Eurostat Yearbook 2011


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Europe in figures.

Source: European Comission.

Date: 2011.

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Eurostat Yearbook 2011

  1. 1. ISSN 1681-4789 Statistical booksEurope in figuresEurostat yearbook 2011
  2. 2. Statistical booksEurope in figuresEurostat yearbook 2011
  3. 3. Europe Direct is a service to help you find answers to your questions about the European Union. Freephone number (*): 00 800 6 7 8 9 10 11 (*) Certain mobile telephone operators do not allow access to 00 800 numbers or these calls may be billed.More information on the European Union is available on the Internet ( data can be found at the end of this publication.Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union, 2011ISBN 978-92-79-18414-7ISSN 1681-4789doi:10.2785/12017Cat. No KS-CD-11-001-EN-CTheme: General and regional statisticsCollection: Statistical books© European Union, 2011Reproduction of content other than photos is authorized, provided the source is acknowledged.Copyright for the photos: foreword photo: © European Union; chapters 3, 4, 7 and 10: © Phovoir; all other photos(including cover): © ShutterstockReproduction of photos is allowed for non-commercial purposes and within the sole context of this publication.Printed in BelgiumPrinted on elemental chlorine-free bleached PaPer (ECF)
  4. 4. ForewordOur yearbook Europe in figures provides you witha selection of the most important and interestingstatistics on Europe. Drawing from the huge amountof data available at Eurostat, we aim to give an insightinto the European economy, society and environment- for example, how the population of the EuropeanUnion is changing, how the economy is performingin comparison with the USA or Japan, or how livingconditions vary between Member States. I hope thatyou will find information of interest both for yourwork and for your daily life.In 2011, for the first time, you can find the content ofthis book updated online in Statistics Explained. Asusual, the latest and most complete versions of all thedata can be downloaded from the Eurostat website.Eurostat is the statistical office of the European Union. Working together with nationalstatistical authorities in the European Statistical System, we produce official statisticswhich meet the highest possible standards of quality.I wish you an enjoyable reading experience!Walter RadermacherDirector-General, Eurostat – Chief Statistician of the European Union
  5. 5. AbstractEurope in figures – Eurostat yearbook 2011 – presents a comprehensive selection of statistical data onEurope. The yearbook may be viewed as an introduction to European statistics and provides guidanceto the vast range of data freely available from the Eurostat website at: data cover the period 1999-2009 for the European Union and some indicators are providedfor other countries, such as members of EFTA, candidate countries to the European Union, Japanor the United States (subject to availability). With more than 420 statistical tables, figures andmaps, the yearbook treats the following areas: economy and finance; population; health; educa-tion and training; the labour market; living conditions and social protection; industry, tradeand services; agriculture, forestry and fisheries; international trade; transport; the environment;energy; and science and technology.Editor-in-chiefJukka PiirtoEurostat, Unit D4 - DisseminationEditorsAnnika Johansson, Veronika LangEurostat, Unit D4 - DisseminationContact detailsEurostatBâtiment Joseph Bech5, rue Alphonse Weicker2721 LuxembourgE-mail: estat-user-support@ec.europa.euProductionThis publication was produced by Informa sàrlFor more information please consultInternet: extractedSeptember to December 2010 (unless otherwise noted)
  6. 6. AcknowledgementsAcknowledgementsThe editor-in-chief and the editorial team of the Eurostat yearbook would like to thankall those who were involved in its preparation. The yearbook could only be publishedthanks to the support of the following colleagues:Eurostat, the statistical office of the European UnionDirectorate C: National and European accountsC2 National accounts – production: Daniela Comini, Christine Gerstberger, Andreas Krüger, Olaf NowakC3 Statistics for excessive deficit procedure I: Rasa JurkonienėC4 Statistics for excessive deficit procedure II: John VerrinderC5 Government and sector accounts; financial indicators: Isabel Gancedo Vallina, Boryana Milusheva, Peter Parlasca, Irena Tvarijonavičiūtė, Laura Wahrig, Ismael Ahamdanech ZarcoDirectorate D: External cooperation, communication and key indicatorsD4 Dissemination: Marc Debusschere, Isabelle Fiasse, Diana Ivan, Ulrich WielandD5 Key indicators for European policies: Viktoria Bolla, Rosa Ruggeri Cannata, Graham Lock, Iliyana Savova, Vincent TronetDirectorate E: Sectoral and regional statisticsE1 Farms, agro-environment and rural development: Ludivine Baudouin, Catherine Coyette, Carla Martins, Anne Miek KremerE2 Agriculture and fisheries: Marco Artico, Steffie Bos, Fausto Cardoso, Giovanni Dore, Matthew Elliott, Henri-François Fank, Annabelle Jansen, Jean-Claude Jeanty, Werner Kerschenbauer, Garry Mahon, Pol Marquer, Angelo Milella, Iulia Pop, Henri Risch, Herta Schenk, Sorina Carmen Vâju, Franco ZampognaE3 Environmental and forestry statistics: David Duquesnes, Manon Elsen, Jürgen Förster, Christian Freudenberger, Christian Heidorn, Jean Klein, Csaba Mózes, Hartmut Schrör, Marilise Wolf-CrowtherE5 Energy: Antigone Gikas, John GörtenE6 Transport: Luciano De Angelis, Jonas NorelandE7 Environmental accounts and climate change: Velina Pendolovska, Cristina Popescu, Stela Stamatova Europe in figures — Eurostat yearbook 2011 3
  7. 7. Acknowledgements Directorate F: Social and information society statistics F1 Population: Monica Marcu, Fabio Sartori F2 Labour market: Verónica Álvarez González, Luis Biedma, Simone Casali, Beate Czech, Arturo de la Fuente Nuño, Sabine Gagel, Daniele Giovannola, Hannah Kiiver, Ingo Kuhnert, Hubertus Vreeswijk F3 Living conditions and social protection: Petrica Badea, Paulina Hojny, Anna Rybkowska F4 Education, science and culture: Ilcho Bechev, Marta Beck-Domżalska, Sadiq Kwesi Boateng, Silvia Crintea, Bernard Felix, Dominique Groenez, Ángeles Hermosa- López, Sylvain Jouhette, Lene Mejer, Sergiu Pârvan, Reni Petkova, Fernando Reis, Veijo Ritola, Paolo Turchetti F5 Health and food safety; crime: Hartmut Buchow, Marta Carvalhido da Silva, Elodie Cayotte, Albane Gourdol, Dorota Kawiorska, Bart De Norre, Jean-Marc Pascal Schaefer, Cynthia Tavares, Geoffrey Thomas F6 Information society; tourism: Christophe Demunter, Chryssanthi Dimitrakopoulou, Konstantinos Giannakouris, Anna Lööf, Peter Pospíšil, Petronela Reinecke, Heidi Seybert, Maria Smihily, Albrecht Wirthmann Directorate G: Business statistics G2 Structural business statistics: Aleksandra Stawińska, Brian Williams G3 Short-term statistics: Ulrich Eidmann G4 International transactions: Luis Antonio de la Fuente, Gilberto Gambini, Franca Faes-Cannito G6 Price statistics; purchasing power parities: Jarko Pasanen, Tatiana Mrlianová, Paul Konijn, Lars Svennebye European Free Trade Association (EFTA) Directorate-General for Translation of the European Commission Publications Office of the European Union4 Europe in figures — Eurostat yearbook 2011
  8. 8. ContentsContentsIntroduction 9The Eurostat yearbook 9Eurostat – the statistical office of the European Union 11A practical guide to accessing European statistics 13Linking statistics to European policies 181. Economy and finance 331.1 National accounts – GDP 341.2 Government finances 601.3 Exchange rates and interest rates 731.4 Consumer prices - inflation and comparative price levels 801.5 Balance of payments - current account 871.6 Foreign direct investment 952. Population 1092.1 European population compared with world population 1102.2 Population structure and ageing 1152.3 Population and population change 1232.4 Marriage and divorce 1292.5 Fertility 1352.6 Mortality and life expectancy 1382.7 Migration and migrant population 1443. Health 1593.1 Healthy life years 1603.2 Causes of death 1643.3 Healthcare 1733.4 Health and safety at work 1874. Education and training 1934.1 School enrolment and levels of education 1954.2 Foreign language learning 2044.3 Educational expenditure 2084.4 Tertiary education 2124.5 Lifelong learning 219 Europe in figures — Eurostat yearbook 2011 5
