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  • 1. Anil Kumar
  • 2.  Four General Tips Seven Steps of Successful Scheduling
  • 3.  1. Get EVERYONE to love the project. ◦ What if I don’t love it?  If you don’t love it, pretend to. We become what we pretend to be. ◦ What if my other team members don’t love it?  Help them find a way. “How can I bring you in?” ◦ What if my client doesn’t love it?  Big problem. Find out what they really want – see if you can do that instead!
  • 4.  2. One-on-one meetings eliminate potential problems. ◦ People don’t always speak the truth in public. ◦ Producers should do these regularly, formally or informally. ◦ Faculty should do these at least every two weeks.
  • 5.  3. Keep in Constant Communication ◦ Be in the same room ◦ Everyone should know where everyone is and will be, and how to reach them ◦ Do some social things. Don’t like your teammates? Pretend to. ◦ Do internal demos to each other at least once a week!
  • 6.  4. Producers: Carry the Water. ◦ Make sure everyone has what they need all the time, whatever that may be. ◦ Be the Den Mother. ◦ Learn the joy of servitude.
  • 7.  1. Define the problem. ◦ That is, “What is the goal of this project?”
  • 8.  2. Pick a solution. ◦ Preferably, as simple as possible! ◦ Once you pick it – make a detailed plan for how it will happen. A plan is a real thing. ◦ Don’t get too attached to your solution.
  • 9.  3. Manage risks. ◦ First: Identify Risks. ◦ Second: Decide how you will mitigate them. ◦ Third: Periodically review your risk list and mitigation strategies. ◦ You might notice that mitigating risks often requires multiple early prototypes (or, iterations) ◦ The Spiral Model is a great way to manage risks!
  • 10.  4. Do a detailed task breakdown. ◦ Put tasks in categories, and label how long they will take, who will do them, when they need to be done, and how important they are. ◦ How much detail? Remember, the more days there are in the estimate for one task, the less certain you are about how long it will really take. ◦ EVERY task should be on the list.
  • 11.  5. If you are in the red, get out. ◦ You can beg for more time. ◦ You can change the solution (Begging may be necessary). ◦ You can cut lower priority tasks. ◦ You can add people to the project – with extreme caution! ◦ The important thing: Get out sooner, not later!
  • 12.  6. Update the task list weekly. ◦ Each week, everyone should answer two questions: What did you do this week, what will you do next week? ◦ Feedback on predictions is how you get better at predicting! ◦ Stay out of the red!
  • 13.  7. When the project is over, do a post-mortem. ◦ How else will you know how to do better next time?
  • 14.  General Tips  Successful Scheduling ◦ 1. Get EVERYONE to ◦ 1. Define the problem. love the project ◦ 2. Pick a solution. ◦ 2. One-on-one meetings ◦ 3. Manage risks. eliminate potential problems. ◦ 4. Do a detailed task breakdown ◦ 3. Keep in Constant Communication ◦ 5. If you are in the red, get out. ◦ 4. Producers: Carry the Water ◦ 6. Update the task list weekly. ◦ 7. Do a post-mortem at the end of the project.
  • 15.  Dinosaurs Alive! The Virgin Island Tabletopia The Aqua Lounge That ill-fated animation project from 2001? AugCog Hazmat Others…?
  • 16.  Reasons I sometimes don’t do all of these things: ◦ Lack of time (a bad excuse, but there it is) ◦ Some projects are so exploratory that scheduling them is not really useful ◦ Sometimes, things are just going so well, all the formality doesn’t seem necessary
  • 17.  What is Supply chain? Objective of a supply chain Supply Chain Management Bull Whip effect Drivers of Supply chain performance Inventory policies Types of Distribution networks
  • 18. Supplier Manufacturer Distributor Retailer Customer  Consists of all parties involved, directly or indirectly, in fulfilling a customer request
  • 19. Supplier Manufacturer Distributor Retailer CustomerSupplier Manufacturer Distributor Retailer CustomerSupplier Manufacturer Distributor Retailer Customer Upstream Downstream
  • 20. CustomerCustomer OrderCycle Pull RetailerReplenishmentCycle DistributorManufacturingCycle Manufacturer PushProcurementCycle Supplier
  • 21.  Maximise overall profit Profit ◦ Revenue generated from customer - costs incurred along the entire chain (e.g. manufacturing / storing / distributing the product) When is Supply chain effective? ◦ Manage Product, Information and Fund flow
  • 22. Buy Back Manufacturer ManufacturerNo risk Cost = Rs. 1 Cost = Rs. 1 Buy Back Profit Rs. 4000 Sharing Profit Rs. 5520 at Rs. 3 Retailer Retailer Cost = Rs. 5 of Cost = Rs. 5Bears All Q = 1000 Q = 1200risk risks Profit Rs. 4000 Profit Rs. 5160 Customer Customer Cost = Rs. 10 Cost = Rs. 10 Demand = 900 Demand = 1080
  • 23.  Objective is to be able to have the right products in the right quantities (at the right place) at the right moment at minimal cost.
