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Prototype Development of an Integrated Mars Atmosphere and Soil Processing System

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NASA multicenter effort to design and build an integrated system for processing representative Martian Atmosphere and Soil. Presented at the Earth & Space 2012 conference in Pasadena CA.

NASA multicenter effort to design and build an integrated system for processing representative Martian Atmosphere and Soil. Presented at the Earth & Space 2012 conference in Pasadena CA.

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  • Chlorine is constant while Fluorine is affected by flow rate and thickness
  • Chlorine is constant while Fluorine is affected by flow rate and thickness

Prototype Development of an Integrated Mars Atmosphere and Soil Processing System Prototype Development of an Integrated Mars Atmosphere and Soil Processing System Presentation Transcript

  • Prototype Development of anIntegrated Mars Atmosphere and Soil Processing System Michael Interbartolo III MARCO POLO Project Manager NASA - JSC
  • What is MARCO POLO?• Mars Atmosphere and Regolith COllector/PrOcessor for Lander Operations• First generation integrated Mars soil and atmospheric processing system with mission relevant direct current power – 10 KW Fuel Cell for 14 hrs of daytime operations – 1KW Fuel Cell for 10 hrs of night time operations• Demonstrates closed loop power production via the combination of a fuel cell and electrolyzer. – The water we make and electrolyze during the day is the consumables for the 1KW Fuel Cell that night• Planned for remote and autonomous operations
  • History of ISRU at NASA• While NASA Design Reference Architecture 5.0 showed that production of propellants and life support consumables was a mission enabling capability, mission planners were hesitant to select the newly proposed water extraction from Mars soil option due to the perceived high risk associated with this approach.• To overcome resistance in putting ISRU capabilities in the critical path of mission success, NASA ISRU developers have adopted the approach of designing and building hardware into end-to-end systems at representative mission scales and testing these systems under mission relevant conditions at analog field test sites. – In the past used large components that were independently developed, powered by Alternating current generators and had to be manually controlled.
  • Evolution of the Field Demo
  • Field Demo Location Change• In May 2011 AES/OCT pulled FY12 funding for Mars ISRU which precluded our ability to attend the 3rd International Hawaii Analogue Field Test in 2012• Team came up with plan to perform Integrated testing at the JSC Planetary Analog Site using Mars Simulant instead of Tephra from the slopes of Mauna Kea – Can still perform 24 hr operations and utilize Mission control for remote operations – Fuel Cell consumables is much easier at JSC vs Mauna Kea due to availability of the tube trailer
  • Programmatic Objectives comparison JSC HawaiiExpand NASA and CSA partnership; Include other International YES, nothing preventing CSA YES from participatingPartners in analoguesExpand integration of Science & Engineering for exploration, YES continue JSC & KSC YESparticularly with ISRU institutional ISRU developmentUtilize analog activities and operations to develop and enhance YES, YESmission concepts and integrate new technologies; Improve remoteoperations and controlEvaluate parallel paths and test hardware under stressful YES YESenvironmental conditions to evolve TRL and improve path to flightBe synergistic with other analogue test activities (past and future) YES YESPublic Outreach, Education, and “Participatory Exploration” YES, could invite local schools YES to provide excavators
  • Technical Objectives Comparison JSC HawaiiPerform early deployment of advanced and “Game Changing” technologies YES YESapplicable to multiple destinations before integration into future missions.Increase the fidelity and scope of surface system element integration and YES YESoperations; continue development and integration of “Space Resource UtilizationMining Cycle“Develop and enhance exploration operation mission concepts YES YESImprove remote operations & control of hardware for surface exploration and YES YESsciencePromote use of common software, interfaces, & standards for control and operation YES YESFocus on interfaces, standards, and requirements YES YESFocus on modularity and ‘plug n play’ integration YES YES