  9. 9. Contents 5. Labour market 227 5.1 Employment 228 5.2 Unemployment 242 5.3 Wages and labour costs 250 5.4 Job vacancies 260 5.5 Labour market policy interventions 263 6. Living conditions and social protection 269 6.1 Living conditions 270 6.2 Housing 280 6.3 Social protection 286 6.4 Crime 293 7. Industry, trade and services 301 7.1 Structural business statistics 302 7.2 Industrial production 325 7.3 Industry and construction 328 7.4 Services 336 7.5 Tourism 342 7.6 Information society 353 7.7 Telecommunications 365 8. Agriculture, forestry and fisheries 373 8.1 Agricultural output, price indices and income 374 8.2 Farm structure 381 8.3 Agricultural products 389 8.4 Agriculture and the environment 397 8.5 Forestry 402 8.6 Fisheries 407 9. International trade 415 9.1 International trade in goods 419 9.2 International trade in services 433 10. Transport 443 10.1 Transport accidents 445 10.2 Passenger transport 450 10.3 Freight transport 4606 Europe in figures — Eurostat yearbook 2011
  10. 10. Contents11. Environment 47111.1 Air emissions accounts 47311.2 Waste 48011.3 Water 49011.4 Material flow accounts 50011.5 Chemicals management 50711.6 Environmental protection expenditure 51211.7 Environmental taxes 52211.8 Biodiversity 53012. Energy 53512.1 Energy production and imports 53712.2 Consumption of energy 54612.3 Electricity production 55412.4 Renewable energy 55912.5 Energy prices 56613. Science and technology 57113.1 R & D expenditure 57313.2 R & D personnel 58113.3 Innovation 59013.4 Patents 595Annexes 601NUTS (classification of territorial units for statistics) 601NACE Rev. 1.1 (classification of economic activities in the European Community) 606NACE Rev. 2 (classification of economic activities in the European Community) 606SITC Rev. 4 (standard international trade classification) 607ISCED (international standard classification of education) 607Statistical symbols, abbreviations and acronyms 608Glossary 614Subject index 683A selection of Eurostat publications 691 Europe in figures — Eurostat yearbook 2011 7
  11. 11. IntroductionIntroductionThe Eurostat yearbookEurope in figures – Eurostat yearbook list of statistical symbols, abbreviations2011 provides users of official statistics and acronyms, and a subject index.with an overview of the wealth of in-formation that is available on Eurostat’s Files on the Eurostat websitewebsite and within its online databases. It The Eurostat website has a dedicated sec-belongs to a set of general compendium tion for the yearbook, which contains thepublications and, of these, it provides the PDF version of the publication as well asmost extensive set of analyses and de- all tables and graphs in MS Excel format.tailed data. Europe in figures has been The PDF version of the publication allowsconceived as a publication that provides direct access through a set of hyper-linksa balanced set of indicators, with a broad to all of the data tables and databases thatcross-section of information. were used in the production of this publica- tion, see: of the publication por t a l /page/por t a l /publ ic at ions/Europe in figures is divided into an in- eurostat_yearbook_2011.troduction, 13 main chapters and a set ofannexes. The main chapters contain data Data extraction, coverage andand / or background information relat- presentationing to a very wide range of Eurostat data.Each subchapter starts with a commen- The statistical data presented in the year-tary on the main findings, some details book were extracted between Septemberregarding data sources, followed by back- and December 2010 and represent dataground information and policy relevance. availability at that time. The accompany- ing text was drafted between October andThe core of each subchapter is a set of ta- December 2010.bles and graphs that have been selected toshow the wide variety of data available for Due to its complex nature, data collec-that particular topic; often these include tion, data processing and the subsequentinformation on how important bench- release of information either online or inmark indicators have developed during publications often means that a signifi-recent years within the European Union cant amount of time may elapse between(EU), the euro area (EA) and the Member the collection of data and its publicationStates. Users will find a great deal more / release; this can vary from a few weeksinformation when consulting the Eurostat in the case of short-term monthly indi-website, which contains subject-specific cators to several years for complex, ad-publications and online databases. The hoc surveys. There is a release calendar,publication closes with a set of annexes which provides details of the schedulethat contain details of classifications, a for releasing euro-indicators (a collec- Europe in figures — Eurostat yearbook 2011 9
  12. 12. Introduction tion of the most important monthly only had 25 Member States since early and quarterly indicators), available at: 2004 and has only had 27 Member States since the start of 2007, the time-series for page/portal/release_calendars/news_ EU-27 refer to a sum or an average for all releases. For other data sets, the metadata 27 countries for the whole of the period provided on the Eurostat website gives presented, as if all 27 Member States had information relating to the frequency of been part of the EU in earlier periods. surveys and the time that may elapse be- In a similar vein, the data for the euro fore data is published / released. area are consistently presented for the 16 members (as of December 2010), despite The Eurostat website is constantly being the later accessions of Greece, Slovenia, updated, therefore it is likely that fresher Cyprus and Malta, and Slovakia to the data will have become available since the euro area. At the time of writing (late data was extracted for the production of 2010), Estonia had yet to join the euro this publication. It is possible to access area. As the data for this publication had the latest version of each data set through already been extracted and the accompa- hyper-links that are provided as part of nying text had already been drafted be- the source under each table and graph in fore the accession of Estonia to the euro the PDF version of the publication. area (1 January 2011), Estonia is excluded This publication usually presents infor- from the euro area aggregates presented. mation for the EU-27 (the 27 Member Unless otherwise stated, the data for the States of the EU), the euro area (based euro area covers the 16 Member States on 16 members), as well as the individual that shared the euro as a common cur- Member States. The order of the Mem- rency as of December 2010 (Belgium, ber States used in the yearbook generally Germany, Greece, Spain, France, Ireland, follows their order of protocol; in other Italy, Cyprus, Luxembourg, Malta, the words, the alphabetical order of the coun- Netherlands, Austria, Portugal, Slovenia, tries’ names in their respective original Slovakia and Finland). languages; in some figures the data are When available, information is also pre- ranked according to the values of a par- sented for EFTA countries (including ticular indicator. Iceland that is also a candidate country) The EU-27 and euro area (EA-16) aggre- and the candidate countries of Croatia, gates are normally only provided when the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedo- information for all of the countries is nia (1) and Turkey, as well as for Japan and available, or if an estimate has been made the United States. Note Montenegro also for missing information. Any partial to- became a candidate country in mid-De- tals that are created are systematically cember 2010 (but has not been included footnoted. Time-series for these geo- in this edition). In the event that data for graphical aggregates are based on a con- any of these non-member countries does sistent set of countries for the whole of not exist, then these have been excluded the time period (unless otherwise indi- from tables and graphs; however, the full cated). In other words, although the EU set of 27 Member States is maintained (1) The name of the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia is shown in tables as FYR of Macedonia – this does not prejudge in any way the definitive nomenclature for this country, which is to be agreed following the conclusion of negotiations currently taking place on this subject at the United Nations.10 Europe in figures — Eurostat yearbook 2011