  • 24.  Each organisation seek to solve the problem from its own perspective ◦ Small changes in consumer demand result in large variations in orders placed upstream  Dramatic order size variation  Amplification of order size variation as one moves up the supply chain Delay 2 weeks Delay 2 weeks Delay 2 weeksSupplier Manufacturer Distributor Retailer Customer Orders 40 Orders 25 Orders 15 Buys 10
  • 25.  Little or no communication between supply chain partners. Delay times between order processing, demand, and receipt of products. Over reacting to the backlog orders. Inaccurate demand forecasts. http://www.supplychainonline.com/previews/SCM101/3
  • 26.  Facilities ◦ Production/Storage Sites Responsiveness Vs Efficiency
  • 27.  Inventory ◦ Raw materials ◦ WIP ◦ Finished Goods ◦ Responsiveness Vs Efficiency Sourcing ◦ Outsourcing Transportation
  • 28. Total costsCost Transport costs Inventory costs Rail Air
  • 29.  Where do we hold inventory? ◦ Suppliers and manufacturers ◦ warehouses and distribution centers ◦ retailers Types of Inventory ◦ raw materials ◦ WIP ◦ finished goods Why do we hold inventory? ◦ Uncertainty in supply and demand ◦ Lead Time ◦ Avoid stock outs (customer goodwill)
  • 30.  Inventory lot size Replenishment Lead time Stock out Reorder Point Safety stock
  • 31.  Procurement costs ◦ Ordering cost (appx. administrative, inspection, transportation etc.) Holding costs ◦ Maintenance and Handling ◦ Taxes ◦ Obsolescence Stock-outs costs ◦ Lost sales (Customer goodwill) ◦ Backorders
  • 32. Profile of Inventory Level Over TimeQ Demand rate Constant DemandQuantityon handReorderpoint Time Receive Place Receive Place Receive order order order order order Lead time
  • 33.  When to order How much to order Types of System ◦ Continuous Review ◦ Periodic Review
  • 34. Note: • No Stockouts • Order when no inventory • Order Size determines policy InventoryOrderSize Time
  • 35. The Total-Cost Curve is U-ShapedAnnual Cost Holding Costs Ordering Costs Order Quantity (Q) QO (optimal order quantity) or EOQ
  • 36.  Tradeoff between set-up costs and holding costs when determining order quantity. Total Cost is not particularly sensitive to the optimal order quantityOrder Quantity 50% 80% 90% 100% 110% 120% 150% 200%Cost Increase 125% 103% 101% 100% 101% 102% 108% 125%
  • 37.  Continuously monitored ◦ R – Reorder point, L – Lead time ◦ Q – Order quantity Time b/w orders vary but Q is fixed
  • 38.  Monitored at periodic intervals of length “r” Quantity set as the amount consumed during this interval Time b/w orders fixed
  • 39.  Steps taken to move and store a product from supplier to customer Design Options ◦ Manufacturer storage with direct shipping ◦ Manufacturer storage with direct shipping and in-transit merge ◦ Distributor storage with package carrier delivery
  • 40. Manufacturer Retailer Customers Drop Shipping
  • 41. ManufacturerRetailer In-transit Merge by carriers Customers
  • 42. ManufacturerWarehouse Storage byDistributor/Retailer Customers
  • 43.  Components of supply chain (SC) Objective of SC is to max. profit Bull whip effect Facilities decisions Inventory policies Distribution networks