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Prototype Development of an Integrated Mars Atmosphere and Soil Processing System
Prototype Development of an Integrated Mars Atmosphere and Soil Processing System
Prototype Development of an Integrated Mars Atmosphere and Soil Processing System
Prototype Development of an Integrated Mars Atmosphere and Soil Processing System
Prototype Development of an Integrated Mars Atmosphere and Soil Processing System
Prototype Development of an Integrated Mars Atmosphere and Soil Processing System
Prototype Development of an Integrated Mars Atmosphere and Soil Processing System
Prototype Development of an Integrated Mars Atmosphere and Soil Processing System
Prototype Development of an Integrated Mars Atmosphere and Soil Processing System
Prototype Development of an Integrated Mars Atmosphere and Soil Processing System
Prototype Development of an Integrated Mars Atmosphere and Soil Processing System
Prototype Development of an Integrated Mars Atmosphere and Soil Processing System
Prototype Development of an Integrated Mars Atmosphere and Soil Processing System
Prototype Development of an Integrated Mars Atmosphere and Soil Processing System
Prototype Development of an Integrated Mars Atmosphere and Soil Processing System
Prototype Development of an Integrated Mars Atmosphere and Soil Processing System
Prototype Development of an Integrated Mars Atmosphere and Soil Processing System
Prototype Development of an Integrated Mars Atmosphere and Soil Processing System
Prototype Development of an Integrated Mars Atmosphere and Soil Processing System
Prototype Development of an Integrated Mars Atmosphere and Soil Processing System
Prototype Development of an Integrated Mars Atmosphere and Soil Processing System
Prototype Development of an Integrated Mars Atmosphere and Soil Processing System
Prototype Development of an Integrated Mars Atmosphere and Soil Processing System
Prototype Development of an Integrated Mars Atmosphere and Soil Processing System
Prototype Development of an Integrated Mars Atmosphere and Soil Processing System
Prototype Development of an Integrated Mars Atmosphere and Soil Processing System
Prototype Development of an Integrated Mars Atmosphere and Soil Processing System
Prototype Development of an Integrated Mars Atmosphere and Soil Processing System
Prototype Development of an Integrated Mars Atmosphere and Soil Processing System
Prototype Development of an Integrated Mars Atmosphere and Soil Processing System
Prototype Development of an Integrated Mars Atmosphere and Soil Processing System
Prototype Development of an Integrated Mars Atmosphere and Soil Processing System
Prototype Development of an Integrated Mars Atmosphere and Soil Processing System
Prototype Development of an Integrated Mars Atmosphere and Soil Processing System
Prototype Development of an Integrated Mars Atmosphere and Soil Processing System
Prototype Development of an Integrated Mars Atmosphere and Soil Processing System
Prototype Development of an Integrated Mars Atmosphere and Soil Processing System
Prototype Development of an Integrated Mars Atmosphere and Soil Processing System
Prototype Development of an Integrated Mars Atmosphere and Soil Processing System
Prototype Development of an Integrated Mars Atmosphere and Soil Processing System
Prototype Development of an Integrated Mars Atmosphere and Soil Processing System
Prototype Development of an Integrated Mars Atmosphere and Soil Processing System
Prototype Development of an Integrated Mars Atmosphere and Soil Processing System
Prototype Development of an Integrated Mars Atmosphere and Soil Processing System
Prototype Development of an Integrated Mars Atmosphere and Soil Processing System
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Prototype Development of an Integrated Mars Atmosphere and Soil Processing System

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NASA multicenter effort to design and build an integrated system for processing representative Martian Atmosphere and Soil. Presented at the Earth & Space 2012 conference in Pasadena CA.

NASA multicenter effort to design and build an integrated system for processing representative Martian Atmosphere and Soil. Presented at the Earth & Space 2012 conference in Pasadena CA.