  13. 13. Introductionin tables, with footnotes being added in omitted when constructing the tables andgraphs for those Member States for which graphs. The following symbols are used,information is missing. where necessary:In the event that a reference year is not Italic value is a forecast, provisional oravailable for a particular country, then an estimate and is therefore likelyefforts have been made to fill tables and to changegraphs with previous reference years : not available, confidential or un-(these exceptions are footnoted); gener- reliable valueally, an effort has been made to go backtwo reference periods. – not applicable or zero by defaultEurostat online databases contain a large 0 less than half the final digit shownamount of metadata that provides infor- and greater than real zeromation on the status of particular val- Breaks in series are indicated in theues or data series. In order to improve footnotes provided under each table andreadability, the majority of this has been graph.Eurostat – the statistical office of the European UnionEurostat is the statistical office of the • Sectoral and regional statistics;European Union, situated in Luxem- • Social and information society statis-bourg. Its task is to provide the EU with tics;statistics at a European level that enable • Business statistics.comparisons between countries and re-gions. Eurostat’s mission is ‘to provide In 2011, Eurostat had around 900 posts;the European Union with a high-quality of these some 75 % were civil servants orstatistical information service’. temporary agents, while contract agents and seconded national experts representedAs one of the Directorate-Generals of the 20 % of the staff, leaving 5 % with otherEuropean Commission, Eurostat is head- types of contract. Eurostat’s executeded by a Director-General. Under him are budget was EUR 79 million in 2010 (exclu-seven Directors responsible for different ding costs of statutory staff and adminis-areas of activity (Directorates as of De-cember 2010): trative expenses) of which EUR 51 million was used for the implementation of the• Cooperation in the European statisti- Community statistical programme 2008- cal system; resources; 2012, almost EUR 7 million was used for• Quality, methodology and informa- the implementation of the modernisation tion systems; of European enterprise and trade statis-• National and European accounts; tics (MEETS), while EUR 21 million was• External cooperation, communica- sub-delegated to Eurostat by other Direc- tion and key indicators; torates-General. Europe in figures — Eurostat yearbook 2011 11
  14. 14. Introduction Since the creation of a European statisti- institutes of EEA-EFTA countries partici- cal body in 1952, there has always been pate as observers, as may representatives a realisation that the planning and im- of other European / international bodies, plementation of European policies must for example, the ECB or the OECD. be based on reliable and comparable sta- To meet the challenges associated with tistics. As a result, the European statisti- the adoption of the Regulation, Eurostat cal system (ESS) was built-up gradually aims: to provide comparable statistics for the EU. For this purpose, Eurostat does not • to provide other European institu- work alone, as the ESS comprises Euro- tions and the governments of the stat and the statistical offices, ministries, Member States with the information agencies and central banks that collect needed to implement, monitor and official statistics in the Member States. evaluate Community policies; • to disseminate statistics to the Euro- Regulation (EC) No 223/2009 (2) of the pean public and enterprises and to all European Parliament and of the Council economic and social agents involved of 11 March 2009 on European statistics in decision-making; established a new legal framework for • to implement a set of standards, the development, production and dis- methods and organisational struc- semination of European statistics. The tures which allow comparable, reli- Regulation states that European statis- able and relevant statistics to be pro- tics shall be developed in conformity duced throughout the Community, with the statistical principles set out in in line with the principles of the Eu- Article 285(2) of the Amsterdam Treaty, ropean statistics code of practice; namely, that: ‘the production of Com- • to improve the functioning of Europe- munity statistics shall conform to impar- an statistical system (ESS), to support tiality, reliability, objectivity, scientific the Member States, and to assist in the independence, cost-effectiveness and sta- development of statistical systems on tistical confidentiality; it shall not entail international level. excessive burdens on economic opera- tors’. Eurostat and its partners in the ESS aim to provide high-quality, impartial, reliable Article 7 of the Regulation establishes and comparable statistical data. Indeed, the European statistical system commit- access to reliable and high-quality statistics tee (ESSC), which is at the heart of the and Eurostat’s obligation for trustworthi- ESS, stating the Committee ‘shall pro- ness is enshrined in law. European statistics vide professional guidance to the ESS for should be provided to all types of users on developing, producing and disseminating the basis of equal opportunities, such that European statistics’. The ESSC is chaired public administrations, researchers, trade by the European Commission (Eurostat) unions, students, businesses and political and composed of representatives from parties, among others, can access data the national statistical institutes of the freely and easily. Access to the most recent Member States. The national statistical statistics, as well as an expanding archive (2) For more information: Europe in figures — Eurostat yearbook 2011
  15. 15. Introductionof information, is guaranteed through free plementation of the European statisticsaccess to Eurostat databases on its website. code of practice, the European statistical governance advisory board (ESGAB) wasThe data collected, harmonised and re- set up; it is composed of seven independ-ported upon by Eurostat have been agreed ent members and met for the first time inthrough a well-defined political process at March 2009.the European level in which the MemberStates are deeply involved. Most surveys The European statistical advisory com-and data collection exercises are based on mittee (ESAC) is composed of 24 mem-European regulations or directives that bers representing users, respondents andare legally binding. In order to be able to other stakeholders of European statisticsproduce comparable statistics between (including the scientific community, so-countries there needs to be a common cial partners and civil society), as well‘statistical language’. This language has to as institutional users (the Europeanembrace concepts, methods and defini- Council and the European Parliament).tions, as well as technical standards and This committee is entrusted with en-infrastructures, often referred to by stat- suring that user requirements as wellisticians as harmonisation. Indeed, this is as the response burden on informationone of Eurostat’s key roles – leading and providers and producers are taken intoorganising this standardisation process. account when developing statistical pro- grammes.In order to provide a guarantee of theprofessional independence of the im-A practical guide to accessing European statisticsThe simplest way of accessing Euro- Registration is free of charge and allowsstat’s broad range of statistical infor- access to:mation is through the Eurostat website( Eurostat • tailor-made e-mail alerts providingprovides users with free access to its da- information on new publications ortabases and all of its publications in PDF statistics as soon as they are online;format via the Internet. The website is up- • enhanced functionalities of the da-dated twice per day and gives access to the tabases (for example, user are ablelatest and most comprehensive statistical to save data queries and make bulkinformation available on the EU, its Mem- downloads).ber States, EFTA countries, and candidate The information on Eurostat’s websitecountries. under the heading of ‘Statistics’ is struc-For full access to all of the services avail- tured according to a set of ‘themes’, whichable through Eurostat’s website, it is rec- may be accessed from the ‘Statistics’ tabommended that users should take a few that is consistently present near the top ofminutes to register from the homepage. each webpage; it provides links to: Europe in figures — Eurostat yearbook 2011 13
