Mira K. Desai
University Department of Extension Education
SNDT Women’s University
Steps in RESEARCH
Formulation of a problem (Assumptions and
Review of Literature
Decisions about Design/Method
Sampling design (Size-Frame-Procedure)
Data Collection (Tools-Techniques-ProceduresExperiences)
What is DATA?
Plural of datum but often used a singular
having quantitative and qualitative
that has been organised and categorised for
a pre-determined purpose.
Types of Data
Depends upon the
and clarity of
Collected by someone
else but used by
researcher second hand
Cheaper and quicker
Needs lesser resources
Have to ascertain
Construction of tools for data collection
Decision about techniques of data collection
Testing the tool/technique by Pilot study or
Pre-testing of tool/technique
Finalization of tool/technique
Ascertaining reliability and validity of
tools/techniques to be used for data
Actual collection of data
Factors influencing decision about data
Scale and magnitude of the study
Characteristics of the respondents
Unit of inquiry and analysis
Availability of resources:
Money, Time, Human, Technical, Compete
Subject under study
Decisions about data collection
Settings: Natural – Contrived/Artificial
Inquiry: Obstructive/Undisguised –
Nature: Qualitative – Quantitative
Structured – Semi structured – Unstructured
Questions: Open ended – Closed ended
Administration: Human – Mechanical
Analysis: Pre coded – Not coded
Data comes through….
Tools & Techniques
United Nations conducted a Worldwide survey. The
question asked was:
"Would you please give your honest opinion
about solutions to the food shortage in the rest
of the world?"
The survey was a huge failure.
Africa didn't know what 'food' meant, India didn't
know what 'honest' meant, Europe didn't know what
'shortage' meant, China didn't know what 'opinion'
meant, the Middle East didn't know what 'solution'
meant, South America didn't know what 'please'
meant, And in the USA they didn't know what 'the rest
of the world' meant !!
Good DATA depends upon…
Clarity of purpose/objectives of the study
Appropriateness of tool/technique
Sharpness of the tool and abilities of
investigator/researcher in using the
Cooperation/rapport with the respondents
Decisions about utilization at analysis stage
Type: Qualitative and/or Quantitative
Nature/Mode: Manual or Mechanical
Type of Statistics: Descriptive- Inferential
Type of Analysis: Univariate- BivariateMultivarite- Scores
Presentation: Textual- Tabular-Graphical
Making code book
Coding of data
Transcription of data
Patterns and themes
New set of data
Frequency and Percentages
Dispersion: Averages, Range, Standard
Do you have internet on your mobile? If yes, Do
you use internet on mobile? Is yes, how
Everyone has mobile- there may be internet too!!
To know how many people use internet on move.
100 out of 200 people here have internet on their
mobile and 75 of them use it everyday.
Example- Data Interpretation
150 people have mobiles.
100 of them has Internet on their mobile
75 of them use Internet through mobile everyday.
75% of the people have mobile. (3 in 4 person)
67% mobile owners have Internet on their mobile.
37.5% of all the people use internet on mobile
everyday OR Half (every 2nd) of the mobile
owners use Internet on their mobile everyday.
Research REPORTING Decisions
Why did you undertake research? (AcademicIndustry)
What is the purpose of research? (Degree/PureApplied/solutions)
Who is funding your work? (Funder expectations)
THANKS for TIME & PATIENCE…