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  • Chlorine is constant while Fluorine is affected by flow rate and thickness
  • Chlorine is constant while Fluorine is affected by flow rate and thickness
  • Transcript

    • 1. Prototype Development of an Integrated Mars Atmosphere and Soil Processing System Michael Interbartolo III MARCO POLO Project Manager NASA - JSC
    • 2. • Mars Atmosphere and Regolith COllector/PrOcessor for Lander Operations • First generation integrated Mars soil and atmospheric processing system with mission relevant direct current power – 10 KW Fuel Cell for 14 hrs of daytime operations – 1KW Fuel Cell for 10 hrs of night time operations • Demonstrates closed loop power production via the combination of a fuel cell and electrolyzer. – The water we make and electrolyze during the day is the consumables for the 1KW Fuel Cell that night • Planned for remote and autonomous operations What is MARCO POLO?
    • 3. • While NASA Design Reference Architecture 5.0 showed that production of propellants and life support consumables was a mission enabling capability, mission planners were hesitant to select the newly proposed water extraction from Mars soil option due to the perceived high risk associated with this approach. • To overcome resistance in putting ISRU capabilities in the critical path of mission success, NASA ISRU developers have adopted the approach of designing and building hardware into end-to-end systems at representative mission scales and testing these systems under mission relevant conditions at analog field test sites. – In the past used large components that were independently developed, powered by Alternating current generators and had to be manually controlled. History of ISRU at NASA
    • 4. Evolution of the Field Demo
    • 5. • In May 2011 AES/OCT pulled FY12 funding for Mars ISRU which precluded our ability to attend the 3rd International Hawaii Analogue Field Test in 2012 • Team came up with plan to perform Integrated testing at the JSC Planetary Analog Site using Mars Simulant instead of Tephra from the slopes of Mauna Kea – Can still perform 24 hr operations and utilize Mission control for remote operations – Fuel Cell consumables is much easier at JSC vs Mauna Kea due to availability of the tube trailer Field Demo Location Change
    • 6. Programmatic Objectives comparison JSC Hawaii Expand NASA and CSA partnership; Include other International Partners in analogues YES, nothing preventing CSA from participating YES Expand integration of Science & Engineering for exploration, particularly with ISRU YES continue JSC & KSC institutional ISRU development YES Utilize analog activities and operations to develop and enhance mission concepts and integrate new technologies; Improve remote operations and control YES, YES Evaluate parallel paths and test hardware under stressful environmental conditions to evolve TRL and improve path to flight YES YES Be synergistic with other analogue test activities (past and future) YES YES Public Outreach, Education, and “Participatory Exploration” YES, could invite local schools to provide excavators YES
