Steps for research process


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Steps for research process

  1. 1. Research Process Marina Brodsky, WBAIS Library
  2. 2. The 21 st Century Learner is able to: <ul><li>Inquire, think critically and gain knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Draw conclusions, make informed decisions, apply knowledge to new situations and create knowledge. </li></ul><ul><li>Share knowledge and participate ethically and productively as members of our society. </li></ul><ul><li>Pursue personal and aesthetic growth. </li></ul><ul><li>AASL 2008 </li></ul>
  3. 3. Students who are information literate <ul><li>Accesses information efficiently and effectively </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluates information critically and competently </li></ul><ul><li>Uses information accurately and creatively </li></ul><ul><li>Pursues information related to personal interests </li></ul><ul><li>Strives for excellence in information seeking and knowledge generation </li></ul><ul><li>Recognizes the importance of information to a democratic society </li></ul><ul><li>Practices ethical behavior in regard to information and information technology </li></ul><ul><li>Participates effectively in groups to pursue and generate information </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>AASL. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Identify and Develop Your Topic <ul><li>1. Find a topic of interest to you </li></ul>
  5. 5. Topic <ul><ul><li>Create a background on the subject by looking in encyclopedias, wikipedia or a subject directory online. This will help you when you don’t know what to search on or how to narrow down the topic. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Topic <ul><li>Follow the teacher’s guidelines </li></ul>
  7. 7. Identify the problem as a question <ul><li>2. Identify the problem </li></ul><ul><ul><li>State your search problem as a clear question. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Identify the problem as a question - Query <ul><li>A query is a line of inquiry – what are you looking for? </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You want to make a presentation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>on Slave Trade. The topic is too broad. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slave Trade can be studied from different aspects: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slave Trade Global/in Africa/America - Where? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>History/Routs/Origins of Slave Trade - What? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slavery of the Modern Day/in the Ancient Civilization – When? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The possible question you want to answer can be </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ What is the heritage of the slave trade of the Ancient Civilizations in the modern world?” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ How have the slave trade of the Ancient Civilizations influenced the modern world?” </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Identify the problem <ul><ul><li>Identify if you have more than one concept to search </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slave Trade – concepts of freedom, human rights, forced migration, transatlantic journey, non-market trade </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Looking for Information <ul><li>3. Identify what information and how much of it you need </li></ul><ul><li>Remember the triangle method : </li></ul><ul><li>To be considered accurate, each </li></ul><ul><li>fact should be found in at least </li></ul><ul><li>three sources </li></ul>
  12. 12. Looking for Information <ul><li>What type of information do you need? </li></ul><ul><li>primary sources: documents, individuals reflecting on events they were involved in, pictures, videos, reports of original studies, numerical data </li></ul>
  13. 13. Looking for Information <ul><li>secondary sources: news, overview, scholarly, point of view </li></ul>
  14. 14. Looking for Information <ul><li>How much information do you need depends on what your final product will be </li></ul><ul><li>(term paper, essay, multimedia presentation, speech, definition) </li></ul>
  15. 15. Looking for information <ul><li>Follow the teacher’s guidelines </li></ul>
  16. 16. Looking for Information <ul><li>4. Recognize where to look for the information </li></ul><ul><li>Library </li></ul><ul><li>Electronic databases </li></ul><ul><li>The Internet (websites) </li></ul>
  17. 17. Library Printed Resources Are you looking for… Books Articles … current information V … historical information V … general information or overview V … specific information V … expert commentary V … scholarly or reference source? V V
  18. 18. Looking for Information <ul><li>Library </li></ul><ul><li>In books use </li></ul><ul><li>the table of contents </li></ul><ul><li>Indexes </li></ul>
  19. 19. Finding Articles You Need <ul><li>Scholarly versus Popular </li></ul><ul><li>Check with your teacher if it is allowed to use popular articles for your research. </li></ul><ul><li>If not, you may include them to get general information about the topic. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Finding Articles You Need <ul><li>Scholarly Magazines </li></ul><ul><li>may include </li></ul><ul><li>Scholars or experts as authors </li></ul><ul><li>Abstracts and methodology </li></ul><ul><li>Charts and graphs </li></ul><ul><li>Results of study </li></ul><ul><li>Bibliography </li></ul><ul><li>Longer length </li></ul><ul><li>In-depth discussions </li></ul>
  21. 21. Library Databases <ul><li>See WBAIS Databases at </li></ul>