  • Lander at Critical Design Review Atmo Processing C&DH/PDU Module: (JSC) Soil Processing Module: •Central executive S/W Module: •CO2 capture from Mixed Mars •Power distribution •Soil Hopper handles 30kg (KSC) atmosphere (KSC) •Soil dryer uses CO2 sweep gas and •Sabatier converts H2 and CO2 into 500 deg C to extract water (JSC) Methane and water (JSC) Water CleanupLiquefaction Module: (KSC) •Cleans water prior to electrolysisModule: (TBD) •Provides clean water storage•Common bulkhead tank forMethane and Oxygen liquid storage Life Detection Drill: (ARC-Honeybee) •Replaces excavator mockup •Takes core samples Water Processing •Provides some feed to Soil Dryer Module: (JSC) 1KW Fuel Cell and consumable •Currently can process 520g/hr of storage (JSC & GRC) water (max 694 g/hr) •Using metal hydride for H2 storage due to available M. Interbartolo •1KW No Flow Through FC (GRC) 3m x 3m octagon lander deck •10KW FC not shown (JSC)
  • Atmospheric Processing Module
  • Atmospheric Processing ModuleSabatier Methane CO2 ballast tanks not shown Dryer Chiller CO2 FreezerMethaneSeparator Mixed Mars Input
  • Atmospheric Processing Operations 88 g/hr CO2 @ 50 PSI 2 g/hr H2 H2O CH4/H2 H2O CH4 Ballast Ballast Separator Sabatier CH4 tank tank H2O Reactor CH4 Dryer 71.3 g/hr H2O CO2 CO2 (~600 31.7 g/hr CH4 H2 freezer freezer deg C) 2 g/hr H2 CH4 Condenser CH4 storage Water Cleanup 16.2 g/hr H2 Module95% CO2,3% N2, Mars2% Ar at Mix Electrolysis H2O10.8 Stacksmbar Water Processing Module
  • CO2 Freezer Test Stand •Several designs of the cold head have been tested •Ferris wheel design produces the best CO2 for the surface area to mass ratio •Using a cryocooler to reach the needed 150K (-123C/-190F) at 8 mbar •Settled on 85 minute cycles of freezing/sublimation to meet the needed 88 grams/hour for the Sabatier Reactor •Will use ballast tanks to capture the CO2 after sublimation to then feed the Sabatier at 50 psi
  • Sabatier Test Stand •Testing determined that 4.5:1 ratio of H2 to CO2 was optimum for the reaction with the ruthenium catalyst •Uses cold ice bath for condensing instead of the Water Cleanup module •Methane separator is not functional •Could not keep up with flow rate •Looked at using electrolyzer stack to act as hydrogen separator, but proved unstable •Could not find replacement COTS version •Looked into potential of hollow membrane system •Cryocart team was okay with hydrogen/methane mix •Would improve thruster performance •They can vent off hydrogen bubble from methane dewar since it would not liquefy
  • Soil Processing Module
  • Soil Processing Module• SPM Consists of: FEED SYSTEM – Feed System DRYER BOP & – Dryer System (Dryer + Fluid System) ELECTRONICS – Electronics/Power• Objective: – Transfer simulant/soil/regolith – Process simulant/soil/regolith to liberate water• Process Overview: – Excavators deposit soil into a hopper – Hopper transfers soil into the dryer – Dryer heats soil and sweeps water into condenser – Process repeats DRYER
  • Soil Processing Module Concept of Operations 18oC < T < 45oC 18oC < T < 45oC 75oC < T < 110oC10 psia < P < 14.7 psia 10 psia < P < 14.7 psia 5 psig < P < 20 psig Ground Level 2” Tube @ 0.813 m (32 in) ¼” Tube @ 0.726 m (30 in) H2O + Sweep Gas FEED DRYER SOIL SOIL SYSTEM SYSTEM Sweep Gas 5 psig < P < 20 psig 15oC < T < 30oC ¼” Tube @ any height DAQ POWER DAQ PDU MAIN
  • Three tests to date using Sandman and JSC-Mars-1A Simulant (Batch Size: 6 kg) – MWE-001: Heated to 500oC – MWE-002: Heated to ~120oC, then – MWE-003: Not heated, then heated to ~220oC ~120oC • Flow Rate: 20 slpm • Flow Rate: ~10 slpm • Flow Rate: ~10 slpm • Pressure: ~25 psia • Pressure: ~25 psia • Pressure: ~25 psia Simulant Simulant Number of Water Total Total Batch Processing Processing Batches per per Batch Water/Day Time (min) (hrs) Time (hrs) Time (min) Day (g) (g) 1.5 90 2 7 66 465 2 120 2.5 6 241 1349 2.5 150 3 5 388 1787 3 180 3.5 4 512 2050 3.5 210 4 4 616 2156 4 240 4.5 3 703 2178 4.5 270 5 3 775 2171 5 300 5.5 3 838 2094 5.5 330 6 2 892 2052 6 360 6.5 2 943 1980 6.5 390 7 2 992 1985 7 420 7.5 2 1044 1880 7.5 450 8 2 1102 1873 8 480 8.5 2 1168 1870• If dryer feedstock is 6 kg unspent JSC-Mars- 1A, operating temperature ~115oC, flow rate ~10 slpm, & pressure ~25 psia – 3 batches/day (4 hours for processing, 0.5 hours for TEST SETUP feed/unload) – ~700 g of water/batch → ~ 2100 g of water/day
