Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
What is Communication-Communication Studies?
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

What is Communication-Communication Studies?


Published on

Its 3rd Dec 2013 presentation at the Refresher Course for teachers of Arts at University of Mumbai.

Its 3rd Dec 2013 presentation at the Refresher Course for teachers of Arts at University of Mumbai.

Published in: Education, Technology
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Total Views
On Slideshare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

No notes for slide


  • 1. Communication & Communication Studies: What is it? Mira K Desai Associate Professor University Department of Extension Education S.N.D.T. Women’s University Juhu Campus, Mumbai
  • 2. Agenda for Today Communication as a process and product Communication for Media Communication Your individual SELF in communication Communication as a communicator Communication as a receiver Communication as a discipline
  • 4. What is Communication? ions, Opin as… , acts s, Ide F otion Em Ideology Int era Exc ctio h an n ge Technology Reality Pro duc t Process
  • 5. What is Media? Representation Representation Capital Capital and and Institutions Institutions Ideology cal riical sto iistor xt H H te xt on te C on C Technology Reality Pro duc t Process
  • 6. Elements/Process of Communication SENDER MESSAGE CHANNEL RECEIVER FEEDBACK = Noise Co xt nte
  • 7. Types of Communication Vocal Non-vocal Direct Written Mediated Oral One-way Two-way ar t i c i pat or y P Person al-Infor m al PublicForma l Intra-personal (self) Inter-personal (other) Group (others) Mass (many groups) n-line O f-line Of Upward Downward Horizontal Vertical Audio-visual Audio Visual
  • 8. Scope of Communication MASS GROUP INTERPERSONAL
  • 9. Communication…?! SOCIETY- Mass MASS- Many Groups Institutional/Organisational GROUP- With a group of people INTRA GROUP- Within a group INTERPERSONAL- Between two people INTRAPERSONAL- Self as communicator
  • 10. Functions of Communication Information Instruction Entertainment Persuasion Debate and discussion Cultural promotion Integration
  • 11. Types of Media nal-Private Perso Public Group Mass Oral Written udio Visual A Convergent -line On f-line Of Indoor Outdoor Folk- Proverbs, Songs, Theatre, Dances Print- Newspapers, Magazines, Small print Electronic- TV, Radio New- Internet, Mobile
  • 12. COMMONs for Mass Media Address different senses Approach ‘MASS’ Provide Information and/or Education Entertain people Technology/Infrastructure Institutions Difficulty of ‘modification’ Economics of ‘buying’ and ‘selling’
  • 13. Communication Transmission View  Communication links the ways messages are transmitted and received via technology with the composition of these messages (or more broadly, as communicative relationships), and with the analysis of the effects of these communicative acts. Ritual view  Communication is a central daily ritual that helps form and sustain communities.
  • 14. Approaches to Communication TRANSMISSION ‘imparting,’ ‘sending,’ ‘transmitting,’ or ‘getting information to others” ‘not toward the extension of messages in space’ ‘not the act of imparting information’ RITUAL ’sharing’, ‘participation’, ‘association’, ‘fellowship’, and ‘the possession of a common faith’ ‘toward the maintenance of society in time’ ‘the representation of shared beliefs’
  • 15. Ritual View of Communication MEANING SENDE R RECEIVE R
  • 16. John Dewey (1859 – 1952) There is more than a verbal tie between the words common, community, and communication. Men live in a community in virtue of the things which they have in common; and communication is the way in which they come to possess things in common. What they must have in common . . . are aims, beliefs, aspirations, knowledge, a common understanding– likemindedness as sociologists say. Such things cannot be passed physically from one to another like bricks; they cannot be shared as persons would share a pie by dividing it into physical pieces .... Consensus demands communication. (Dewey, 1916: 5-6).
  • 17. Marshall McLuhan (19111980) Global Village Media as technological extension of human body. When you are on the phone or on the air, you have no body. People don’t actually read newspapers. They step into them every morning like a hot bath. News, far more than art, is artifact. All advertising advertises advertising.
  • 18. James Carey (1934-2006) Communication as Culture “Communication is a symbolic process whereby REALITY is produced, maintained, repaired and transformed”. “social life is more than power and trade ... it also includes the sharing of this that experience, the religious ideas, personal values and the sentiments, and intellectual notions -- a ritual border” Source: James Carey. A Cultural Approach To Communication. Routledge, York, N.Y., 1989.
  • 19. Effects of Telegraph…. Carey Ch8 Facilitated growth of monopoly capitalism and imperialism (electric goods industry, centralized control across space) Inspired popular imagery combining peace and harmony with power and profit. Marked watershed in communication (separated communication from transportation, basis for transmission model) Influenced journalism (objectivity) and language (telegraphic style) Changed the meaning of time (standard time zones, time as frontier) and space (national commodities markets, geographically dispersed markets)
  • 20. Effects of Communication Technologies….. Carey (Contd.) MYTHS (future reality) Democracy, Freedom Peace, Brotherhood Enlightenment REALITY Centralization of Power Impersonalization Standardization
