaluating your résumé and cover letter. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Résumé/cover letter goal: “to communicate your qualifications in writing and sell yourself to prospective employers” (Kaplan, 2002) </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Applying for the job (continued) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Research </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Know something about the company and the job </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Write and effective cover letter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cover letter - Short, well-written letter expressing your interest in a particular job. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on employer’s needs, not yours </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Capture attention, demonstrate qualifications, and request an interview </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Steps: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ID the job for which you are applying </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Summarize your qualifications </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Indicate interest in interview, list how you may be reached </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Close by saying you look forward to hearing from them soon </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Applying for the job (continued) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prepare a professional résumé </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Résumé - Brief summary of your skills and accomplishments and is your “silent sales representative” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No universal format, but generally 1-2 pages and includes: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Contact information </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Career objective </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Employment history </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Education </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Relevant professional affiliations </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Military background (if applicable) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Special skills </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Community service </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>References </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>Useful source:
  14. 14. <ul><ul><li>Electronic cover letters and résumés </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Employers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Easier to sift through, less time consuming </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Job seekers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Less time consuming </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Less expensive </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Preparing to be interviewed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Do your homework </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Prepare a self-summary </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Prepare a list of questions about the organization and job </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rehearse the interview </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><ul><li>Guidelines for job interviewees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>An interview is your opportunity to sell yourself to the organization. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Although stressful, preparation should give you the confidence you need to relax and communicate effectively. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>You aren’t the only one who is stressed/nervous. Interviewers generally do not interview every day. Most have no interview training. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Your goal: Make the interview a comfortable conversation. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><ul><li>Guidelines for job interviewees (continued) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Steps to a successful interview: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dress appropriately </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Arrive on time </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bring supplies </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use active listening </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(See Steps in Listening Process, pg. 91) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Think before answering </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Be enthusiastic </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ask questions </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Following up after an interview </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Write a thank-you note </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Self-assess </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Contact the interviewer for feedback </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><ul><li>Before the interview </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Members of media are under tight deadlines, crucial to answer interview requests immediately. If not, you look like you are hiding something and evading the interview. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Remember the interview will likely be edited, so prepare 3-4 talking points - Central ideas you want to present. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>During the interview </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Combination interviewing, nonverbal communication, and public speaking skills </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Appropriate nonverbal </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Clear/concise statements </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Realize you are always “on the record” </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Learn how to bridge - Transition </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>