  • Water Cleanup Module
  • Water Cleanup ModuleGas-Gas HEx MembraneGas-Gas HEx Clean Water TankCondenser Freon Reservoir Dirty Water Tank Coolant Reservoir Liquid-Liquid HEx DI Resin
  • Water Clean Up OperationsFuel Cell Water storage Deionizer Clean waterWater inlet tank outlet Water Processing Module:Water/CO2 • Outlet:Inlet Condenser • Up to 170ml/min Dirty Water Water • 85 psig maxWater/CH4/ tank Cleanup • 25degCH2 InletH2/CH4Outlet Atmospheric Processing Module: Soil Processing Module: • Inlet: • Inlet:CO2 Outlet – ~3 slpm (up to 5slpm) • Up to 20slpm H2O/CO2 CH4/H2O/trace CO2-H2 • ~50psig – ~50psig • ~200degC – ~200degC • Outlet: • Outlet: • Up to 20slpm CO2-trace H2O – ~2slpm CH4/trace H2O/trace CO2- H2 • ~45psig (expected pressure drop of 5 psi) – ~48psig (expected pressure drop of • ~5degC 1-2 psi) – ~5degC
  • Water Transfer Plan• Water will be transferred three times a day at approximately 4.5 hrs, 9.0hrs, and 13.5hrs – Transfer times were used to maintain water level above level sensor immeasurable region and below the separator tank capacity – Separator tanks will be full and ready for operation at the beginning of each day – No water transfer into the system overnight required Water Cleanup Water Processing Module Module
  • Water Processing Module
  • Water Processing Module H2 Drying O2 Drying Water LoopsAccess Doors Electrical Components/ CRIO Fork Lift Spaces
  • Water Processing OperationsWater inlet H2 Sep Hydrogen Tank Deionizer Hydrogen Dryer Outlet O2 Sep Electrolyzer Stacks Tank Oxygen Oxygen Compact Rio Dryer Outlet Control Node •Processing 522 g/hr of water @ 3KW of power (max is 695 g/hr @~5KW) •Maximum pressure: 400psig •Temperature range: 5-65°C •Water flow rate range: 3.6-12 LPM/stack •Gas flow rates range: •H2: 5.4-7.2 SLPM/stack •O2: 2.7-3.6 SLPM/stack
  • 2nd Generation Electrolyzer System
  • Power Production and storage •1KW shown •10KW not shown •O2 storage under the lander
  • Power Production1KW Fuel Cell (32 cells): 1KW Fuel Cell (40 cells): 10KW Fuel Cell (117Advanced Passive-Flow- Non-Flow-Through (NFT) cells): Advanced Passive-Through (PFT) with technology Flow-Through (PFT) withEjector/Regulator demonstration Ejector/Regulatortechnology technology
  • Differences between a flow-through and non-flow-through fuel cell system
  • Power Distribution and Software
  • Power Distribution Fuel cell High Power Loads Fuel cell HPDU HPDU Ground Power High Power LoadsESTA Modular PDU design HPDU 16 channels 50A 16 channels 7.5A Medium Low Power 3 200A High Power Distribution Unit (HPDU) Power Loads Loads  1 50 A Medium Power Distribution Unit MPDU LPDU (MPDU)  1 7.5A Low Power Distribution Unit (LPDU)  Data and Control Unit (lab view controlled)  Diode and Fuse box
  • Software• Distributed, embedded command, control and communications architecture• Uses National Instruments CompactRio as control node for each module – This will allow for standalone testing as well as facilitate integrated remote operations• LabVIEW will provide the Human/System Interface
  • Current Status• Hawaii was ruled out last summer with the loss of AES/OCT support• JSC Rockyard was cancelled in January due to insufficient funds to complete the project – Soil Processing Module not built • leveraged the Sandman test rig for Mars soil data – Atmospheric Module not built • CO2 Freezer test stand and Sabatier test stands built – Lander structure not built• Currently working towards Regen Fuel Cell demonstration with the MMSEV – Will use the core Water Clean up and Water Processing Modules as well as the PDUs to demonstrate a refueling depot that the MMSEV periodically docks with for resupply• Long Term Goal to continue to refine the ISRU technologies for potential 2018 robotic mission using a SpaceX ‘Red Dragon’ capsule as part of an Ames lead science effort.