  16. 16. Introduction • EU policy indicators (see the end of Database by themes which contains this introduction for more details); the full range of public data available • general and regional statistics; on the Eurostat website. These data are • economy and finance; presented in multi-dimensional tables • population and social conditions; with selection features that allow tailor- • industry, trade and services; made presentations and extractions. The • agriculture and fisheries; interface for databases is called the Data • external trade; Explorer (icon ) and this provides an • transport; intuitive way to select and organise infor- • environment and energy; mation. Data can be downloaded (icon ) • science and technology. from the Data Explorer in various for- For each of these themes, the user is pre- mats (XLS, TXT, HTML, PC AXIS, SPSS sented with a range of different sub-topics and TSV). – for example, within the population and Tables by themes which offers a selection social conditions theme there are sub-top- of the most important Eurostat data in a ics for: population; health; education and user-friendly way. All data are presented training; the labour market; income, social inclusion and living conditions; social pro- in simple two- or three-dimensional ta- tection; household budget surveys; crime bles, generally with European aggregates and criminal justice; and culture. These and data for the Member States on the sub-topics are presented as hyper-links y-axis and time on the x-axis. Tables can that take the user to a dedicated section be viewed using an interface called TGM on the subject, with information generally – tables, graphs and maps (icon ) – presented for data (main tables and data- where data can be visualised as graphs or bases), publications, legislation, methodol- maps in addition to a standard, tabular ogy and other background information. presentation. Data can be downloaded (icon ) from TGM in various formats Access to data (XLS, HTML, XML and TSV). Tables on EU policy which also provide ac- Data navigation tree cess to pre-defined tables; these have par- The majority of Eurostat’s statistics may ticular relevance for tracking the progress be accessed from the data navigation being made by the EU as a whole and by tree, at: the Member States in relation to some of portal/page/portal/statistics/search_ the most important policy areas. This sec- database; alternatively, there is an icon at tion of the website covers indicators in re- the right-hand end of the top menu bar lation to short-term indicators, structural on each webpage that can be used to indicators, sustainable development indi- switch to the data navigation tree. cators, globalisation indicators, employ- The data navigation tree is based on the ment and social policy indicators, and EU statistical themes presented above and is 2020 indicators. The tools for viewing and collapsible and expandable. It has three extracting data are the same as those de- main branches: scribed above for tables by themes.14 Europe in figures — Eurostat yearbook 2011
  17. 17. IntroductionThe data navigation tree also has two spe- links users are taken to product page(s) (4),cial branches, where new items or recently which provide some background informa-updated items (from all databases and ta- tion about each dataset / publication or setbles) can be displayed according to a set of of metadata. For example, it is possible touser preferences (criteria set by the user). move directly to the data from the data product page by clicking the TGM or DataEurostat online data code(s) – Explorer icons presented under the ‘Vieweasy access to the freshest data table’ sub-heading.Eurostat online data codes, such as Note that the data on the Eurostat’s web-tps00001 and nama_gdp_c (3), allow the site is frequently updated.reader to easily access the most recent data Note also that the description aboveon Eurostat’s website. In this yearbook presents the situation as of Decemberthese online data codes are given as part ofthe source below each table and figure. 2010.In the PDF version of this publication, Policy indicatorsthe reader is led directly to the fresh- Aside from the main tables and databases,est data when clicking on the hyper- there exists a group of policy indicatorslinks for Eurostat online data codes. that may be accessed from the ‘Statistics’Readers of the paper version can ac-cess the freshest data by typing a stand- tab, covering:ardised hyper-link into a web browser, • Europe 2020 indicators; • euro-indicators / Principal Europeancode=<data_code>&mode=view, where Economic Indicators (PEEIs);<data_code> is to be replaced by the on- • sustainable development indicators;line data code in question. The data is • employment, social policy and equal-presented either in the TGM or the Data ity indicators;Explorer interface. • globalisation indicators.Online data codes can also be fed into the More details on each of these are provid-‘Search’ function on Eurostat’s website, ed at the end of this introduction.which is found in the upper-right corner ofthe Eurostat homepage, at http://ec.europa. Statistics Explainedeu/eurostat. Statistics Explained is part of the Eurostat website – it provides easy access to Eurostat’s statistical information. It can be accessed via a link on the right-The results from such a search present re- hand side of Eurostat’s homepage, or di-lated dataset(s) and possibly publication(s) rectly at: metadata. By clicking on these hyper- statistics_explained.(3) There are two types of online data codes: • Tables (accessed using the TGM interface) have 8-character codes, which consist of 3 or 5 letters – the first of which is ‘t’ – followed by 5 or 3 digits, e.g. tps00001 and tsdph220. • Databases (accessed using the Data Explorer interface) have codes that use an underscore ‘_’ within the syntax of the code, e.g. nama_gdp_c and proj_10c2150p.(4) The product page can also be accessed by using a hyper-link, for example, <data_code>, where <data_code> is to be replaced by the online data code in question. Europe in figures — Eurostat yearbook 2011 15
  18. 18. Introduction Statistics Explained is a wiki-based sys- Publications tem, with an approach somewhat simi- Eurostat produces a variety of publi- lar to Wikipedia, that presents statisti- cations, which all are available on the cal topics in an easy to understand way. Eurostat website in PDF format, free of Together, the articles make up an ency- clopaedia of European statistics, which charge. As with the ‘Statistics’ tab that is completed by a statistical glossary is available at all times for accessing that clarifies the terms used. In addi- data, there is a ‘Publications’ tab that is tion, there are numerous links provided always accessible near the top of each to the latest data and metadata, as well webpage for accessing material in PDF as further information, making Statis- format. tics Explained a portal for regular and There are a variety of different types of occasional users alike. publication, ranging from news releases In December 2010, Statistics Explained to more in-depth analyses in the form of contained more than 1 000 articles and statistical books. glossary items; its content and user- Eurostat’s publications programme con- friendliness will be expanded regularly. sists of several collections: Users may find articles using a set of navigational features in the left-hand News releases provide recent informa- menu; on the top-right menu bar of Sta- tion on the euro-indicators and on social, tistics Explained it is possible to find op- economic, regional, agricultural or envi- tions that make it possible, among oth- ronmental topics; ers, to print, forward, cite, blog or share Statistical books are larger publications content easily. with statistical analysis and data; Statistics Explained is not only a tool for Pocketbooks are free-of-charge publica- presenting statistical analyses, it can also tions aiming to give users a set of basic be used to produce analyses. The Eurostat figures on a specific topic; Yearbook was created using Statistics Ex- plained as a common platform, such that Statistics in focus are short publications its content could already be consulted in providing the most recent statistical data Statistics Explained some time before it and complementary statistical analysis; was published on paper. Methodologies & Working papers are technical publications for statistical ex- Country profiles interface perts working in a particular field; The country profiles interface offers Compact guides are leaflets offering basic the possibility to visualise major statis- figures and guidance on how to obtain more tical indicators, of different countries information from the Eurostat website. and / or EU aggregates, in a user-friendly map-based presentation. The interface Some Eurostat publications, including this can be accessed via the following link: publication in English, are also printed; these can be ordered from the website of the EU bookshop ( Europe in figures — Eurostat yearbook 2011
