Four General Tips Seven Steps of Successful Scheduling
1. Get EVERYONE to love the project. ◦ What if I don’t love it? If you don’t love it, pretend to. We become what we pretend to be. ◦ What if my other team members don’t love it? Help them find a way. “How can I bring you in?” ◦ What if my client doesn’t love it? Big problem. Find out what they really want – see if you can do that instead!
2. One-on-one meetings eliminate potential problems. ◦ People don’t always speak the truth in public. ◦ Producers should do these regularly, formally or informally. ◦ Faculty should do these at least every two weeks.
3. Keep in Constant Communication ◦ Be in the same room ◦ Everyone should know where everyone is and will be, and how to reach them ◦ Do some social things. Don’t like your teammates? Pretend to. ◦ Do internal demos to each other at least once a week!
4. Producers: Carry the Water. ◦ Make sure everyone has what they need all the time, whatever that may be. ◦ Be the Den Mother. ◦ Learn the joy of servitude.
1. Define the problem. ◦ That is, “What is the goal of this project?”
2. Pick a solution. ◦ Preferably, as simple as possible! ◦ Once you pick it – make a detailed plan for how it will happen. A plan is a real thing. ◦ Don’t get too attached to your solution.
3. Manage risks. ◦ First: Identify Risks. ◦ Second: Decide how you will mitigate them. ◦ Third: Periodically review your risk list and mitigation strategies. ◦ You might notice that mitigating risks often requires multiple early prototypes (or, iterations) ◦ The Spiral Model is a great way to manage risks!
4. Do a detailed task breakdown. ◦ Put tasks in categories, and label how long they will take, who will do them, when they need to be done, and how important they are. ◦ How much detail? Remember, the more days there are in the estimate for one task, the less certain you are about how long it will really take. ◦ EVERY task should be on the list.
5. If you are in the red, get out. ◦ You can beg for more time. ◦ You can change the solution (Begging may be necessary). ◦ You can cut lower priority tasks. ◦ You can add people to the project – with extreme caution! ◦ The important thing: Get out sooner, not later!
6. Update the task list weekly. ◦ Each week, everyone should answer two questions: What did you do this week, what will you do next week? ◦ Feedback on predictions is how you get better at predicting! ◦ Stay out of the red!
7. When the project is over, do a post-mortem. ◦ How else will you know how to do better next time?
General Tips Successful Scheduling ◦ 1. Get EVERYONE to ◦ 1. Define the problem. love the project ◦ 2. Pick a solution. ◦ 2. One-on-one meetings ◦ 3. Manage risks. eliminate potential problems. ◦ 4. Do a detailed task breakdown ◦ 3. Keep in Constant Communication ◦ 5. If you are in the red, get out. ◦ 4. Producers: Carry the Water ◦ 6. Update the task list weekly. ◦ 7. Do a post-mortem at the end of the project.
Dinosaurs Alive! The Virgin Island Tabletopia The Aqua Lounge That ill-fated animation project from 2001? AugCog Hazmat Others…?
Reasons I sometimes don’t do all of these things: ◦ Lack of time (a bad excuse, but there it is) ◦ Some projects are so exploratory that scheduling them is not really useful ◦ Sometimes, things are just going so well, all the formality doesn’t seem necessary
What is Supply chain? Objective of a supply chain Supply Chain Management Bull Whip effect Drivers of Supply chain performance Inventory policies Types of Distribution networks
Supplier Manufacturer Distributor Retailer Customer Consists of all parties involved, directly or indirectly, in fulfilling a customer request
Maximise overall profit Profit ◦ Revenue generated from customer - costs incurred along the entire chain (e.g. manufacturing / storing / distributing the product) When is Supply chain effective? ◦ Manage Product, Information and Fund flow
Objective is to be able to have the right products in the right quantities (at the right place) at the right moment at minimal cost.
Each organisation seek to solve the problem from its own perspective ◦ Small changes in consumer demand result in large variations in orders placed upstream Dramatic order size variation Amplification of order size variation as one moves up the supply chain Delay 2 weeks Delay 2 weeks Delay 2 weeksSupplier Manufacturer Distributor Retailer Customer Orders 40 Orders 25 Orders 15 Buys 10
Little or no communication between supply chain partners. Delay times between order processing, demand, and receipt of products. Over reacting to the backlog orders. Inaccurate demand forecasts. http://www.supplychainonline.com/previews/SCM101/3
Facilities ◦ Production/Storage Sites Responsiveness Vs Efficiency
Inventory ◦ Raw materials ◦ WIP ◦ Finished Goods ◦ Responsiveness Vs Efficiency Sourcing ◦ Outsourcing Transportation
Total costsCost Transport costs Inventory costs Rail Air
Where do we hold inventory? ◦ Suppliers and manufacturers ◦ warehouses and distribution centers ◦ retailers Types of Inventory ◦ raw materials ◦ WIP ◦ finished goods Why do we hold inventory? ◦ Uncertainty in supply and demand ◦ Lead Time ◦ Avoid stock outs (customer goodwill)
Inventory lot size Replenishment Lead time Stock out Reorder Point Safety stock
Profile of Inventory Level Over TimeQ Demand rate Constant DemandQuantityon handReorderpoint Time Receive Place Receive Place Receive order order order order order Lead time
When to order How much to order Types of System ◦ Continuous Review ◦ Periodic Review
Note: • No Stockouts • Order when no inventory • Order Size determines policy InventoryOrderSize Time
The Total-Cost Curve is U-ShapedAnnual Cost Holding Costs Ordering Costs Order Quantity (Q) QO (optimal order quantity) or EOQ
Tradeoff between set-up costs and holding costs when determining order quantity. Total Cost is not particularly sensitive to the optimal order quantityOrder Quantity 50% 80% 90% 100% 110% 120% 150% 200%Cost Increase 125% 103% 101% 100% 101% 102% 108% 125%
Continuously monitored ◦ R – Reorder point, L – Lead time ◦ Q – Order quantity Time b/w orders vary but Q is fixed
Monitored at periodic intervals of length “r” Quantity set as the amount consumed during this interval Time b/w orders fixed
Steps taken to move and store a product from supplier to customer Design Options ◦ Manufacturer storage with direct shipping ◦ Manufacturer storage with direct shipping and in-transit merge ◦ Distributor storage with package carrier delivery
Manufacturer Retailer Customers Drop Shipping
ManufacturerRetailer In-transit Merge by carriers Customers