  22. 22. Library Databases <ul><li>CIAO – Columbia International Affairs Online </li></ul><ul><ul><li>International (Foreign) affairs, economy, peace, global development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Country data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Primary sources – case study, policy briefs </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Library Databases <ul><li>EBSCOhost: scholarly articles, search by topic, primary sources, biographies, magazines and newspapers, books & encyclopedias </li></ul>
  24. 24. Library Databases <ul><li>Facts on File: </li></ul>
  25. 25. Facts on File <ul><li>World News Digest </li></ul><ul><li>Current Events, issues, country data, encyclopedia, almanac, in-depth coverage of hot topics, suggestion of research topics </li></ul>
  26. 26. Facts on File <ul><li>Issues and Controversies </li></ul><ul><li>Pro and Cons </li></ul><ul><li>Today’s Top Issues on business, politics, government, education, popular culture. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Facts on File <ul><li>Issues and Controversies in American History </li></ul><ul><li>Articles on historical events that shaped the American society, key players and battles </li></ul>
  28. 28. Facts on File <ul><li>Today’s Science </li></ul><ul><li>Articles on modern science issues, biographies, research topics, science encyclopedia, glossary, images </li></ul>
  29. 29. World Book Online <ul><li>News Headlines </li></ul><ul><li>Biography Center </li></ul><ul><li>Articles, tables, maps on the world </li></ul><ul><li>Encyclopedia, dictionary </li></ul>
  30. 30. Websites – the Internet <ul><li>Search Engines </li></ul><ul><li>Google </li></ul><ul><li>Yahoo </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  31. 31. Why not just to Google? <ul><li>Visible and Invisible Web </li></ul><ul><li>There are parts of information that search engines cannot see. The “crawlers” are locked out of these areas of the internet. </li></ul><ul><li>The big part of it is the password protected information. </li></ul>
  32. 32. Why not just to Google? <ul><li>Many sites are dead </li></ul><ul><li>Search engines are databases. They don’t search the live Internet. Otherwise, there would not be messages like HTTP Error 404 - File or directory not found. We search life information only when we browse. </li></ul>
  33. 33. Why not just to Google? <ul><li>Information is incomplete and needs an evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>Information found in search engines are collected randomly and is not filtered. </li></ul><ul><li>Searches are limited. Even metasearch engines don’t use all possible databases (For ex. Only BackWayMachine can see archived sites). </li></ul>
  34. 34. Why not just to Google? <ul><li>Using one database fosters a false sense of proficiency (Carl Heine). </li></ul>
  35. 35. 5. Identify keywords <ul><li>In any search place write the keywords in. </li></ul>
  36. 36. Creating a Query – what you will write in the search box? <ul><li>Not a sentence </li></ul><ul><li>Keywords: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What are the major concepts? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slave Trade Human Rights Origins Crimes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What are the synonyms? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>heritage, trails, origin, traffic in slaves, slave-trading </li></ul></ul>
  37. 37. Creating a Query <ul><li>How should you use Boolean operators? </li></ul><ul><li>AND, OR, - “minus” </li></ul><ul><li>Heritage OR origins OR trails AND “slave trade” –trip –course –curriculum, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Should you worry about plurals? </li></ul><ul><li>Are there any proper names you </li></ul><ul><li>should concentrate on </li></ul><ul><li>or eliminate? </li></ul>
  38. 38. Library Print Resources <ul><li>Library Catalog – Destiny </li></ul>
  39. 39. Searching the Internet <ul><li>Use the library recommended sites - Schoogle </li></ul>
  40. 40. Library Databases
  41. 41. Searching the Internet <ul><li>Ask your teacher if you are allowed to use </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the Internet for your research project </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wikipedia as a source for your research project </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Note: You may use these sources for background information but not to include into the list of sources (Bibliography). </li></ul>
  42. 42. Searching the Internet <ul><li>Choose a search engine </li></ul>
  43. 43. Searching the Internet <ul><li>Use keywords rather than sentences </li></ul><ul><li>Enclose phrases in quotations </li></ul><ul><li>Use subject headings </li></ul><ul><li>Try synonyms </li></ul><ul><li>Use advanced search option </li></ul>
  44. 44. Searching the Internet <ul><li>Use Boolean operators </li></ul>
  45. 46. Searching the Internet <ul><li>When searching on your own, carefully evaluate the sites. </li></ul><ul><li>Tips on Evaluating of Websites can be found on Schoogle – Evaluating Sources </li></ul>
  46. 47. Record what you found <ul><li>When searching, save links that look like helpful in or Diigo. </li></ul><ul><li>Take notes in Google doc. Or in Evernote </li></ul><ul><li>Cite sources - Tips on Citing Sources can be found on Schoogle – Citing Sources and Bibliography Guide </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  47. 48. Need Help? <ul><li>Contact me: </li></ul><ul><li>E-Mail [email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>Leave your question in ais-sharing wiki </li></ul><ul><li>Come any Tuesday and Thursday 3:15 – 4:00 PM to the library </li></ul><ul><li>See me in person in the library. </li></ul>Marina Brodsky, WBAIS Library
  48. 49. Credits <ul><li>21 st Century Information Fluency. The Search Process - </li></ul><ul><li>Jean Burr Smith Library. Research Process 101. </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Images: </li></ul><ul><li>Popular magazines – - </li></ul><ul><li>Search Engines – Web Hosting Blog – </li></ul><ul><li>Boolean Operators – </li></ul><ul><li>Running boy – Google images. Eduweek </li></ul>