  19. 19. IntroductionThere it is also possible to download Eu- whenever possible, be addressed to therostat publications in PDF format, free- relevant language support centre. Theof-charge, as on the Eurostat website. mission of each centre is to provide freeThe bookshop is managed by the Pub- of charge additional help and guidance tolications Office of the European Union users who are having difficulty in finding( the statistical data they require. The list and addresses of all support centres canReference metadata be reached via the User support-TAB on Eurostat’s homepage.The ESMS (Euro SDMX Metadata Struc-ture) is a format based on the Statistical Specific requests can be addressed toData and Metadata eXchange (SDMX) this network, via the Eurostat website at:Content Oriented Guidelines, which were in January 2009 by seven inter- page/portal/help/user_support (requiresnational organisations at a worldwide a user log-in).level. The ESMS uses a subset of 21 crossdomain concepts (plus sub-concepts) and Eurostat’s service for journalistsis the new standard for reference metada-ta in the ESS. It puts emphasis on quality- Statistics make news and they are es-related information (containing concepts sential to many stories, featuressuch as accuracy, comparability, coher- and in-depth analyses. Printed me-ence and timeliness). dia, as well as radio and TV, use Eu- rostat data intensively. Eurostat’sReference metadata may be accessed ei- press office puts out user-friendlyther from the heading ‘Metadata’ which news releases on a key selection of dataappears in the left-hand menu after select- covering the EU, the euro area, theing the ‘Statistics’ tab, or directly from the Member States and their partners. Alldata navigation tree, where the following Eurostat news releases are available freeicon is used to signify its availability. of charge on the Eurostat website at 11 a.m. (C.E.T.) on the day they are released.User support Just over 200 news releases were pub-Eurostat and the other members of the lished in 2010, of which approximatelyESS have set up a system of user support three quarters were based on monthly orcentres – European Statistical Data Sup- quarterly euro-indicators; other releasesport (ESDS). These exist for nearly all of covered major international events andthe EU’s official languages, as well as for important Eurostat publications.the EFTA and candidate countries; there Eurostat’s press centre helps professionalare also plans to extend the user support journalists find data on all kinds of topics.service to cover those languages spoken Journalists can contact media support forin the Western Balkans. further information on news releases andIn order to offer the best possible and other data (tel. (352) 4301-33408; e-mail:personalised support, requests should, Europe in figures — Eurostat yearbook 2011 17
  20. 20. Introduction Linking statistics to European policies Effective economic and political decision- • the Europe 2020 strategy (2010), the making depends on the regular supply of successor to the Lisbon strategy. reliable information. Statistics are one of Economic and monetary union and the the principle sources of such information, setting-up of the European Central Bank providing quantitative support to the de- (ECB) required a broad range of infra- velopment and implementation of poli- annual short-term statistics to measure cies. Statistics are also a powerful tool for economic and monetary developments communicating with the general public. within the euro area and to assist in Information needs for policy purposes re- the implementation of a common mon- quire constant interaction between poli- etary policy. Effective monetary policy cymakers and statisticians: the former depends on timely, reliable and com- formulate their needs for data, and the prehensive economic statistics giving latter attempt to adapt the statistical pro- an overview of the economic situation. duction system so as to fulfil those needs. Such data are also needed for the assess- In this fashion, new policies lead to im- ment of the business cycle. provements in statistical production, both in terms of enhancing the quality of exist- Europeans place a high value on their ing indicators and of creating new ones. quality of life, including aspects such as a clean environment, social protection, Whereas politicians ask for highly ag- prosperity and equity. In recent years gregated indicators which provide a syn- the European Council has focused thetic and clear picture of the different on a number of key areas intended to phenomena they are interested in, stat- shape the future social, economic and isticians tend to deal with detailed data. environmental development of the EU. Statisticians therefore have to filter and While Europe 2020 is the EU’s strate- aggregate basic data in order to increase gy for smart, sustainable and inclusive data readability and extract signals (in growth for the next decade, the sustain- other words indicators). able development strategy is concerned Over recent years, a number of policies with improving the quality of life and have substantially influenced Eurostat’s well-being, both for current and future priorities and activities: generations, through seeking a balance between economic development, social • economic and monetary union cohesion and protection of the environ- (EMU) and the creation of the euro ment. area (1999); • the Lisbon strategy (2000, revised in Eurostat has responded to politicians 2005), including the open method of needs in these areas by developing five coordination on social inclusion and sets of ‘EU policy indicators’ that may social protection; be accessed through dedicated sections • the EU’s sustainable development on the Eurostat website either directly strategy, EU SDS (2001, renewed in from the homepage or from the ‘Statis- 2006); tics’ tab that appears near the top of every18 Europe in figures — Eurostat yearbook 2011
  21. 21. Introductionwebpage. These five sets of data may be method of coordination on socialsummarised as: inclusion and social protection, the education and training programme,• Europe 2020 indicators, which are i2010 (the European information soci- the headline indicators for the Eu- ety for growth and employment) and rope 2020 strategy. This strategy has (gender) equality. Employment, so- five EU headline targets which are cial policy and equality indicators are currently measured by eight head- available on the Eurostat website at: line indicators. Europe 2020 indi- cators are available on the Eurostat p o r t a l / p a g e / p o r t a l / website at: employ ment _ s o c i a l _ p ol ic y_ e u r o p a . e u /p o r t a l /p a g e /p o r t a l / equality/introduction. europe_2020_indicators/ • globalisation indicators comprise a headline_indicators. portfolio of 25 indicators, grouped• euro-indicators, of which the into five categories, that measure Principal European Economic In- different aspects of globalisation. dicators (PEEIs) are the core, for The main focus is to show the EU’s monetary policy purposes; this is relations with the rest of the world a collection of monthly and quar- and, wherever possible, the situa- terly data, useful to evaluate the tion within the EU to allow both the economic situation within the euro extent of internal EU integration area and the EU. Euro-indicators and the extent of its globalisation are available on the Eurostat web- to be grasped. Globalisation indi- site at: cators are available on the Eurostat euroindicators. website at:• sustainable development indica- tors, for the EU’s sustainable de- portal/globalisation/indicators. velopment strategy extend across a wide range of issues affecting the Europe 2020 indicators quality of life, in particular look- The Europe 2020 strategy is the EU’s new ing at ways to reconcile economic strategy to develop as a smarter, knowl- development, social cohesion and edge based, greener economy, delivering the protection of the environment. high levels of employment, productivity Sustainable development indicators and social cohesion; it is the successor to are available on the Eurostat web- the Lisbon strategy. site at: sustainabledevelopment. In March 2010 the European Council• employment, social policy and agreed on the key areas of the strat- equality indicators, for monitor- egy where action is needed: knowledge ing and reporting in relation to em- and innovation, a more sustainable ployment, social policy and equality. economy, high employment and social These indicators are designed to ad- inclusion. The Council also agreed on dress a range of different issues, such ambitious objectives – on employment, as employment guidelines, the open innovation, education, social inclusion Europe in figures — Eurostat yearbook 2011 19