    • 7. Technical Objectives Comparison JSC Hawaii Perform early deployment of advanced and “Game Changing” technologies applicable to multiple destinations before integration into future missions. YES YES Increase the fidelity and scope of surface system element integration and operations; continue development and integration of “Space Resource Utilization Mining Cycle“ YES YES Develop and enhance exploration operation mission concepts YES YES Improve remote operations & control of hardware for surface exploration and science YES YES Promote use of common software, interfaces, & standards for control and operation YES YES Focus on interfaces, standards, and requirements YES YES Focus on modularity and ‘plug n play’ integration YES YES
    • 8. Lander at Critical Design Review M. Interbartolo Atmo Processing Module: •CO2 capture from Mixed Mars atmosphere (KSC) •Sabatier converts H2 and CO2 into Methane and water (JSC) Water Processing Module: (JSC) •Currently can process 520g/hr of water (max 694 g/hr) 1KW Fuel Cell and consumable storage (JSC & GRC) •Using metal hydride for H2 storage due to available •1KW No Flow Through FC (GRC) •10KW FC not shown (JSC) Liquefaction Module: (TBD) •Common bulkhead tank for Methane and Oxygen liquid storage Soil Processing Module: •Soil Hopper handles 30kg (KSC) •Soil dryer uses CO2 sweep gas and 500 deg C to extract water (JSC) C&DH/PDU Module: (JSC) •Central executive S/W •Power distribution Water Cleanup Module: (KSC) •Cleans water prior to electrolysis •Provides clean water storage Life Detection Drill: (ARC-Honeybee) •Replaces excavator mockup •Takes core samples •Provides some feed to Soil Dryer 3m x 3m octagon lander deck
    • 9. Atmospheric Processing Module
    • 10. Methane Dryer Sabatier Methane Separator CO2 Freezer Chiller Mixed Mars Input Atmospheric Processing Module CO2 ballast tanks not shown
    • 11. Atmospheric Processing Operations Mars Mix CO2 freezer Sabatier Reactor (~600 deg C) Condenser CH4/H2 Separator CH4 Dryer CH4 storage 88 g/hr CO2 @ 50 PSI 95% CO2, 3% N2, 2% Ar at 10.8 mbar 71.3 g/hr H2O 31.7 g/hr CH4 2 g/hr H2 H2O CH4 H2 H2O 16.2 g/hr H2 H2O CH4 CH4 H2O Electrolysis Stacks CO2 freezer 2 g/hr H2 Water Processing Module Water Cleanup Module Ballast tank Ballast tank
    • 12. CO2 Freezer Test Stand •Several designs of the cold head have been tested •Ferris wheel design produces the best CO2 for the surface area to mass ratio •Using a cryocooler to reach the needed 150K (-123C/-190F) at 8 mbar •Settled on 85 minute cycles of freezing/sublimation to meet the needed 88 grams/hour for the Sabatier Reactor •Will use ballast tanks to capture the CO2 after sublimation to then feed the Sabatier at 50 psi
    • 13. Sabatier Test Stand •Testing determined that 4.5:1 ratio of H2 to CO2 was optimum for the reaction with the ruthenium catalyst •Uses cold ice bath for condensing instead of the Water Cleanup module •Methane separator is not functional •Could not keep up with flow rate •Looked at using electrolyzer stack to act as hydrogen separator, but proved unstable •Could not find replacement COTS version •Looked into potential of hollow membrane system •Cryocart team was okay with hydrogen/methane mix •Would improve thruster performance •They can vent off hydrogen bubble from methane dewar since it would not liquefy
    • 14. Soil Processing Module
    • 15. • SPM Consists of: – Feed System – Dryer System (Dryer + Fluid System) – Electronics/Power • Objective: – Transfer simulant/soil/regolith – Process simulant/soil/regolith to liberate water • Process Overview: – Excavators deposit soil into a hopper – Hopper transfers soil into the dryer – Dryer heats soil and sweeps water into condenser – Process repeats Soil Processing Module FEED SYSTEM DRYER DRYER BOP & ELECTRONICS