  • 21. Transmission vesus Ritual       TRANSMISSION Transportation Sender & Receiver Sent & Received Receiver ‘gets it’ Accuracy of transmission Influence across space o o o o o o RITUAL Ceremony Participants Created and Recreated Shared experience Sense of community Community across time Metaphor- Role of participants- Role of meaningSuccess criterion- Basic function
  • 23. SELF & OTHER in Interpersonal Communication
  • 24. Non-vocal Communication SIGNALS: attract attention & transfer, Device to formulate extrinsic meaning SIGNS: meaning of intrinsic nature, Has FormSetting-Colour-Location contexts SYMBOLS: abstraction made rooted in society/culture ICONS: Group/cluster of interactive symbols GESTURES/Kinesics/Body language PROXEMICS: ways of communication across cultures about use of time and space as well as body positions and other factors
  • 25. Non-verbal communication in Interpersonal Communication Gesture Posture Facial expression Proximity Appearance Orientation Aroma/smell Head/hand movements Body contact/touch Eye movement/contact VOICE related elements: Pitch Pace Rate Quality Laughter/yelling etc. Silence
  • 26. Construction of Self Enculturation and indoctrination (Background and bring up) Institutional influences: Family, Schools, Media, Caste-CommunitySociety, Religion…. Self awareness and efforts Support of Others
  • 27. Dimensions/Positions of Self Caste Class Religion Gender Education Geography
  • 28. Self Esteem Scholastic competence Athletic competence Social acceptance Behavioural conduct Physical appearance
  • 29. Making of ‘Self’ Self-confidence Maturity Expectation Emotions Ambition Analytical abilities Personality Potentialities/Strengths Likes/Dislikes Weaknesses Attitudes Beliefs
  • 30. Personality types Sensing: Sense the surroundings Thinking: Analyses the situation Intuitive: Depend on the gut feeling Feeling: Feel and fun for everything
  • 31. Effective Self Communication
  • 32. Looking-Seeing-Watching We most often LOOK Occasionally we SEE There are times that we WATCH Rarely that we REGISTER It is only at times that we UNDERSTAND Its only after EXPERIENCE that it makes SENSE to us.
  • 33. Process of ‘Listening’ Hearing Focusing on the message Comprehending-UnderstandingInterpreting Analysing and Evaluating Responding and NOT Reacting Remembering……..remembering…… ..remembering
  • 34. Effective Feedback Focus on specific behaviours Keep it impersonal Keep it goal oriented Make it well timed Ensure understanding Give it direct towards behaviour that is controllable by the recipient
  • 35. Human Intelligences* Linguistic : words, language Logical/mathematical: relation of objects Spatial: mind’s eye Musical: comprehension/production of sound Bodily/kinesthetic: using body Inter-personal: knowing ‘others’ Intra-personal: knowing ‘self’ * Gardner H (1993) Multiple Intelligences: The theory in practice, Basic Books, New York.
  • 37. Communication: Discipline…?! Communication Science/Studies Journalism Mass Communication/Media Studies Culture & Communication Media & Entertainment- Film, Music, New media, Outdoor, Gaming, Advertising “Journalism & Mass Communication”
  • 38. Communication Science “a science which seeks to understand the production, processing, and effects of symbol and signal systems by developing testable theories, containing lawful generalisations, that explain phenomenon associated with production, processing and effects” Berger C R & S H Chaffee (1987: 17) The study of communication as science in Berger C R & S H Chaffee (ed.) Handbook of Communication Science, p-15-19, Sage, Beverly Hills.
  • 39. Media Analysis of History The Tribal Age- Oral culture, Multisensory involvement, Holistic-intuitive thinking The Age of Literacy- Writing, The line becomes organising principle, Logic emerges The Print Age- “Guttenberg Galaxy” The eye becomes the dominant sense, Linear thinkingIndividualism The Electronic Thinking- “Global Village”, TV dominant medium, multisensory involvement, Retribalization, Decline of logic and linearity
  • 40. Media & Entertainment Industry…??!! Advertising {OOH, Direct marketing, PR…} Broadcast, Cable, DTH, IPTV Filmed Entertainment Print- Newspapers, Magazines Publishing- Books Radio Upcoming convergent platforms- Mobile and telecom, Gaming, Internet & Social networking….
  • 41. Media Sector Avenues Advertising Acting Journalism Public relations Graphics-Gaming Mass Media: Print: Newspapers & Magazines Radio TV Films Beauty & Make Up Art & Design Computer Animation Fitness Food Transport Other Media: Publishing: Books Mobile & Telecom Internet Outdoors & Events
  • 42. Media in India means… Public Service Broadcasting by Doordarshan and All India Radio 700+ Television channels & 300 FM radio and 100+ community radio stations RNI registered no of newspapers, as on 31st March, 2008: 69,323 1132 features produced in 2007 (total of US+China+Japan in 2008) 1250 productions (2010) in 13000 Cinema halls Emerging markets of mobiles & Internet
  • 43. Mass Communication: Map MEDIA INSTITUTIONS MEDIA CONTENT/ TEXT AUDIENCES/ EFFECTS CULTURE POPULAR or MASS STRUCTURES • POLITICAL • ECONOMIC • SOCIAL •TECHNOLOGICAL ORGANISATIONS • MARKET • FAMILY • MEDIA • STATE/GOVERNMENT TRADITIONS * STRUCTURAL: Sociology, History, Politics, Law, Economics * BEHAVIOURAL: Psychology, Social psychological, * CULTURAL: Humanities, Anthropology, Linguistics LOCATION: Local-Global, Micro-Macro, Intra-Inter-Group-within groups-Mass