  22. 22. Introduction and climate / energy – to be reached by Poverty / social exclusion: 2020. To measure progress in meeting • at least 20 million people should be these objectives five headline targets lifted from being in or at risk of pov- have been agreed for the whole EU – erty or social exclusion. this limited set of targets is being trans- lated into national targets for each EU The targets cover the main areas where country, reflecting the specific situa- efforts are rapidly needed. The statistical tion of each economy. data collected will help to measure the Statistics are an integral part of the Eu- progress achieved in implementing the rope 2020 strategy. The headline indica- strategy for the EU to become a smart, tors measure the progress made by the EU sustainable and inclusive economy. As and the Member States towards achieving part of the process, Member States draw the headline targets of the strategy. up national reform programmes which set out in detail the actions they will take Employment: under the new strategy, with a particular emphasis on efforts to meet their national • 75 % of the population aged 20-64 targets. The European Council will assess should be employed. every year the overall progress achieved R&D / innovation: both at an EU and at a national level in • 3 % of the EU’s GDP (public and pri- implementing the strategy. vate combined) should be invested in R & D. Euro-indicators / PEEIs Climate change / energy: Since October 2001 the euro-indicators / PEEIs web pages have been a reference • greenhouse gas emissions should be point for all users of official statistics deal- reduced by at least 20 % compared to ing with short-term data. They were ini- 1990; tially conceived as an independent web- • the share of renewable energy sources site, available in parallel to the Eurostat in final energy consumption should increase to 20 %; website; however, since October 2004, they • there should be a 20 % increase in en- have been integrated with the remaining ergy efficiency. content. It is possible to access euro-in- dicators / PEEIs data from the ‘Statistics’ Education: tab visible in the menu near the top of the • the share of early school leavers from screen on each webpage, or directly via education and training should be un- the euro-indicators / PEEIs dedicated sec- der 10 %; tion at: • at least 40 % of 30-34–year-olds indicators. It is also possible to e-mail the should have completed tertiary (or euro-indicators / PEEIs team at: ESTAT- equivalent) education. Europe in figures — Eurostat yearbook 2011
  23. 23. IntroductionEuro-indicators / PEEIs aim to supply Databusiness-cycle analysts, policymak- The data presented in euro-indicators /ers, media, researchers, students, and PEEIs are built around a set of the mostother interested users with a compre- relevant statistics, called Principal Euro-hensive, well structured and high qual- pean Economic Indicators (PEEIs), a list ofity set of information which is usefulfor their daily activities. The core of which can be found in the European Com-euro-indicators / PEEIs comprises a set mission’s Communication (2002) 661 (5).of statistical indicators giving an accu- They are presented in three main parts:rate and as timely as possible overview • a selected Principal European Eco-of the economic evolution of the euro nomic Indicators webpage (contain-area, the EU, and the individual Mem- ing a set of 22 most relevant and time-ber States. The euro-indicators / PEEIs ly short-term economic indicators fordedicated section contains the follow- the euro area and the EU) directlying additional products and services accessible on the euro-indicators /intended to assist in the understanding PEEIs homepage;and analysis of data: • short-term indicators (included as• selected Principal European Eco- the first branch of the ‘Tables on EU nomic Indicators (PEEIs); policy’ section of the data navigation• background; tree);• news releases; • European and national short-term sta-• status reports on information re- tistics database (included as the first quirements in the European mon- branch of the ‘Database by themes’ etary union (EMU); section of the data navigation tree• data; – under the heading of ‘General and• publications; regional statistics’ – as European and• information relating to seminars / national short term indicators (eu- conferences. roind).(5) For more information: Europe in figures — Eurostat yearbook 2011 21
  24. 24. Introduction Both the main tables for short-term in- Publications and working papers dicators and the Euroind database are The main publication in this domain is divided into the following eight domains: called ‘Eurostatistics’. It is a monthly • balance of payments; release that presents a synthetic picture • business and consumer surveys; of the economic situation together with • consumer prices; detailed statistical analysis of the latest • external trade; economic events for the euro area, the • industry, commerce and services; EU, and the Member States. This month- • labour market; ly review gives a synthetic picture of the • monetary and financial indicators; recent macroeconomic situation. It is • national accounts. based on PEEIs, which are complemented22 Europe in figures — Eurostat yearbook 2011
  25. 25. Introductionby some business cycle indicators. The sessment is presented in another publica-latest issue of ‘Eurostatistics’ is accessible tion, entitled the ‘Monitoring report’, ac-from the homepage of the euro-indica- cessible from the same location.tors / PEEIs dedicated section. Previousissues are also accessible – by selecting Sustainable developmentthe ‘publications’ entry in the left-hand indicatorsmenu of the euro-indicators / PEEIsdedicated section and then clicking on The EU sustainable development strat-the link to ‘Official publications’. Under egy (EU SDS), adopted by the Europeanthe same heading of ‘publications’, users Council in Gothenburg in June 2001,may also access a collection of ‘selected and renewed in June 2006, aims to con-readings’ and ‘working papers’, contain- tinuously improve quality of life, bothing both methodological and empirical for current and for future generations,studies on statistical improvements and through reconciling economic develop-analyses of European data. ment, social cohesion and protection of the environment. A set of sustainableQuality reports development indicators (SDIs) has been developed to monitor progress in the im-Since 2001, the Euroind database has been plementation of the strategy. The indica-subject to monthly quality monitoring. tors are organised under ten themes (andThe results of this assessment are present- sub-themes) that reflect different politi-ed in a detailed online publication called cal priorities (see first column of Table 2).‘State of affairs’, also accessible from the‘publications’ link in the left-hand menu In order to facilitate communication, theof the euro-indicators / PEEIs dedicated set of indicators has been built as a three-section. A synthesis of this monthly as- level pyramid. Europe in figures — Eurostat yearbook 2011 23