    • 16. Soil Processing Module Concept of Operations FEED SYSTEM DRYER SYSTEM SOIL H2O + Sweep Gas Sweep Gas 18oC < T < 45oC 10 psia < P < 14.7 psia 2” Tube @ 0.813 m (32 in) 75oC < T < 110oC 5 psig < P < 20 psig ¼” Tube @ 0.726 m (30 in) 5 psig < P < 20 psig 15oC < T < 30oC ¼” Tube @ any height 18oC < T < 45oC 10 psia < P < 14.7 psia Ground Level DAQ POWER DAQ MAIN PDU SOILSOIL
    • 17. Three tests to date using Sandman and JSC-Mars-1A Simulant (Batch Size: 6 kg) Simulant Processing Time (hrs) Simulant Processing Time (min) Total Batch Time (min) Number of Batches per Day Water per Batch (g) Total Water/Day (g) 1.5 90 2 7 66 465 2 120 2.5 6 241 1349 2.5 150 3 5 388 1787 3 180 3.5 4 512 2050 3.5 210 4 4 616 2156 4 240 4.5 3 703 2178 4.5 270 5 3 775 2171 5 300 5.5 3 838 2094 5.5 330 6 2 892 2052 6 360 6.5 2 943 1980 6.5 390 7 2 992 1985 7 420 7.5 2 1044 1880 7.5 450 8 2 1102 1873 8 480 8.5 2 1168 1870 • If dryer feedstock is 6 kg unspent JSC-Mars-1A, operating temperature ~115oC, flow rate ~10 slpm, & pressure ~25 psia – 3 batches/day (4 hours for processing, 0.5 hours for feed/unload) – ~700 g of water/batch → ~ 2100 g of water/day (hrs) – MWE-001: Heated to 500oC • Flow Rate: 20 slpm • Pressure: ~25 psia – MWE-002: Heated to ~120oC, then ~220oC • Flow Rate: ~10 slpm • Pressure: ~25 psia – MWE-003: Not heated, then heated to ~120oC • Flow Rate: ~10 slpm • Pressure: ~25 psia TEST SETUP
    • 18. Water Cleanup Module
    • 19. Water Cleanup Module Membrane Clean Water Tank Dirty Water Tank Liquid-Liquid HEx DI Resin Condenser Gas-Gas HEx Gas-Gas HEx Freon Reservoir Coolant Reservoir
    • 20. Water Clean Up Operations Water Cleanup Water/CO2 Inlet Deionizer Clean water outlet H2/CH4 Outlet Fuel Cell Water inlet Water storage tank CO2 Outlet Water/CH4/ H2 Inlet Dirty Water tank Condenser Soil Processing Module: • Inlet: • Up to 20slpm H2O/CO2 • ~50psig • ~200degC • Outlet: • Up to 20slpm CO2-trace H2O • ~45psig (expected pressure drop of 5 psi) • ~5degC Atmospheric Processing Module: • Inlet: – ~3 slpm (up to 5slpm) CH4/H2O/trace CO2-H2 – ~50psig – ~200degC • Outlet: – ~2slpm CH4/trace H2O/trace CO2- H2 – ~48psig (expected pressure drop of 1-2 psi) – ~5degC Water Processing Module: • Outlet: • Up to 170ml/min • 85 psig max • 25degC
    • 21. Water Transfer Plan • Water will be transferred three times a day at approximately 4.5 hrs, 9.0hrs, and 13.5hrs – Transfer times were used to maintain water level above level sensor immeasurable region and below the separator tank capacity – Separator tanks will be full and ready for operation at the beginning of each day – No water transfer into the system overnight required Water Cleanup Module Water Processing Module
    • 22. Water Processing Module
    • 23. Water Processing Module O2 Drying H2 Drying Fork Lift Spaces Water Loops Electrical Components/ CRIO Access Doors
    • 24. Water Processing Operations Deionizer Hydrogen Dryer Oxygen Dryer Hydrogen Outlet Oxygen OutletCompact Rio Control Node Water inlet Electrolyzer Stacks H2 Sep Tank O2 Sep Tank •Processing 522 g/hr of water @ 3KW of power (max is 695 g/hr @~5KW) •Maximum pressure: 400psig •Temperature range: 5-65°C •Water flow rate range: 3.6-12 LPM/stack •Gas flow rates range: •H2: 5.4-7.2 SLPM/stack •O2: 2.7-3.6 SLPM/stack
    • 25. 2nd Generation Electrolyzer System
    • 26. Power Production and storage •1KW shown •10KW not shown •O2 storage under the lander