  • MMSEV Demo Concept O2 Tank Water Active Passive Water Clean up Umbilical Umbilcal Plate Plate storage Module H2 Tank KSC provided Umbilical plates PDUs distributing Water power (3HPDU, 1 3KW PFT Processing C&DH) Fuel Cell Module MMSEV Diode Fuse Box 10KW Fuel CellRefueling station MMSEV PUP
  • Follow us on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/NASA.ISRU Any Questions?Ultimate Destination - Mars
  • BACKUP
  • CO2 Freezer Development Requirement: 88 g CO2/hr @ 50 psia Cold tip + 1x3/4” rod ~60 g/hrBased on Lockheed 2x2.5” machined fins 6” fins Cold tip + 1x3/4” rod + Al fins ~35 g/hr ~5 g/hr ~20 g/hr
  • CO2 Freezer Testing Optimization of Mars Gas Simulant Flow Rate for Ferris Wheel (#2) Configuration Coldhead Design 69.0% 100.0 C 68.0% 90.0 O 2% 67.0% 80.0 E CC 66.0% 70.0 f oO f l2 65.0% 60.0 l ( i g c eC 64.0% 50.0 / i ca h e 63.0% 40.0 tp r n i )t c 62.0% 30.0 ou y nr 61.0% 20.0e R 60.0% 10.0 a t 59.0% 0.0 e 1.00 1.10 1.20 1.30 1.40 1.50 1.60 CO2 Flow Rate (L/min) vs % CO2 Capture Efficiency Rate (L/min) CO2 Flow CO2 Flow Rate (L/min) vs CO2 Collection Rate (g/hr)
  • Sabatier Testing Mixture Ratio vs. Reactor Efficiency Comparison of H2/CO2 Ratio to Reactor Efficiency Runs 20, 22-26 100.00% 99.00% Literature shows that the reaction should have an 98.00% efficiency greater than 99%Reactor Efficiency 97.00% when the mole ratio is higher than 4.51 96.00% 95.00% 94.00% 93.00% 92.00% 4.00 4.00 4.04 4.05 4.10 4.10 4.15 4.15 4.20 4.20 4.25 4.25 4.30 4.35 4.40 4.45 4.50 H2/CO2 Ratio
  • WCM Build Up
  • WCM Testing Nafion membrane thickness vs. temperature 0.035 254um - 20C 254um - 80C 0.030 51um - 20C 51um - 80C m – 20C 0.025Water Flux (g/cm2-min) 0.020 0.015 0.010 0.005 0.000 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 Nitrogen Flow Rate (L/min) Temperature and membrane thickness effect on water flux versus dry nitrogen flow on the permeate side
  • WCM testing Contamination(chlorine and fluorine) rejection vs. flow rate and membrane thickness 100 95 90Ion Rejection (%) 85 80 75 51um m thickness, Cl- thickness, Cl- 70 254um thickness, Cl- Cl- m thickness, 65 51um thickness, F- F- m thickness, 254nm thickness, F- 60 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 Nitrogen Flow Rate (L/min) Ion rejection (i.e., ion in retentate) as a function gas flow rate for two membrane thickness