  26. 26. Introduction Table 1: Framework for sustainable development indicators Indicator Hierarchical framework Indicator types level Level 1 Lead objectives 11 headline indicators are at the top of the pyramid. They are intended to monitor the ‘overall objectives’ of the strategy. They are well-known indicators with a high communication value. They are robust and available for most EU Member States for a period of at least five years. Level 2 SDS priority objectives The second level of the pyramid consists of ca. 30 indicators related to the operational objectives of the strategy. They are the lead indicators in their respective subthemes. They are robust and available for most EU Member States for a period of at least three years. Level 3 Actions/explanatory The third level consists of ca. 80 indicators related to actions outlined in the variables strategy or to other issues which are useful to analyse progress towards the SDS objectives. Breakdowns of level-1 or -2 indicators are usually also found at level 3. Contextual Background Contextual indicators are part of the SDI set, but they either do not monitor indicators directly any of the strategy’s objectives or they are not policy responsive. Generally they are difficult to interpret in a normative way. However, they provide valuable background information on issues having direct relevance for sustainable development policies and are useful for the analysis. This distinction between the three levels of within some years, with sufficient qual- indicators reflects the structure of the re- ity (‘indicators under development’), and newed strategy (overall lead objectives, op- those to be developed in the longer term erational priority objectives, and actions / (‘indicators to be developed’). explanatory variables) and also responds to different kinds of user needs. The three The table below presents the situation as levels of the pyramid are complemented regards the progress made with respect with contextual indicators, which do not to the headline indicators, as presented monitor directly the strategy’s objectives, within the 2009 edition of the Eurostat’s but provide valuable background infor- monitoring report for the EU’s sustainable mation for analysis. The SDI data set also development strategy (the weather sym- describes indicators which are not yet fully bols reflect in most cases the progress to- developed but which will, in the future, be wards the EU objectives or targets between necessary to get a more complete picture of 2000 and 2007-2008). A new edition of this progress, differentiating between indica- report should be available in the summer tors that are expected to become available of 2011.24 Europe in figures — Eurostat yearbook 2011
  27. 27. IntroductionTable 2: Headline sustainable development indicators and progress being made within the EU EU-27 evaluation of SDI theme Headline indicator change (since 2000) Socioeconomic development Growth of GDP per capita Climate change and energy Greenhouse gas emissions (1) Consumption of renewables Sustainable transport Energy consumption of transport relative to GDP Sustainable consumption and production Resource productivity Natural resources Abundance of common birds (2) Conservation of fish stocks (3) Public health Healthy life years (4) Social inclusion Risk of poverty (4) Demographic changes Employment rate of older workers Global partnership Official development assistance (5) Good governance [No headline indicator] : Clearly favourable change / Moderately unfavourable change / on target path far from target path No or moderately favourable Clearly unfavourable change / change / close to target path moving away from target path(1) EU-15.(2) Based on 19 Member States.(3) In north east Atlantic.(4) EU-25, from 2005.(5) From 2005.Source: Eurostat Europe in figures — Eurostat yearbook 2011 25
  28. 28. Introduction More information regarding sustainable Most of the indicators for monitoring and development indicators may be found on analysis of the employment guidelines the Eurostat website: are provided by Eurostat. However, for eurostat/sustainabledevelopment, or by the time-being the coherent presentation contacting: There of these indicators is under development. is also a comprehensive publication For more information on the list of indi- on the subject, ‘Sustainable develop- cators as well as the EES, please refer to ment in the European Union: 2009 the Directorate-General for Employment, monitoring report of the EU Sustain- Social Affairs and Inclusion website, at: able Development Strategy’, available at: =101&langId=en. code=KS-78-09-865&mode=view. Open method of coordination on social Employment, social policy and inclusion and social protection equality indicators The Lisbon strategy also gave rise to the This collection of indicators covers vari- open method of coordination (OMC) ous aspects of employment and social that provides a framework for political policy, as well as equality issues. The in- coordination (without legal constraints) dicators are used to monitor and report in relation to social inclusion and social upon progress being made as regards EU protection issues; this framework con- policies relating to: tinues under the Europe 2020 strategy. The OMC is a flexible and decentralised • employment; method, which involves: • social inclusion and social protec- tion; • agreeing on common objectives • education and training; which set out high-level, shared goals • information society; to underpin the entire process; • gender equality. • agreeing to a set of common indica- tors which show how progress to- European Employment Strategy wards these goals can be measured; Since the launch of the European Em- • preparing national strategic reports, in ployment Strategy (EES) in 1997 indica- which Member States set out how they tors have been used for the assessment of will plan policies over an agreed period Member States’ progress on implementing to meet the common objectives; the employment guidelines that have been • evaluating these strategies jointly developed under the EES, and that are pro- through the European Commission posed by the European Commission and and the Member States. approved by the European Council. The guidelines were most recently revised in 2010 as part of the Europe 2020 strategy.26 Europe in figures — Eurostat yearbook 2011
  29. 29. IntroductionThe indicators can be accessed directly mented through the open method offrom the Eurostat website, through the coordination, using similar proceduresleft-hand menu of the dedicated section to set objectives, exchange good prac-covering employment, social policy and tices, and finally to measure progressequality indicators, that may be found that is being made. On 25 May 2007 theby clicking on the ‘Statistics’ tab near Council adopted conclusions on a coher-the top of the screen on each webpage. ent framework of 16 core indicators forThe indicators are currently divided into monitoring progress towards the Lisbonfour strands, covering: objectives in education and training. In- dicators and methodology are available• overarching indicators; on the Eurostat website as part of the• indicators of the social inclusion dedicated section covering employment, strand; social policy and equality indicators.• indicators of the pension strand;• indicators of the health and long term The programme was subsequently extend- care strand. ed to cover the period through to 2020. The long-term strategic objectives of EUCommon indicators allow a compari- education and training policies are:son of best practices to be made andalso measure progress being made to- • making lifelong learning and mobil-wards common objectives. For more ity a reality;information about the open method of • improving the quality and efficiencycoordination on social inclusion and of education and training;social protection, please refer to the • promoting equity, social cohesionDirectorate-General for Employment, and active citizenship;Social Affairs and Inclusion website, • enhancing creativity and innovation,at: including entrepreneurship, at all lev-catId=753&langId=en. els of education and training. Five new benchmark goals have alreadyEducation and training been defined for 2020, by which time:To ensure their contribution to the Lis- • an average of at least 15 % of adultsbon strategy, the ministers of education should participate in lifelong learn-from the various Member States adopted ing;in 2001 a report on the future objectives • the share of low-achieving 15-yearsof education and training systems agree- olds in reading, mathematics anding for the first time on shared objectives science should be less than 15 %;to be achieved by 2010. A year later, a • the share of 30-34 year olds with ter-ten-year work programme was endorsed tiary educational attainment should(Education and training 2010). be at least 40 %;As with the indicators above relating • the share of early leavers from educa-to social inclusion and social protec- tion and training should be less thantion, these indicators are also imple- 10 %; Europe in figures — Eurostat yearbook 2011 27