    • 27. Power Production 10KW Fuel Cell (117 cells): Advanced Passive- Flow-Through (PFT) with Ejector/Regulator technology 1KW Fuel Cell (32 cells): Advanced Passive-Flow- Through (PFT) with Ejector/Regulator technology 1KW Fuel Cell (40 cells): Non-Flow-Through (NFT) technology demonstration
    • 28. Differences between a flow-through and non-flow-through fuel cell system
    • 29. Power Distribution and Software
    • 30. Power Distribution ESTA Modular PDU design 3 200A High Power Distribution Unit (HPDU)  1 50 A Medium Power Distribution Unit (MPDU)  1 7.5A Low Power Distribution Unit (LPDU)  Data and Control Unit (lab view controlled)  Diode and Fuse box HPDU HPDUHPDU Fuel cell Ground Power MPDU 16 channels 50A LPDU 16 channels 7.5A High Power Loads High Power Loads Fuel cell Medium Power Loads Low Power Loads
    • 31. • Distributed, embedded command, control and communications architecture • Uses National Instruments CompactRioTM as control node for each module – This will allow for standalone testing as well as facilitate integrated remote operations • LabVIEWTM will provide the Human/System Interface Software
    • 32. • Hawaii was ruled out last summer with the loss of AES/OCT support • JSC Rockyard was cancelled in January due to insufficient funds to complete the project – Soil Processing Module not built • leveraged the Sandman test rig for Mars soil data – Atmospheric Module not built • CO2 Freezer test stand and Sabatier test stands built – Lander structure not built • Currently working towards Regen Fuel Cell demonstration with the MMSEV – Will use the core Water Clean up and Water Processing Modules as well as the PDUs to demonstrate a refueling depot that the MMSEV periodically docks with for resupply • Long Term Goal to continue to refine the ISRU technologies for potential 2018 robotic mission using a SpaceX ‘Red Dragon’ capsule as part of an Ames lead science effort. Current Status
    • 33. MMSEV Demo Concept Water Processing Module Water Clean up Module Active Umbilical Plate Passive Umbilcal Plate 3KW PFT Fuel Cell O2 Tank H2 Tank Refueling station Water storage MMSEV PUP KSC provided Umbilical plates 10KW Fuel Cell Diode Fuse Box PDUs distributing power (3HPDU, 1 C&DH) MMSEV
    • 34. Any Questions? Ultimate Destination - Mars Follow us on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/NASA.ISRU
    • 35. BACKUP
    • 36. CO2 Freezer Development Requirement: 88 g CO2/hr @ 50 psia Based on Lockheed 6” fins ~5 g/hr Cold tip + 1x3/4” rod ~60 g/hr Cold tip + 1x3/4” rod + Al fins ~20 g/hr 2x2.5” machined fins ~35 g/hr
    • 37. CO2 Freezer Testing 0.0 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0 70.0 80.0 90.0 100.0 59.0% 60.0% 61.0% 62.0% 63.0% 64.0% 65.0% 66.0% 67.0% 68.0% 69.0% 1.00 1.10 1.20 1.30 1.40 1.50 1.60 C O 2 C o l l e c t i o n R a t e ( g / h r ) % C O 2 C a p t u r e E f f i c i e n c y CO2 Flow Rate (L/min) Optimization of Mars Gas Simulant Flow Rate for Ferris Wheel (#2) Configuration Coldhead Design CO2 Flow Rate (L/min) vs % CO2 Capture Efficiency CO2 Flow Rate (L/min) vs CO2 Collection Rate (g/hr)
    • 38. 92.00% 93.00% 94.00% 95.00% 96.00% 97.00% 98.00% 99.00% 100.00% 4.00 4.04 4.10 4.15 4.20 4.25 Comparison of H2/CO2 Ratio to Reactor Efficiency Runs 20, 22-26 ReactorEfficiency 4.00 4.05 4.10 4.15 4.20 4.25 4.30 4.35 4.40 4.45 4.50 H2/CO2 Ratio Literature shows that the reaction should have an efficiency greater than 99% when the mole ratio is higher than 4.51 Sabatier Testing Mixture Ratio vs. Reactor Efficiency