  • Purge Lines Gas Desiccant Beds Drying Motorized Ball Valves Solenoid Valves Desiccant Beds Sweep Gas Vent Lines Back Pressure Regulators Separator Tanks Sight GlassWater Loops DI Beds Electrolysis Stacks ( 12-cell liquid-anode feed) Air/LiquidWPM detailed HX CAD
  • WPM testing Regenerative Dryer concepts Media Date Gas FR Type of regeneration Energy Heat Up At Temp Cool Down Total Time H2O Removed Amt desiccant N2 Rqd SLPM watt-hrs min min min min g g g Drierite - Du-Cal 5/6/2011 5 N2 Sweep Gas 121.1 32.9 58.3 63.5 154.8 7.7 109.8 569.9 Drierite - Du-Cal 5/5/2011 5 N2 Sweep Gas 80.4 27.4 29.4 65.4 122.3 2.7 109.8 355.0 Drierite - Du-Cal 5/3/2011 5 N2 Sweep Gas 52.6 28.7 5.5 64.7 98.8 0.4 109.8 213.4 Drierite - Du-Cal 4/25/2011 - N2 Sweep Gas 73.6 26.6 23.5 74.9 125.0 3.3 111.0 312.8 average = 81.9 28.9 29.2 67.1 125.2 3.5 110.1 362.8 stdev= 28.7 2.8 21.9 5.3 22.9 3.1 0.6 150.3 Drierite - Du-Cal 4/22/2011 - Vacuum 601.0 23.8 59.7 86.3 169.8 3.7 109.0 - Drierite - Du-Cal 5/5/2011 - Vacuum 818.1 24.9 89.3 62.5 176.7 1.9 109.8 - Drierite - Du-Cal 5/3/2011 - Vacuum 525.8 25.8 46.8 47.3 120.0 1.4 109.8 - average = 648.3 24.9 65.3 65.4 155.5 2.3 109.5 - stdev= 151.8 1.0 21.8 19.6 30.9 1.2 0.5 - Drierite - Du-Cal 4/12/2011 - Vent 125.8 62.6 27.2 75.6 165.3 0.4 109.0 -Molecular Sieve 13X 4/27/2011 1->5 N2 Sweep Gas 312.5 35.0 239.6 84.0 358.6 7.9 69.1 1715.0Molecular Sieve 13X 4/29/2011 5 N2 Sweep Gas 142.1 63.0 19.9 70.5 153.4 3.7 69.1 517.9Molecular Sieve 13X 5/2/2011 5 N2 Sweep Gas 177.4 79.0 28.1 63.5 170.6 9.4 69.1 668.8 average = 159.7 71.0 24.0 67.0 162.0 6.6 69.1 593.4 stdev= 24.9 11.3 5.8 4.9 12.1 4.0 0.0 106.7Molecular Sieve 13X 4/26/2011 - Vacuum 607.2 38.6 43.5 73.6 155.7 5.1 71.7 -Molecular Sieve 13X 4/28/2011 - Vacuum 794.8 44.7 60.8 63.2 168.7 11.3 69.1 -Molecular Sieve 13X 4/29/2011 - Vacuum 623.9 31.5 52.1 64.8 148.3 1.2 69.1 - average = 675.3 38.3 52.1 67.2 157.6 5.9 70.0 - stdev= 103.8 6.6 8.7 5.6 10.3 5.1 1.5 -
  • Soil Dryer Up close• Design Details – Single Batch Processor – 60o Conical Chamber (From Horizontal) – Helical Agitator – Blanket External Heater – Internal Heaters – Simulant Enters/Exit through Valves 12.4” – Gas Flow into Bottom through Top – Max Simulant Temperature: 500oC 44.9” – Max Vessel Pressure: 20 psig• Mass: 100 kg (220 lbs) 17.1”• Vessel Volume: 15863 cm3 (968 in3) 11.5” 18.0”
  • Command, control and communicationsarchitecture showing local control nodes and remote user interface stations.