  30. 30. Introduction • at least 95 % of children between four s o c ie t y/e eu rop e/i 2 010/do c s/ years of age and the age for start- benchmarking/benchmarking_digital_ ing compulsory primary education europe_2011-2015.pdf. should participate in early childhood Annual Community surveys on ICT us- education. age in households and by individuals are For more information on these pro- a major source of information for moni- grammes, please refer to Directorate- toring many of the aims of the i2010 strat- General for Education and Culture web- egy and the Digital Agenda. The data pre- site, at: sented on Eurostat’s website as part of the lifelong-learning-policy/doc28_en.htm. dedicated section covering employment and social policy indicators and referring European Information Society for to i2010 indicators is divided into four growth and employment main themes: The penultimate heading within this sec- • developments of broadband; tion covers the information society. The • advanced services; eEurope action plan was launched under • inclusion; the Lisbon strategy and included a set of • public services. benchmarking indicators on Internet and For more information on the Digital broadband take-up, as well as the use of Agenda, please refer to the Directorate- online services. Within the context of the General for Information Society web- renewed Lisbon agenda, a strategic frame- site, at: work for a European information society society/digital-agenda/index_en.htm. for growth and employment (i2010) was launched. This in turn has been succeed- Gender equality ed in 2010 by the Digital Agenda for Eu- rope, which was launched as part of the This final heading is a recent addition, Europe 2020 Strategy. covering gender equality indicators which show the situation of men and The benchmarking framework for meas- women in the EU in a variety of different uring progress in relation to the i2010 areas, with statistics presented for educa- programme was set up and approved in tion, the labour market, earnings, social April 2006; it contained a set of core indi- inclusion, childcare and health. These in- cators and provides for flexible modules dicators help to assess the current state of on specific issues to be defined each year. gender equality which is a fundamental On 9 November 2009 a new benchmark- objective of the EU. The indicators avail- ing initiative was endorsed, providing able on the dedicated section present just the conceptual framework for the col- a selection of Eurostat’s data which may lection of statistics and the development be disaggregated according to a gender of a list of core indicators through to breakdown. The indicators selected have 2015. For more information, please re- their basis in a range of policy documents fer to: covering this area, including the strategy28 Europe in figures — Eurostat yearbook 2011
  31. 31. Introductionfor equality between women and men Complementary to this strategy, Europe’s(2010-2015), the women’s charter 2010, or concerns to fulfil its international obliga-the roadmap for equality between women tions to reduce poverty worldwide, and toand men (2006-2010). promote global sustainable development, are addressed in the EU’s sustainableEquality between women and men is only development strategy; aid, internationalone of many different types of equality trade and investment are important toolswhich are covered by EU policy measures. in this respect.The Lisbon Treaty proposes taking actionto combat discrimination based on gen- While globalisation is a challenge for theder, race or ethnic origin, religion or be- EU as well as for many countries aroundlief, disability, age and sexual orientation. the world, it is also a challenge for offi-In some of these areas, it is difficult to cial statistics. A number of internationalgauge from statistics how far equality has and European initiatives concluded thatbeen achieved, but for others information current statistical measures need to beis being developed. Eurostat therefore in- supplemented in order to better reflecttends to expand its collection of data in the changing, globalising world. Therethis area in order to cover these different is a strong policy and public demand forforms of equality as and when suitable in- official statistics to measure globalisa-dicators may be published. tion. Even though not all dimensions of globalisation can be easily quantified, itGlobalisation indicators is important that these phenomena are better understood with the help of properGlobalisation means the increasing inter- statistical measures.dependence and inter-linkages betweennations, the increasing mobility of peo- Eurostat’s globalisation indicator setple, the growing flow of products, ideasand raw materials. The process of glo- The indicators can be accessed directlybalisation, as understood here, therefore from the Eurostat website, through theinvolves social, cultural and environmen- left-hand menu of the dedicated sectiontal elements and goes beyond the issue of covering globalisation indicators, thateconomic integration which is often the may be found by clicking on the ‘Sta-focus of globalisation indicators. tistics’ tab near the top of the screen on each webpage. There is currently a port-The EU has long been aware of the op- folio of 25 indicators, split between fiveportunities created by globalisation, in different categories that measure variousaddition to the growing intensity of the aspects of globalisation. The main focuschallenges it presents. It is in this context is to show the EU’s relations with the restthat the Europe 2020 strategy, adopted by of the world and, wherever possible, thethe European Council in 2010, aims to situation within the EU to allow both theexploit over the next decade the potential extent of internal EU integration and theof globalisation to boost growth and em- extent of its globalisation to be grasped.ployment in the EU. Europe in figures — Eurostat yearbook 2011 29
  32. 32. Introduction The selected indicators make use of data is currently working on a programme to which already exist, but casting them in modernise business and trade statistics the light of globalisation and allowing and is running a project to study how to them to be seen from a new angle. The 25 best quantify non-economic elements of indicators which have been selected are globalisation. far from exhaustive, and they do not yet Globalisation indicators are available on cover all aspects of globalisation. The glo- the Eurostat website at: http://epp.eurostat. balisation indicator set may develop fur- e c . e u r o p a . e u /p o r t a l /p a g e /p o r t a l / ther in the future. For example, Eurostat globalisation/indicators.30 Europe in figures — Eurostat yearbook 2011
  33. 33. Economy and financeIndicators from various areas, such as national accounts, governmentfinance, exchange rates and interest rates, consumer prices, and thebalance of payments support analysis of the economic situation usedin the design, implementation and monitoring of European Union(EU) policies.The EU is active in a wide range of policy areas, but economic poli-cies have traditionally played a dominant role. Starting from a rathernarrow focus on introducing common policies for coal and steel,atomic energy and agriculture as well as the creation of a customsunion over 50 years ago, European economic policies progressivelyextended their scope to a multitude of domains.Since 1993, the European single market has enhanced the possibili-ties for people, goods, services and money to move around the EU asfreely as within a single country. The start of economic and monetaryunion (EMU) in 1999 has given economic and market integrationfurther stimulus. The euro has become a symbol for Europe, and thenumber of countries that have adopted the single currency has in-creased from an original 11 to 16 countries by 2010.Fostering economic and social progress, with constant improve-ments in living and working conditions, has also been a key ob-jective of European policies. The strongest global financial andeconomic crisis since the 1930s reversed much of the economicprogress made since the 2000 Lisbon strategy was adopted. In theaftermath of this crisis, in March 2010, the European Commissionlaunched the Europe 2020 strategy for smart, sustainable and in-clusive growth. Its declared objective is to overcome the effects ofthe crisis and prepare the EU’s economy for the next decade; theintegrated economic and employment guidelines have been revisedwithin the context of this new strategy. Among the ten guidelinesone aims to address macro-economic imbalances, and the other Europe in figures — Eurostat yearbook 2011 33