    • 39. WCM Build Up
    • 40. WCM Testing Nafion membrane thickness vs. temperature 0.000 0.005 0.010 0.015 0.020 0.025 0.030 0.035 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 WaterFlux(g/cm2-min) Nitrogen Flow Rate (L/min) 254um - 20C 254um - 80C 51um - 20C 51um - 80C 51 m – 20C Temperature and membrane thickness effect on water flux versus dry nitrogen flow on the permeate side
    • 41. WCM testing Contamination(chlorine and fluorine) rejection vs. flow rate and membrane thickness Ion rejection (i.e., ion in retentate) as a function gas flow rate for two membrane thickness 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 IonRejection(%) Nitrogen Flow Rate (L/min) 51um thickness, Cl- 254um thickness, Cl- 51um thickness, F- 254nm thickness, F- 51 m thickness, Cl- 254 m thickness, Cl- 51 m thickness, F-
    • 42. Separator Tanks Air/Liquid HX Electrolysis Stacks ( 12-cell liquid-anode feed) DI Beds Back Pressure Regulators Sight Glass Gas Drying Desiccant Beds Motorized Ball Valves Desiccant Beds Solenoid Valves Purge Lines Sweep Gas Vent Lines Water Loops WPM detailed CAD
    • 43. WPM testing Regenerative Dryer concepts Media Date Gas FR Type of regeneration Energy Heat Up At Temp Cool Down Total Time H2O Removed Amt desiccant N2 Rqd SLPM watt-hrs min min min min g g g Drierite - Du-Cal 5/6/2011 5 N2 Sweep Gas 121.1 32.9 58.3 63.5 154.8 7.7 109.8 569.9 Drierite - Du-Cal 5/5/2011 5 N2 Sweep Gas 80.4 27.4 29.4 65.4 122.3 2.7 109.8 355.0 Drierite - Du-Cal 5/3/2011 5 N2 Sweep Gas 52.6 28.7 5.5 64.7 98.8 0.4 109.8 213.4 Drierite - Du-Cal 4/25/2011 - N2 Sweep Gas 73.6 26.6 23.5 74.9 125.0 3.3 111.0 312.8 average = 81.9 28.9 29.2 67.1 125.2 3.5 110.1 362.8 stdev= 28.7 2.8 21.9 5.3 22.9 3.1 0.6 150.3 Drierite - Du-Cal 4/22/2011 - Vacuum 601.0 23.8 59.7 86.3 169.8 3.7 109.0 - Drierite - Du-Cal 5/5/2011 - Vacuum 818.1 24.9 89.3 62.5 176.7 1.9 109.8 - Drierite - Du-Cal 5/3/2011 - Vacuum 525.8 25.8 46.8 47.3 120.0 1.4 109.8 - average = 648.3 24.9 65.3 65.4 155.5 2.3 109.5 - stdev= 151.8 1.0 21.8 19.6 30.9 1.2 0.5 - Drierite - Du-Cal 4/12/2011 - Vent 125.8 62.6 27.2 75.6 165.3 0.4 109.0 - Molecular Sieve 13X 4/27/2011 1->5 N2 Sweep Gas 312.5 35.0 239.6 84.0 358.6 7.9 69.1 1715.0 Molecular Sieve 13X 4/29/2011 5 N2 Sweep Gas 142.1 63.0 19.9 70.5 153.4 3.7 69.1 517.9 Molecular Sieve 13X 5/2/2011 5 N2 Sweep Gas 177.4 79.0 28.1 63.5 170.6 9.4 69.1 668.8 average = 159.7 71.0 24.0 67.0 162.0 6.6 69.1 593.4 stdev= 24.9 11.3 5.8 4.9 12.1 4.0 0.0 106.7 Molecular Sieve 13X 4/26/2011 - Vacuum 607.2 38.6 43.5 73.6 155.7 5.1 71.7 - Molecular Sieve 13X 4/28/2011 - Vacuum 794.8 44.7 60.8 63.2 168.7 11.3 69.1 - Molecular Sieve 13X 4/29/2011 - Vacuum 623.9 31.5 52.1 64.8 148.3 1.2 69.1 - average = 675.3 38.3 52.1 67.2 157.6 5.9 70.0 - stdev= 103.8 6.6 8.7 5.6 10.3 5.1 1.5 -
    • 44. Soil Dryer Up close • Design Details – Single Batch Processor – 60o Conical Chamber (From Horizontal) – Helical Agitator – Blanket External Heater – Internal Heaters – Simulant Enters/Exit through Valves – Gas Flow into Bottom through Top – Max Simulant Temperature: 500oC – Max Vessel Pressure: 20 psig • Mass: 100 kg (220 lbs) • Vessel Volume: 15863 cm3 (968 in3) 12.4” 17.1” 44.9” 18.0”11.5”
    • 45. Command, control and communications architecture showing local control nodes and remote user interface stations.

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